Monday, 28 February 2011

March 1, 2011

200 years ago
1811

World events

Muhammad Ali Pasha, Wali of the Ottoman province of Egypt, killed the leaders of the Mamluk Sultanate to seize power, founding a dynasty that would last until 1952.

50 years ago
1961


Americana
U.S. President John F. Kennedy signed an executive order establishing, on a temporary pilot basis, the Peace Corps, which he described as "a pool of trained men and women sent overseas by the United States Government or through private institutions and organizations to help foreign countries meet their urgent needs for skilled manpower." On the same day, Mr. Kennedy sent a message to Congress urging the establishment of a permanent Peace Corps. He said at a press conference, "It is our hope to have between 500 and 1,000 people in the field by the end of this year, " and noted that the cost of the program for fiscal 1961 would be paid from funds already appropriated for foreign aid.

Education
At the same press conference where he spoke about the Peace Corps, U.S. President John F. Kennedy addressed the denial of federal government aid to parochial and other sectarian schools, saying, "There isn’t any room for debate on that subject. It is prohibited by the Constitution, and the Supreme Court has made that very clear." Members of the U.S. Roman Catholic hierarchy, meeting in Washington, decided to oppose the school aid program unless it included aid to parochial schools. They pressed for an amendment to provide long-term low-interest federal loans to private schools, which they held would be "strictly within the framework of the Constitution."

40 years ago
1971


Terrorism
A bomb exploded in the United States Capitol building in Washington, D.C. that caused $300,000 in damage but injured no one. The Weather Underground terrorist movement claimed credit for the bombing. U.S. President Richard Nixon said the Capitol would remain open to the public.

Defense
In a reversal of party policy, the U.K. Conservative government of Prime Minister Edward Heath announced that it would withdraw from the Persian Gulf in 1971, in line with the preceding Labour government’s plan to leave the area as part of Britain’s east-of-Suez Canal troop withdrawal.

Labour
As many as 1.5 million workers in the U.K. walked off the job for the day to protest the government’s new industrial relations bill.

Politics and government
10 days of voting began in India’s parliamentary elections. The New Congress party, led by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, was the incumbent government.

30 years ago
1981


Crime
Irish Republican Army member and convicted terrorist Bobby Sands began a hunger strike in Maze Prison, near Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Economics and finance
The government of Poland cut sugar rations by half and announced that it would institute meat rationing on April 1.

25 years ago
1986


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Kyrie--Mr. Mister
2 How Will I Know--Whitney Houston
3 When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Going--Billy Ocean
4 Sara--Starship
5 Living in America--James Brown
6 Life in a Northern Town--The Dream Academy
7 Silent Running--Mike + the Mechanics
8 The Sweetest Taboo--Sade
9 These Dreams--Heart
10 Burning Heart--Survivor

Singles entering the chart included So Far Away by Dire Straits (#64); West End Girls by Pet Shop Boys (#69); For America by Jackson Browne (#71); and Shelter Me by Joe Cocker (#88).

Canada’s top 10 (RPM)
1 How Will I Know--Whitney Houston
2 Conga--Miami Sound Machine
3 When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Going--Billy Ocean
4 Kyrie--Mr. Mister
5 Living in America--James Brown
6 That’s What Friends are For--Dionne and Friends (with Elton John, Gladys Knight & Stevie Wonder)
7 Life in a Northern Town--The Dream Academy
8 Rock Me Amadeus--Falco
9 I Miss You--Klymaxx
10 Sara--Starship

Singles entering the chart included Kiss by Prince (#73).

Hockey
NHL
Detroit 6 @ Toronto 4
Calgary 3 Vancouver 2

20 years ago
1991


Labour
Nearly 200,000 coal miners went on strike in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Russia, demanding higher pay. The strike spread and soon included a demand by the miners that Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev resign.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the index of leading economic indicators had declined 0.4% from January. With revisions in previous data, this marked the sixth straight monthly decline.

Disasters
More than 160 Somali refugees, fleeing their war-torn country, drowned when their overcrowded dhow ran aground several hundred yards from shore off Kenya.

10 years ago
2001


Terrorism
Nearly five months after being abducted, seven foreign oil workers--four Americans, and one each from New Zealand, Chile, and Argentina--were freed in a jungle region of Ecuador. The seven men had been taken from an oilfield owned by the Spanish-Argentinian company Repsol YPF. Their employers paid a ransom of $13 million.

Economics and finance
The U.S. unemployment rate in February stood at 4.2%. Consumer prices had increased 0.3% over January, while producer prices had increased 0.1%. The index of leading economic indicators had declined 0.2% from January.

February 29 (2011)

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Sandy Mains!

75 years ago
1936

On the radio

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Louis Hector and Harry West, on MBS
Tonight’s episode: The Reigate Puzzle

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Don Sutherin! Mr. Sutherin joined the Hamilton Tiger-Cats of the Canadian Football League during the 1958 season as a fullback and defensive back. He then went to the National Football League, playing for the New York Giants in 1959 and the Pittsburgh Steelers in 1959-1960. Mr. Sutherin rejoined the Tiger-Cats in time for the last game of the 1960 season and remained with the team through 1966. He refused to report to the Edmonton Eskimos when he was traded in 1967, and his rights were eventually traded to the Ottawa Rough Riders. He played with the Rough Riders through the pre-season of 1970, and finished his career with a 5-game stint with the Toronto Argonauts in 1970. He was an Eastern Conference All-Star 6 times, and an All-Canadian 3 times. Mr. Sutherin led the East in scoring 3 times, and at the time of his retirement he stood third in CFL career scoring (714 points), first in career field goals (114), and first in career interceptions (58). His 11 interceptions in 1961 (in a 14-game season) were a single-season record at the time. He played in 8 Grey Cups, and was on the winning side 4 times. Mr. Sutherin then put in many years as an assistant coach with the Ottawa Rough Riders, Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Edmonton Eskimos, and Calgary Stampeders, and was the Tiger-Cats’ head coach from 1995-1997. He was inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame in 1992.

February 28, 2011

50 years ago
1961


On television tonight
Thriller, on NBC
Tonight's episode: Well of Doom, starring Ronald Howard, Henry Daniell, and Torin Thatcher

Diplomacy
The three major groups in the Congo that were opposed to the faction loyal to recently-deposed and assassinated Premier Patrice Lumumba signed a pact establishing a "common bloc against the danger of UN trusteeship, Communist tyranny and a Korean-style war." The leaders were newly-installed Congolese Premier Joseph Ileo; Moise Tshombe, president of the secessionist province of Katanga; and Albert Kalonji of the province of South Kasai. They said they had invited Antoine Gizenga, recognized by 20 Communist and neutral countries as the leader of Congo’s "legitimate" government, and his associates to a meeting of all factions to take place in March in Tananarive, Malagasy Republic.

40 years ago
1971


World events
Ecuador had seized, fined, and released seven U.S. tuna boats on charges of fishing within Ecuadorian territorial waters since February 10.

Golf
Jack Nicklaus won the Professional Golfers Association Championship for the second time, becoming the first golfer to win each of the four major tournaments at least twice. The 1971 PGA Championship was held at the PGA National Golf Club course at North Palm Beach, Florida.

30 years ago
1981


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
2 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
3 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
4 Celebration--Kool & the Gang
5 Woman--John Lennon
6 The Tide is High--Blondie
7 The Best of Times--Styx
8 Same Old Lang Syne--Dan Fogelberg
9 Rapture--Blondie
10 Giving it Up for Your Love--Delbert McClinton

Singles entering the chart included I Can’t Stand It by Eric Clapton and his Band (#63); Walking on Thin Ice by Yoko Ono (#88); and Hold On by Badfinger (#91).

Canada’s top 10 (RPM)
1 The Tide is High--Blondie (4th week at #1)
2 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
3 Hey Nineteen--Steely Dan
4 Passion--Rod Stewart
5 The Best of Times--Styx
6 Woman--John Lennon
7 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon
8 Tell it Like it Is--Heart
9 Games People Play--Alan Parsons Project
10 He Can’t Love You--Michael Stanley Band

Singles entering the chart included Crying by Don McLean (#48) and Banana Republic by the Boomtown Rats (#50).

War
A high-level diplomatic mission including the presidents of Bangladesh, Gambia, Guinea, and Pakistan, as well as high-ranking officials from Malaysia, Senegal, Turkey, and the Palestine Liberation Organization arrived in Tehran to attempt to end the war between Iran and Iraq. The mission was scheduled to have talks with Iranian President Abolhassan Bani-Sadr and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

Defense
British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher promised her nation’s support for U.S. president Ronald Reagan’s blocking of Soviet encroachment in El Salvador, Africa, and the Persian Gulf.

Hockey
NHL
Montreal 5 Toronto 3

25 years ago
1986


Died on this date
Olaf Palme, 59
. Prime Minister of Sweden, 1969-1976; 1982-1986. Mr. Palme was shot twice in the stomach and his wife was shot in the back as they left a movie theatre in Stockholm at 11:30 P.M. She survived.

Weather
It was such a nice day in Edmonton that this blogger wore shorts outside.

Scandal
Baseball Commissioner Peter Ueberroth issued one-year suspensions or fines amounting to 10% of their income against Keith Hernandez, Dave Parker, and five other major league players for using cocaine. 21 players in all were penalized in the largest drug-abuse scandal in major league history.

20 years ago
1991


War
Just before the Gulf War cease-fire went into effect, 800 U.S. tanks clashed with 300 Iraqi tanks north of Kuwait. Iraq reportedly lost 200 tanks and the U.S. lost none. According to a U.K. white paper issued in July 1991, allied combat deaths in the war were as follows: U.S.A., 147; Saudi Arabia, 33; U.K., 24; Egypt, 10; United Arab Emirates, 6; France, 2; Kuwait, 1, for a total of 223. A U.S. Defense Department spokesman said on July 17 that the U.S. had suffered 148 combat deaths and 120 non-combatant deaths during the war, and another 13 after the cease-fire. U.S. personnel wounded in combat totalled 458. 11 U.S. women were killed in combat and 4 in non-combat situations, according to the spokesman.

10 years ago
2001


War
Soldiers from Rwanda and Uganda began withdrawing from front-line positions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Economics and finance
U.S. President George W. Bush submitted a budget to Congress for fiscal 2002 of $1.96 trillion, projecting surpluses for the next 10 yeas of $5.6 trillion. Defense spending was to increase by $14.2 billion to $310.5 billion, but the departments of Transportation, Energy, Interior, and Agriculture would have their budgets cut. The overall budget called for an increase in spending of 4%.

Disasters
10 people were killed and more than 70 injured when a high-speed passenger train travelling from Newcastle to London collided with a goods engine on the East Coast Main Line in North Yorkshire.

250 people were injured when an earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale whose epicentre was near Olympia, Washington damaged buildings and pavement in Seattle, with tremors being felt in Vancouver, British Columbia and Salt Lake City. Damage, at $3 billion, was considered modest.

Sunday, 27 February 2011

February 27, 2011

60 years ago
1951


On television tonight
Suspense, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Margin for Safety, starring Francis Bethencourt, Denholm Elliott, and Una O'Connor

Law
The 22nd Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified:

Amendment XXII
(The proposed amendment was sent to the states Mar. 21, 1947, by the Eightieth Congress. It was ratified Feb. 27, 1951.)

Section 1
[Limit to number of terms a president may serve.]

No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

Section 2
[Ratification.]

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

50 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Pony Time--Chubby Checker

Diplomacy
Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru told his country’s parliament that he was opposed to any plan to reorganize the United Nations’ Secretary-General’s office "at the present moment," and that he approved continuation of the UN’s Congo operation.

40 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K.: My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (5th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): One Bad Apple--The Osmonds (3rd week at #1)

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds (3rd week at #1)
2 Mama’s Pearl--The Jackson 5
3 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
4 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
5 Sweet Mary--Wadsworth Mansion
6 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
7 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
8 Watching Scotty Grow--Bobby Goldsboro
9 Mr. Bojangles--Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
10 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed

Singles entering the chart included Tongue in Cheek by Sugarloaf (#78); Ain’t Got Time by the Impressions (#86); Tulsa by Billy Joe Royal (#91); Funky by the Chambers Brothers (#96); and If it’s Real What I Feel by Jerry Butler (#97).

Canada’s top 10 (RPM)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
2 Mr. Bojangles--Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
3 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
4 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
5 Watching Scotty Grow--Bobby Goldsboro
6 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
7 Sweet Mary--Wadsworth Mansion
8 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
9 Hang on to Your Life--The Guess Who
10 Mama’s Pearl--The Jackson 5

Singles entering the chart included Oye Como Va by Santana (#60); What is Life by George Harrison (#85); Chairman of the Board by Chairmen of the Board (#87); A Stranger in My Place by Anne Murray (#94); I Was Wondering by the Poppy Family (#96); Rosaline by Russell Thornberry (#97); Rundown by Chilliwack (#99); and Just Seven Numbers (Can Straighten Out My Life) by the Four Tops (#100).

Calgary’s top 10
1 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
2 Stay Awhile--The Bells
3 Theme from Love Story--Henry Mancini, his Orchestra and Chorus
4 I Was Wondering--The Poppy Family
5 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
6 1900 Yesterday--Liz Damon’s Orient Express
7 Born to Wander--Rare Earth
8 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
9 Fresh as a Daisy--Emmitt Rhodes
10 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
Pick hit of the week: Woodstock--Matthews’ Southern Comfort

30 years ago
1981


Personal
This blogger began a job as a busboy/waiter at Mr. Mike’s Steak House in Edmonton for the minimum wage of $3.50 per hour.

Diplomacy
British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher continued her visit to Washington, declaring that the free world was counting on the U.S. administration of President Ronald Reagan to restore faith in the U.S. dollar. She cautioned Mr. Reagan not to be too quick to accept a Soviet proposal for a summit between himself and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev.

Economics and finance
It was announced that U.S. President Ronald Reagan had decided on an additional budget cut of $10 billion-$13 billion to achieve his goal of reducing the growth of federal spending and to offset the budgetary miscalculation on spending in the next fiscal year.

Business
Chrysler Corporation reported a loss of $1.71 billion for 1980, the largest loss in American corporate history. Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors lost a combined total of $4.06 billion in 1980.

Protest
More than one million people marched through the centre of Madrid in support of King Juan Carlos of Spain and in condemnation of the attempted coup by members of the Civil Guard several days earlier.

Religion
Pope John Paul II departed Anchorage and flew back to Rome, ending his tour of east Asia and Alaska.

25 years ago
1986


Politics and government
Jean Chretien, who had been a Liberal Party Member of Parliament in Canada since 1963 and had served in various ministries as a cabinet minister under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, resigned his seat in the House of Commons, saying that he wanted to enter private life and spend more time with his family. His resignation came less than three weeks after a feud with Liberal leader John Turner over the election of a party president in Quebec.

Disasters
The presidential commission investigating the January 28 explosion of the U.S. space shuttle Challenger, which had killed all seven astronauts aboard, continued hearing testimony. Robert Claysher, a vice-president of Rockwell International, manufacturer of the shuttle, testified that he had notified NASA, "Rockwell can not assure that it is safe to fly." Rockwell had been concerned that ice on the launch pad and other structures would fall off during liftoff and damage the shuttle. Arnold Aldrich, director of the shuttle program at the Kennedy Space Center, testified that NASA engineers had concluded that ice would not damage the shuttle on launch. Commission chairman William Rogers said that NASA had abandoned "good judgement and common sense" in dealing with safety problems.

20 years ago
1991


On television tonight
The Wonder Years, on ABC
Tonight’s episode: Buster

War
The first U.S. military convoy entered Kuwait City. Iraq agreed to a cease-fire in the Gulf War, and agreed to almost all of the allies’ terms. U.S. President George Bush announced at 9 PM Eastern Standard Time that, "Kuwait is liberated, Iraq’s army defeated. Our military objectives are met," and that the allies would cease fire at midnight EST. Iraq informed the United Nations that it would accept the 12 Security Council resolutions against it, which included payment of reparations. The cease-fire took effect only 100 hours after the beginning of the ground war. Total allied combat fatalities were listed at 141. Estimates of Iraqis killed and injured numbered as high as 100,000, and the allies held 175,000 prisoners. It was the first war that Canada fought in without incurring a single fatality.

Scandal
The U.S. Senate Ethics Committee reported on its investigation of the so-called "Keating Five,"--U.S. Senators Alan Cranston (Democrat--California); Dennis DeConcini (Democrat--Arizona); Donald Riegle (Democrat--Michigan); John Glenn (Democrat--Ohio); and John McCain (Republican--Arizona)--who were suspected of improper activities on behalf of Charles Keating, chairman of the failed Lincoln Savings and Loan Association in California, the 1989 collapse of which had cost the U.S. government $2 billion. The report found "substantial credible evidence" of misconduct by Sen. Cranston. The committee said that Sen. Cranston or his staff members had on at least four occasions contacted regulators on Mr. Keating’s behalf in close juxtaposition to receiving or soliciting money from Mr. Keating. Sen. Cranston faced the possibility of disciplinary action by the Senate, but the committee issued only mild reprimands to the other four Senators.

Hockey
NHL
Calgary 4 Edmonton 2

10 years ago
2001


Crime
Police in Seattle used tear gas to break up a rampage of vandalism by Mardis Gras "celebrants." 70 people were injured.

Economics and finance
George W. Bush delivered his first major address as President of the United States, speaking to a joint session of Congress. He strongly advocated his 10-year $1.6-trillion tax cut, contending that budget surpluses would permit this cut plus additional funding of his education reforms and a prescription drug benefit for old people. Democratic party Senator Tom Daschle (South Dakota) and Representative Dick Gephardt (Missouri) argued that the U.S. could not afford Mr. Bush’s tax cut, and advocated a tax cut of about half as much, and less weighted toward the wealthy.

Saturday, 26 February 2011

February 26, 2011

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Fats Domino!

110 years ago
1901

Died on this date
Chi-hsui; Hsu Cheng-yu
. Chinese rebels. Leaders of the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, the two were beheaded.

50 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K.: Walk Right Back/Ebony Eyes--The Everly Brothers (3rd week at #1)

Died on this date
Mohammed V, 51
. Sultan of Morocco, 1927-1953, 1955-1957; King of Morocco, 1957-1961. On August 20, 1953 Sultan Mohammed, who had succeeded his father Yusef in the position, was forced into exile in Corsica by French forces that were occupying Morocco. He returned from exile on November 16, 1955 and was again recognized as Sultan after active opposition to the French protectorate. Mohammed successfully negotiated Morocco’s independence from France in 1956, and took the title of King in 1957. He died after unspecified surgery and was succeeded by his son Hassan II.

Space
The mission of the Soviet satellite Sputnik 7, launched on February 4, ended. Meanwhile, the Communist party newspaper Pravda published a picture of the probe Venera 1, launched toward Venus from Sputnik 8 on February 12, describing the probe as a heavily-instrumented airtight cylindrical body with two bulges containing scientific equipment and chemical battery blocks. Exclusive of four aerials and solar batteries, it was 80 inches long and 41 inches in diameter. It was stated that equipment aboard Venera 1 was turned on and off by radio command from the ground and that measurements were radioed to large new aerials set up at various sites of the "outer space radio communications centre" of the U.S.S.R.

40 years ago
1971


Hit parade
Edmonton's top 10
1 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
2 Bridget the Midget--Ray Stevens
3 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
4 Wild World--Cat Stevens
5 Stay Awhile--The Bells
6 Knock Three Times--Dawn
7 Put Your Hand in the Hand--Ocean
8 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
9 Your Song--Elton John
10 Mother--John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band

On television tonight
The Interns, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Heart Trouble

Crime
The U.S. Army ordered a court-martial for Colonel Oran K. Henderson, former commander of the 11th Brigade, Americal Division, on charges of failing to conduct a "proper and thorough" investigation of the alleged massacre of civilians in the South Vietnamese hamlet of My Lai on March 16, 1968. The legal action against Col. Henderson, on specific charges of dereliction of duty; failure to obey regulations; making a false statement; and false swearing, made him the only officer to be tried, out of 14 originally accused of suppressing information about the incident. The Army at the same time announced that charges had been dropped against Captain Dennis H. Johnson, one of the original 14 officers charged. Capt. Johnson had been accused of failure to obey regulations while attached to an intelligence unit.

Disasters
A flood that swept through Rio de Janeiro killed more than 130 people and left thousands homeless.

30 years ago
1981


Diplomacy
British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher paid her first visit to U.S. President Ronald Reagan at the White House, where she said that the two leaders were determined "to sweep away the restrictions that hold back enterprise."

Economics and finance
After being informed that his advisers had underestimated the growth of federal spending for fiscal 1982, U.S. President Ronald Reagan ordered further cuts in his proposed budget of $3 billion-$6 billion.

Protest
450 students occupied the rector’s offices at a teachers’ college in Olsztyn, Poland, protesting inadequate accommodations.

Religion
Pope John Paul II met with atomic bomb victims and conducted mass in Nagasaki before departing for Anchorage, Alaska, where he conducted mass and met with clergy.

25 years ago
1986


At the movies
Fellow bad-movie buff Michael Martin and I went to see Revolution, one of the biggest turkeys of the 1980s. The film played in just one theatre in Edmonton for one week. We were two of eight people at the screening we attended. John Dodd went on opening night to review it for the Edmonton Journal, and he was the only person there. So few people went to see Revolution during its Edmonton run that the staff weren’t bothering to clean the theatre afterward. I don’t think more than 50 people saw Revolution during that week (and in its one-weekend second run many months later).

World events
Having accepted U.S. President Ronald Reagan's offer of exile, former Philippines President Ferdinand Marcos, along with his family and supporters--90 people in all--travelled to Clark Air Force Base and then to Guam, before flying on to Hawaii. Incoming Philippines President Corazon Aquino named a 17-member cabinet. Salvador Laurel, who had been named Premier the previous day, had the foreign ministry added to his duties.

Defense
In an address to the nation, U.S. President Ronald Reagan said that his military buildup was threatened "by those who would quit before the job is done." In response, House of Representatives Majority Leader Jim Wright (Democrat--Texas) said that Democrats had always favoured a strong defense, but that they disagreed over "the amount of debt that we are willing to place upon the backs of our children."

Literature
Robert Penn Warren was named the first official poet laureate of the United States. Congress had created the honour in 1985, essentially equating it with the former position of poetry consultant to the Library of Congress. Mr. Warren was the only writer to win Pulitzer Prizes for both poetry (1958--Promises: Poems 1954-1956) and fiction (1947--All the King’s Men). He was selected for the position of poet laureate by Daniel Boorstin, the Librarian of Congress.

Economics and finance
Canadian Finance Minister Michael Wilson tabled a budget for 1986-1987 that raised taxes and reduced government spending in an effort to trim the nation’s deficit.

Disasters
Four NASA managers testified before the presidential commission investigating the January 28 explosion of the U.S. space shuttle Challenger that they had not pressured engineers from rocket parts manufacturer Morton Thiokol Inc. to present a positive launch recommendation, and said they had not considered the assessment by the engineers to be valid.

20 years ago
1991


War
Kuwait City was liberated by the allies after 208 days of Iraqi occupation.

Economics and finance
Canadian Finance Minister Michael Wilson tabled the budget for 1991-1992 to the House of Commons, describing it as "the most difficult" of the seven budgets he had presented. Though total government spending was increased by 5.1% from the previous year, the budget would restrain public servant wages; raise cigarette taxes; increase unemployment insurance premiums; and squeeze federal payments to the provinces. Mr. Wilson projected that the federal budget deficit would be limited to $30.5 billion, the same as the previous fiscal year.

Politics and government
Republican party candidate J. Fife Symington III, 48, defeated Democratic party candidate Terry Goddard 52%-48% in a runoff election to become Governor of Arizona. Neither candidate had obtained the required majority of votes necessary to win in the November 1990 election.

10 years ago
2001


Diplomacy
U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell continued his visit to the Middle East with meetings with Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and Saudi Arabian foreign minister Prince Saud al-Faisal. In Kuwait, Mr. Powell, former U.S. President George H.W. Bush, and U.S. General Norman Schwarzkopf participated in a ceremony observing the 10th anniversary of the liberation of Kuwait City from Iraqi occupation in the Gulf War.

Politics and government
The Israeli Labour Party’s governing body voted to join a unity government.

Crime
The three-man international war crimes tribunal meeting at The Hague sentenced Dario Kordic, an ally of the late Croatian President Franjo Tudjman, and Mario Cerkez, a former brigade commander of Croatians in Bosnia, to 25 years and 15 years in prison, respectively, for crimes against humanity. The charges related to the killings of hundreds of Muslims in central Bosnia in 1992 and 1993.

Friday, 25 February 2011

February 25, 2011

110 years ago
1901

Business

J.P. Morgan formed United States Steel Corporation, the world’s first billion-dollar corporation.

90 years ago
1921

Abominations

The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, with a Moscow-directed Communist government led by Georgian Bolshevik Filipp Makharadze, was established when the Red Army entered the capital city of Tbilisi after the Georgian army had been defeated and had fled the country. On July 21, 2010, the Georgian government declared February 25 to be Soviet Occupation Day to recall the event.

50 years ago
1961


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Calcutta--Lawrence Welk and his Orchestra (3rd week at #1)
2 Shop Around--The Miracles
3 Will You Love Me Tomorrow--The Shirelles
4 Calendar Girl--Neil Sedaka
5 Exodus--Ferrante and Teicher
--Mantovani and his Orchestra
6 Wheels--The String-A-Longs
--Billy Vaughn and his Orchestra
7 Pony Time--Chubby Checker
8 There’s a Moon Out Tonight--The Capris
9 Where the Boys Are--Connie Francis
10 Emotions--Brenda Lee

Singles entering the chart were Surrender by Elvis Presley (#37); Once Upon a Time by Rochell and the Candles (#72); All of Everything by Frankie Avalon (#85); Let’s Go Again (Where We Went Last Night) by Hank Ballard and the Midnighters (#86); Theme From Tunes of Glory, with versions by Cambridge Strings and Singers and Mitch Miller and his Orchestra (#88); Little Miss Stuck-Up by the Playmates (#93); Top Forty, News, Weather and Sports by Mark Dinning (#94); The Second Time Around by Frank Sinatra (#99); Model Girl by Johnny Maestro (#100); Banned in Boston by Merv Griffin (also #100); and Sparklin’ Eyes by Dean Martin (also #100).

Space
The mission of the Soviet satellite Sputnik 8, which had been launched on February 12 in order to launch the probe Venera 1 toward Venus, ended when it burned up in Earth's atmosphere.

War
Congolese Premier Joseph Ileo demanded immediate United Nations action to halt the advance of the troops of Antoine Gizenga, who was recognized by more than 20 Communist and neutral nations as the leader of the "legitimate" government of the Congo. Mr. Gizenga’s troops had penetrated nearly 50% of the Congo. Sporadic clashes between troops of the central Congolese government and UN forces were reported.

Boxing
Gaspar Ortega (58-21-2) won a 10-round unanimous decision over Benny "Kid" Paret (34-9-3) in a middleweight bout at Olympic Auditorium in Los Angeles.

40 years ago
1971


World events
600 delegates from Jewish groups from many nations, gathered in Brussels to "affirm solidarity with our Jewish brothers in the Soviet Union," urged Soviet leaders to permit Jewish citizens to leave for Israel or allow them to practice their religion freely in the U.S.S.R.

30 years ago
1981


Religion
Pope John Paul II became the first world leader to visit the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki since they had been struck by atomic bombs in August 1945. While in Nagasaki, the pontiff asked that Vatican aides examine the possibilities of opening diplomatic relations with and resuming pastoral work in China.

Environment
An international meeting of conservationists and animal traders began in New Delhi, to discuss restrictions on the international traffic in endangered animals and plants. The discussion centred on revision of the lists of those species whose exports were controlled. The discussion especially centred on parrots and whales. Naturalists favoured putting all parrots, rather than just a few species, on one list or the other; they also wanted to end all commercial whaling.

Economics and finance
The United States Labor Department reported that consumer prices had risen 0.7% in January.

Disasters
15 people were killed and 53 injured when a series of earthquakes hit Athens and the surrounding area.

Hockey
NHL
Edmonton 6 Philadelphia 2

25 years ago
1986


World events
Corazon Aquino was sworn in as President of the Philippines, while embattled incumbent Ferdinand Marcos held his own inauguration ceremony while preparing to flee the country.

Politics and government
The 27th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party opened in Moscow with 5,000 Soviet delegates and thousands of visitors from 113 countries in attendance. Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev opened the congress with a 5½-hour speech.

Diplomacy
During his address to the Soviet Communist Party Congress, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev found some encouragement in U.S. President Ronald Reagan’s arms control plan, but complained that it was swamped with various links and conditions that would prevent disarmament solutions. Mr. Gorbachev hinted that he would not attend another summit conference with Mr. Reagan unless there was some progress on arms control issues.

Economics and finance
Without mentioning former Sovier leader Leonid Brezhnev by name, Mr. Gorbachev, in his address to the Communist party congress in Moscow, charged that extreme economic difficulties had begun to build up under the previous leadership during the 1970s. While declaring that there would be no retreat from the basic tenets of Communism, Mr. Gorbachev called for "radical reform" of economic management, including more autonomy for local farm and plant managers and less interference from central planners.

The United States Labor Department reported that the consumer price index had risen 0.3% in January.

Disasters
Engineers with rocket parts manufacturer Morton Thiokol Inc. testified before the presidential commission investigating the January 28 explosion of the U.S. space shuttle Challenger that NASA officials had pressured them to present a positive launch recommendation despite their opposition to a launch. One engineer, Brian Russell, said that "we were in the position of having to prove it was unsafe, instead of the other way around."

20 years ago
1991


War
28 soldiers--including three women--were killed and 90 injured when a Scud missile struck a U.S. barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Hours later, Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein ordered his forces to withdraw from Kuwait. Roads leading to Basra were jammed with retreating Iraqi forces. U.S. Marines bombed the road north of Kuwait City.

Terrorism
U.K. Director of Public Prosecution Alan Green announced that the Birmingham Six, convicted in 1975 in connection with Irish Republican Army bombings of two pubs in Birmingham in November 1974 that had killed 21 people, could be free within weeks because their convictions could no longer be considered safe and satisfactory.

10 years ago
2001


Diplomacy
U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell met with King Abdullah of Jordan in Amman, and then met separately with Israeli Prime Minister-elect Ariel Sharon and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. Messrs. Sharon and Arafat were adamant that violence must end before peace talks could take place.

Thursday, 24 February 2011

February 24, 2011

Born on this date
Happy birthday, Kavis Reed!

190 years ago
1821

World events

Mexico declared its independence from Spain.

100 years ago
1911

Defense

The Royal Navy battlecruiser HMS Indefatigable was commissioned. The ship saw action in World War I, and was sunk in the Battle of Jutland on May 31, 1916.

60 years ago
1951


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 My Heart Cries for You--Guy Mitchell (3rd week at #1)
--Dinah Shore
--Vic Damone
--Jimmy Wakely
2 Be My Love--Mario Lanza
3 If--Perry Como
4 The Tennessee Waltz--Patti Page
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Les Paul and Mary Ford
--Jo Stafford
5 You’re Just in Love--Perry Como
6 Harbor Lights--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Ray Anthony and his Orchestra
--Bing Crosby
7 So Long (It’s Been Good to Know You)--Gordon Jenkins and his Orchestra and the Weavers
8 The Roving Kind--Guy Mitchell
--The Weavers
9 A Bushel and a Peck--Perry Como and Betty Hutton
--Margaret Whiting and Jimmy Wakely
10 Zing Zing--Zoom Zoom--Perry Como

Zing Zing--Zoom Zoom was the B-side of If. Singles entering the chart were I Apologize by Billy Eckstine (#30); Sentimental Music, with versions by Patti Page and Bing Crosby (#31); Boutonniere by Mindy Carson (#34); and Down in Nashville, Tennessee by Dinah Shore (#35).

50 years ago
1961


On television tonight
The Twilight Zone, on CBS
Tonight’s episode: The Odyssey of Flight 33, starring John Anderson

World events
The regime of Antoine Gizenga--loyal to recently-deposed and murdered Congolese Premier Patrice Lumumba--that was recognized by more than 20 Communist and neutral nations as the legitimate government of Congo--seized control of Luluabourg, capital of the province of Kasai.

Economics and finance
The government of Cuba decreed a reorganization of administrative departments and the creation of a new Ministry of Industry. Major Ernesto "Che" Guevara, president of the National bank of Cuba, was named director of the new ministry, charged with directing all industry and with carrying out an industrialization program from 1962-1966. The National Bank of Cuba was reorganized to conduct the country’s entire banking operations; a new Ministry of Foreign Trade was given direction of all imports and exports; and a Ministry of Interior Commerce was created to control distribution of products and prices and the management of all nationalized commercial firms.

40 years ago
1971


Oil
Algerian President Houari Boumedienne announced that Algeria was taking a 51% interest in French oil firms and was nationalizing natural gas production, along with an extensive French-financed pipeline network.

Society
Under the terms of a new immigration bill to become effective in 1972, Commonwealth citizens would lose the automatic right to remain in the United Kingdom and would face the same restrictions as any other people applying to live and work in Britain.

Crime
Raids by U.S. federal narcotics agents against drug wholesalers and distributors in six major cities, including New York, Chicago, and New Orleans, resulted in the arrests of 54 major dealers and the seizure of $13 million worth of drugs. The arrests followed a five-month investigation--code-named Flanker--described by U.S. Attorney General John Mitchell as "the largest federal crackdown ever on narcotics distribution by organized crime," in which 143 top echelon arrests were made.

30 years ago
1981


World events
The attempted coup in Spain by 200 members of the Civil Guard collapsed 18 hours after it began. Much of the credit for the coup’s collapse was given to King Juan Carlos, who appeared on television after the station was liberated by loyal troops, denouncing the coup attempt and pledging his faith in democracy. The Civil Guard released the members of the Cortes whom they were holding, and then were imprisoned, while their leaders surrendered. The general in Valencia was relieved of his post, as was the army’s deputy chief of staff.

War
U.S. President Ronald Reagan reiterated his support for the junta in El Salvador, although he had no intention of involving the U.S. in the junta’s civil war against Marxist guerrillas.

Britannica
Buckingham Palace announced the engagement of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer.

Crime
Jean Harris was convicted in White Plains, New York of second-degree murder in the death of her lover of 14 years, Dr. Herman Tarnower, on March 10, 1980. Dr. Tarnower, creator of the famed Scarsdale Diet, had been shot numerous times; Mrs. Harris’s defense was that she had intended the gun to be used for her own suicide and that Dr. Tarnower had been killed in a struggle over possession of the gun. She was also convicted on two counts of criminal possession of a weapon.

Religion
Pope John Paul II continued his visit to Tokyo with a meeting with Japanese Emperor Hirohito.

25 years ago
1986


World events
Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos declared a state of emergency, while Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile, who, along with armed forces chief of staff Lt. Gen. Fidel Ramos, had seized control of the defense ministry headquarters two days earlier, formed a provisional government led by Corazon Aquino, who had challenged Mr. Marcos in the disputed February 7 presidential election.

Diplomacy
U.S. negotiators at the Geneva arms talks presented U.S. President Ronald Reagan’s proposal to eliminate U.S. and Soviet medium-range missiles within three years. Mr. Reagan tied the total elimination of nuclear weapons to a reduction in Warsaw Pact conventional forces; full Soviet compliance with treaties; and the peaceful resolution of regional conflicts.

20 years ago
1991


War
200,000 allied troops participated in the ground offensive against Iraq, which began at about dawn. The attacks began across a 300-mile area west from the Persian Gulf. U.S. Marines and Army airborne and armoured units were joined by units from the U.K., France, Saudi Arabia, and other Arab countries. Some allied forces struck directly into Kuwait, but others crossed from Saudi Arabia into Iraq far to the west, beyond the Iraqi defensive lines. U.S. and U.K. armoured units moved first north, then northeast, and outflanked elite Iraqi Republican Guard forces dug in north of Kuwait. U.S. Marines and Arab forces striking directly into Kuwait achieved a quick breakthrough, and were joined in Kuwait by allied armoured forces entering from the west. Meanwhile, Canadian warplanes saw their first bombing missions since World War II.

Hockey
NHL
Quebec 3 @ Edmonton 6

This blogger was in attendance at Edmonton Coliseum to see Guy Lafleur play with the Nordiques.

10 years ago
2001


Edmontonia
13-month-old Erika Nordby wandered outside into sub-zero (C) temperatures wearing only a diaper. By the time her mother found her, Erika was frozen almost solid and her heart had stopped beating for nearly two hours. When she arrived at hospital, Erika’s body temperature was only 16 C (37 C is normal). Erika was revived in hospital, and staff speculated that she would suffer only minor damage to her fingers and toes.

Diplomacy
Colin Powell arrived in the Middle East to being his first trip as U.S. Secretary of State. He met separately in Cairo with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov. Both agreed with him that Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein must not be allowed to build weapons of mass destruction, but Mr. Mubarak contended that allied sanctions were harming only the Iraqi people, not Mr. Hussein. Mr. Powell and Mr. Ivanov explored differences on U.S. plans to build a missile shield, and on Russia’s conduct of her war against rebels in the province of Chechnya.

World events
Over 7,000 Madurese immigrants had fled the island of Borneo for Java after members of the indigenous Dayak tribe had killed 469 of the Madurese during a week of violence.

Tuesday, 22 February 2011

February 23, 2011

190 years ago
1821

Died on this date
John Keats, 25
. U.K. poet. Mr. Keats’ works included Endymion; Ode to a Nightingale; and Ode on a Grecian Urn. He died in Rome of tuberculosis.

175 years ago
1836

War

Mexican forces under the command of General Santa Anna began the siege of the Alamo.

80 years ago
1931


On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Richard Gordon and Leigh Lovell, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Illustrious Client

Politics and government
Having resigned from the Conservative Business Committee in January to campaign against proposed dominion status for India, Winston Churchill addressed his constituency association at Winchester House, Epping, saying, among other things:

It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr. Gandhi, a seditious Middle temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well known in the East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Viceregal palace, while he is still organizing and conducting a defiant campaign of civil disobedience, to parley on equal terms with the representative of the King-Emperor. Such a spectacle can only increase the unrest in India and the danger to which white people there are exposed. It can only encourage all the forces which are hostile to British authority. What good can possibly come of such extraordinary negotiations? Gandhi has said within the last few weeks that he demands the substance of independence, though he kindly adds that the British may keep the shadow. He declares that the boycott of foreign cloth must be continued until either prohibition or a prohibitive tariff can be put up against it by an Indian national Parliament. This, if accepted, would entail the final ruin of Lancashire. He has also pressed for the repudiation of the Indian loans, and has laid claim to the control of the Army and foreign affairs. These are his well-known aims. Surely they form a strange basis for heart-to-heart discussions--’sweet’ we are told the were--between this malignant, subversive fanatic and the Viceroy of India.

--from Blood, Toil, Tears & Sweat: The Speeches of Winston Churchill, edited by David Cannadine, 1989.

70 years ago
1941


On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Resident Patient

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Ron Hunt and Gord Lund!

Mr. Hunt, a native of St. Louis, was a second baseman (and, near the end of his career, a third baseman) who spent 12 years in the National League with the New York Mets (1963-1966); Los Angeles Dodgers (1967); San Francisco Giants (1968-1970); Montreal Expos (1971-1974); and St. Louis Cardinals (1974). He was known as a scrappy player who was willing to do anything to get on base, especially if that involved getting hit by a pitch. In 1971 he was hit by a pitch 50 times, which stood as a major league single-season record for many years. Mr. Hunt batted .303 with the Mets in 1963 and .309 with the Expos in 1973. A leadoff hitter, he drove in just 18 runs in 1972 and the same number in 1973. He was sold by the Expos to the Cardinals on September 4, 1974, and was released by the Cardinals at the end of spring training in 1975.

Mr. Lund, a native of Iron Mountain, Michigan, was a shortstop who played 3 games with the Cleveland Indians in 1967 and 20 games with the Seattle Pilots in 1969, batting .261. He was the manager of the Edmonton Trappers during their first season in the Pacific Coast League in 1981.

60 years ago
1951


Boxing
Former world heavyweight champion Joe Louis (62-2) scored a technical knockout over Andy Walker (17-9-7) at 1:49 of the 10th round at the Cow Palace in San Francisco. For Mr. Walker, it was the start of a streak that saw him lose his last 12 fights.

40 years ago
1971


Society
The United States Senate Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights, whose staff had been probing both federal government and private snooping via computer data banks, opened nine days of public hearings. The panel’s chairman, Senator Sam Ervin (Democrat--North Carolina), who saw an invasion of personal privacy in the use of modern computer technology, warned of the dangers to the U.S. "free society" because Americans’ fear of surveillance could lead to being "afraid to speak their minds freely to the government or anyone else."

Labour
In an anti-inflationary move to force construction unions and building contractors to take measures to curb prices and wages in the industry, U.S. President Richard Nixon suspended provisions of the 1931 Davis-Bacon Act that required that wages for workers on federally-aided construction projects match the "prevailing" pay for workers in private building in the same area.

30 years ago
1981


World events
About 200 members of the paramilitary Civil Guard stormed the Cortes--the lower house of the Spanish parliament--and held about 350 members of the house hostage.

War
The U.S. State Department announced that the campaign against Soviet bloc arms shipments to Marxist guerrillas in El Salvador had resulted in a slowing down of the flow of weapons.

Religion
Pope John Paul II began the day in Guam before departing for Japan as he continued his tour of east Asia.

25 years ago
1986


Diplomacy
U.S. President Ronald Reagan warned that he would cut off U.S. aid to the Philippines if Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos resorted to violence in attempting to hold on to power.

Labour
Eastern Airlines pilots agreed to a 20% pay cut and other concessions to help the financially-troubled airline.

Hockey
NHL
Minnesota 4 Toronto 3

20 years ago
1991


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 All the Man that I Need--Whitney Houston
2 Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)--C + C Music Factory featuring Freedom Williams
3 One More Try--Timmy -T-
4 Someday--Mariah Carey
5 Where Does My Heart Beat Now--Celine Dion
6 The First Time--Surface
7 Disappear--INXS
8 Show Me the Way--Styx
9 Sensitivity--Ralph Tresvant
10 All This Time--Sting

Singles entering the chart included Baby Baby by Amy Grant (#82).

Canada’s top 10 (RPM)
1 Disappear--INXS (2nd week at #1)
2 All the Man that I Need--Whitney Houston
3 Wicked Game--Chris Isaak
4 All This Time--Sting
5 Show Me the Way--Styx
6 Love Will Never Do (Without You)--Janet Jackson
7 I’m Not in Love--Will to Power
8 Waiting for Love--Alias
9 Someday--Mariah Carey
10 How Long Can a Man Be Strong--The Jeff Healey Band

Singles entering the chart included Cry for Help by Rick Astley (#72).

War
Iraq failed to respond to the ultimatum delivered the previous day by U.S. President George Bush, and the allies began a ground war in Iraq at 6 PM Mountain Standard Time. Coalition tanks and 200,000 troops moved into Iraq and Kuwait, and thousands of Iraqi soldiers surrendered almost immediately. Two hours after the beginning of the ground war, Mr. Bush announced that he had directed forces to use all means necessary to remove Iraq from Kuwait.

World events
A bloodless military coup ousted the government of Premier Chatichai Choonhavan of Thailand. The new military regime was led by the armed forces’ supreme commander, General Sunthorn Kongsompong, who announced that Thailand would be ruled by a National Peace and Order-Keeping Party, consisting of the army, navy, air force, police, and civilians. It was also announced that the 1978 constitution had been abolished and that martial law would be imposed. Gen. Sunthorn stated that the armed forces had decided to depose Mr. Chatichai because he had protected the perpetrators of an alleged plot to topple the nation’s constitutional monarchy in 1982. The U.S. condemned the coup and announced the suspension of $16.4 million in development aid.

Politics and government
Bloc Quebecois leader Lucien Bouchard confirmed that the BQ would become a legal political party, with a founding conference to be held in June 1991. Mr. Bouchard said that official party status would help the BQ win seats in the next federal election, and it would coax more Quebec Progressive Conservatives to join the pro-Quebec independence party. The BQ said it intended to run candidates in each of Quebec’s 75 federal ridings and predicted it could win as many as 60 seats. The party had begun when eight PC members of the House of Commons had broken with the party after the collapse of the Meech Lake constitutional accord in 1990.

Hockey
NHL
Montreal 3 Toronto 3

10 years ago
2001


World events
The Cambodian-registered ship East Sea, with 1,500 people, mainly Kurds, aboard, ran aground--apparently deliberately--on Boulouris beach near Saint Raphael, off the coast of southern France. The ship had left Greece eight days earlier and had stopped in Turkey. Her human cargo included 300 children under age 10 and was assumed to be transporting potential illegal migrants.

Monday, 21 February 2011

February 22, 2011

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Laura Pereverzoff-Ong!

640 years ago
1371

Britannica

Robert II succeeded to the throne of Scotland, beginning the Stuart dynasty.

75 years ago
1936


On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Louis Hector and Harry West, on MBS
Tonight’s episode: The Man with the Twisted Lip

Figure skating
Sonja Henie of Norway won her tenth consecutive women’s world championship.

50 years ago
1961


Space
The United States launched two satellites from a single rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida, but the satellites failed to separate in orbit as planned. The satellites were the 250-pound Transit III-B, designed to aid development of a global navigational satellite system, and the 57-pound Lofti, designed to measure intensity of very low-frequency signals through the ionosphere. The satellites were to have gone into separate near-circular orbits 500 miles up, but they remained joined and went into an elliptical orbit ranging from 117-511 miles above Earth. Both radio transmitters operated, but the quality of the data received was hurt by the elliptical orbit.

Diplomacy
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev sent messages to Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and the leaders of 66 other governments, calling for the formation of an all-African commission to take over the United Nations’ role in the Congo and restore that country’s independence. He repeated his demand that UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold be replaced by a three-man secretariat, and attacked Mr. Hammarskjold as the "chief assassin" of recently-deposed and deceased Congolese Premier Patrice Lumumba. Mr. Khrushchev said that his proposed commission would be "in full contact" with what he described as the "country’s legitimate government," headed by Antoine Gizenga, former deputy to Mr. Lumumba. The Soviet leader demanded the arrest and trial of Major General Joseph Mobutu, Congolese army commander, and Moise Tshombe, President of the secessionist Congolese province of Katanga, for the murder of Mr. Lumumba. Meanwhile, Joseph Ileo, newly installed as Congo’s Premier by President Joseph Kasavubu, warned that his regime would use force if necessary to hinder the United Nations plan to bar civil war in the Congo.

30 years ago
1981


Died on this date
Andy High, 83
. U.S. baseball infielder. Mr. High, one of three brothers who played in the major leagues, spent 13 seasons in the National League with the Brooklyn Robins (1922-1925); Boston Braves (1925-1927); St. Louis Cardinals (1928-1931); Cincinnati Reds (1932-1933); and Philadelphia Phillies (1934). He batted .284 with 44 home runs and 482 runs batted in in 1,314 career games. Mr. High played in three World Series with the Cardinals (1928; 1930; 1931), batting .294 in 9 games. After being just a part-time player in 1931, he played 4 games in the World Series, batting .267, as the Cardinals upset the defending champion Philadelphia Athletics.

Diplomacy
West German spokesmen said there was a possibility that they might become involved in an attempt to bring the warring factions in El Salvador together for negotiations in Bonn.

Religion
Pope John Paul II continued his east Asian tour with a mass for indigenous people in Baguio City, Philippines before returning to Manila, whence he departed for Guam.

Hockey
NHL
Buffalo 4 Montreal 2

25 years ago
1986


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 How Will I Know--Whitney Houston
2 Kyrie--Mr. Mister
3 When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Going--Billy Ocean
4 Burning Heart--Survivor
5 Living in America--James Brown
6 I’m Your Man--Wham!
7 Sara--Starship
8 Life in a Northern Town--The Dream Academy
9 The Sweetest Taboo-Sade
10 Silent Running--Mike & the Mechanics

Singles entering the chart included Kiss by Prince and the Revolution (#42); I Can’t Wait by Stevie Nicks (#56); I Think it’s Love by Jermaine Jackson (#69); Overjoyed by Stevie Wonder (#70); Heart’s on Fire by John Cafferty (#84); It’s Alright (Baby’s Coming Back) by Eurythmics (#86); What Have You Done for Me Lately by Janet Jackson (#88); and I Found Someone by Laura Branigan (#89).

Canada’s top 10 (RPM)
1 Conga--Miami Sound Machine
2 When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Going--Billy Ocean
3 That’s What Friends are For--Dionne and Friends
4 I Miss You--Klymaxx
5 Rock Me Amadeus--Falco
6 How Will I Know--Whitney Houston
7 Life in a Northern Town--The Dream Academy
8 Party All the Time--Eddie Murphy
9 Kyrie--Mr. Mister
10 Living in America--James Brown

Singles entering the chart included Calling America by Electric Light Orchestra (#81); Addicted to Love by Robert Palmer (#84); Manic Monday by the Bangles (#91); Needles and Pins by Tom Petty and Stevie Nicks (#92); I’m Not the One by the Cars (#96); and How to Be a Millionaire by ABC (#97).

World events
Two senior members of the Philippines government took over the defense ministry headquarters and denounced President Ferdinand Marcos.

Hockey
NHL
Boston 6 Edmonton 5 (OT)

20 years ago
1991


War
U.S. President George Bush gave Iraq an ultimatum to withdraw from Kuwait by 12 noon the following day or face a full-scale ground war. Mr. Bush also denounced Iraq for setting fire to Kuwaiti oil installations. Hundreds were aflame, and black smoke covered up to half of Kuwait and parts of neighbouring countries.

World events
Two weeks of crisis talks by the presidents of Yugoslavia’s republics concluded with a failure to reach a consensus on the future of Yugoslavia.

Politics and government
In an attempt to end a wave of pro-democracy protests, Albanian President Ramiz Alia dismissed Premier Adil Carcani and appointed a new government. In a nationally-televised address two days earlier, Mr. Alia explained that he had decided to create a new government and a new presidential council for the sake of "peace and democracy." The new 19-member cabinet, composed entirely of members of the ruling Albanian Workers’ (Communist) Party, was to remain in office until the national elections set for March 31. Fatos Nano, a reform-minded economist, succeeded Mr. Carcani, who had been in office since 1982, as Premier.

10 years ago
2001


World events
The United Nations Security Council adopted a resolution establishing a pullback and withdrawal of all foreign and rebel troops from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Crime
A three-judge panel of the international tribunal trying accused war criminals at The Hague convicted three former Bosnian Serb soldiers of raping and torturing Muslim women during the Balkan wars of the 1990s. The verdict marked the first time that rape had been defined as a crime against humanity. Two of the three men were also convicted of sexual slavery for keeping women and girls, some as young as 12, for up to eight months--the first time that an international court had condemned this particular crime. The crimes occurred after Serbs had seized the Bosnian town of Foca in 1992. Hundreds of women in the vicinity were thought to have been raped, and 16 testified against the men at their trial. The convicted men received sentences of 12-28 years in prison.

Defense
At his first press conference as President of the United States, George W. Bush said that he was concerned about evidence that China was assisting in the building of Iraq's radar systems.

Sunday, 20 February 2011

February 21, 2011

50 years ago
1961


On television tonight
Thriller, on NBC
Tonight's episode: The Fingers of Fear, starring Nehemiah Persoff, Robert Middleton, and Kevin Hagen

Space
Dr. Robert Gilruth, director of NASA’s Project Mercury, announced the selection of three men who would undergo training for the first U.S. manned mission. The three finalists were John Glenn, 39; Gus Grissom, 35; and Alan Shepard, 37. In fact, the decision had already been made in favour of Mr. Shepard, but NASA decided to keep the public in the dark.

At Cape Canaveral, Florida, the United States launched Mercury-Atlas 2, an unmanned test of the Mercury capsule that was designed for manned flight. The empty one-ton capsule was subjected to the worst conditions it could be expected to meet on an orbital flight. Recovered by a helicopter, the capsule was said to have come through in excellent condition. Project Mercury director Robert Gilruth said that the interior temperature of the capsule had not exceeded 90 F. and that a man apparently could have lived through the test.

World events
President Moise Tshombe of the secessionist Congolese province of Katanga denounced the United Nations Security Council’s authorization of UN troops to use force if necessary to prevent civil war in Congo. Mr. Tshombe ordered general mobilization of his forces to keep the UN force from carrying out the Council’s resolution.

Boxing
Cassius Clay (5-0) scored a technical knockout of Donnie Fleeman (35-12-1) at the Miami Beach Auditorium in Miami Beach, Florida when Mr. Fleeman suffered a rib injury and was unable to continue when the bell rang to begin the 7th round. Mr. Clay was well ahead on points on all three cards. It was the last professional fight for Mr. Fleeman.

40 years ago
1971


Terrorism
Brazilian diplomat Aloysio Mares Dias Gomide, kidnapped by Tupamaros guerrillas in July 1970, was released after Uruguay complied with the kidnappers’ demands to restore civil liberties, which had been suspended after the January kidnapping of British Ambassador Geoffrey Jackson, who was still their captive. Earlier, Mr. Dias Gomide’s wife had paid a ransom of more than US$250,000 for his release.

Disasters
40-50 tornadoes ripped through scores of small towns in Mississippi, North Carolina, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Ohio, killing more than 100 people and leaving 2,300 homeless.

30 years ago
1981


Hit parade
#1 single in Canada (RPM): The Tide is High--Blondie (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): 9 to 5--Dolly Parton

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
2 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
3 Celebration--Kool & the Gang
4 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
5 The Tide is High--Blondie
6 Woman--John Lennon
7 Same Old Lang Syne--Dan Fogelberg
8 Passion--Rod Stewart
9 The Best of Times--Styx
10 Giving it Up for Your Love--Delbert McClinton

Singles entering the chart included Angel of the Morning by Juice Newton (#68); Wasn’t That a Party by the Rovers (#81); Being With You by Smokey Robinson (#82); Keep This Train A-Rollin’ by the Doobie Brothers (#85); and Yesterday Once More/Nothing Remains the Same by the Spinners (#86).

War
Leaders of the Marxist guerrillas in El Salvador said that they were short of arms, but that they were trying to re-equip themselves by buying on the black market. They refused to admit that some of their arms had come from Communist countries.

Crime
U.S. Vice-President George Bush announced the establishment of a task force to coordinate federal efforts to aid Atlanta’s investigation into the murders of young Negro men in that city. 17 bodies of boys between the ages of 7 and 15 had been found in recent months, and one boy was still reported missing.

Disasters
The owners and builders of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor in Pennsylvania settled the claims of thousands of people resulting from the evacuation of the area after an accident at the plant in 1979. The claimants all lived within a 25-mile radius of the plant, and the settlement totalled $25 million. Most of the money would be paid for business losses incurred during the evacuation.

Religion
Pope John Paul II continued his tour of the Philippines with visits to Legazpi City and a refugee camp at Morong before returning to Manila.

Hockey
NHL
Minnesota 3 @ Toronto 5
Detroit 1 @ Montreal 4
Edmonton 5 Winnipeg 1

20 years ago
1991


World events
The parliament of Croatia passed legislation asserting a veto power over all Yugoslavian federal laws that applied to that republic. Croatia also passed legislation that barred the federal government of Yugoslavia from declaring a state of emergency in Croatia without the republic’s permission to use federal security forces in Croatia.

War
The Soviet Union announced that Iraq had agreed to its peace proposal. U.S. President George Bush still had "serious concerns" about several points in the plan. The estimate of the number of Iraqi tanks destroyed in the Gulf War so far was put at 2,100.

Politics and government
Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa said that his province would not hold a referendum on sovereignty in 1991, despite such a proposal by the co-chairmen of the Belanger-Campeau commission that was studying Quebec’s future. Mr. Bourassa said that federalism must be given another chance, adding that the people weren’t yet ready to make a decision on sovereignty and that a referendum should wait until at least 1992.

10 years ago
2001


Health
The European Commission banned all British milk, meat, and livestock exports following the first outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the U.K. in 20 years.

Saturday, 19 February 2011

February 20, 2011

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Mandy Sellars!

60 years ago
1951


On television tonight
Suspense, on CBS
Tonight's episode: The Victims, starring Eileen Heckart and Stanley Ridges

50 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Calcutta--Lawrence Welk and his Orchestra (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Percy Grainger, 78
. Australian-born U.S. composer and pianist. Mr. Grainger’s works included Country Gardens; Irish Tune from County Derry; and Colonial Song. He also helped to invent the Free Music Machine, a forerunner of the modern electronic synthesizer.

Education
U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in a special message to Congress, proposed a $5.625-billion program of federal aid to education from public elementary school through college.

40 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K.: My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): One Bad Apple--The Osmonds (2nd week at #1)

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds (2nd week at #1)
2 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
3 Mama’s Pearl--The Jackson 5
4 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
5 Sweet Mary--Wadsworth Mansion
6 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
7 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
8 Watching Scotty Grow--Bobby Goldsboro
9 Knock Three Times--Dawn
10 If I Were Your Woman--Gladys Knight and the Pips

Singles entering the chart included What Is Life by George Harrison (#46); You’re All I Need to Get By by Aretha Franklin (#47); Oye Como Va by Santana (#49); Love’s Lines, Angles, and Rhymes by the 5th Dimension (#55); What’s Going On by Marvin Gaye (#66); Free by Chicago (#71); and Eighteen by Alice Cooper (#95).

Canada’s top 10 (RPM)
1 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
2 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
3 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
4 Sing High, Sing Low--Anne Murray
5 Knock Three Times--Dawn
6 Lonely Days--Bee Gees
7 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
8 Mr. Bojangles--Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
9 Remember Me--Diana Ross
10 Stoney End--Barbra Streisand

Singles entering the chart included Children of the Sun by Mashmakhan (#93); Free by Chicago (#96); Blue Money by Van Morrison (#99); and Eighteen by Alice Cooper (#100).

Calgary’s top 10
1 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
2 Stay Awhile--The Bells
3 1900 Yesterday--Liz Damon’s Orient Express
4 Born to Wander--Rare Earth
5 Your Song--Elton John
6 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
7 Theme from Love Story--Francis Lai
8 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
9 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
10 Sweet Mary--Wadsworth Mansion
Pick hit of the week: I Was Wondering--The Poppy Family

Sport
At the World Weightlifting Championships in Columbus, Ohio, Vasili Alexeyev of the Soviet Union lifted 501¼ pounds in the clean and jerk to become the first man to lift at least 500 pounds in competition.

30 years ago
1981


War
An assessment by the U.S. Defense Department said that the army of the government of El Salvador was so ill-prepared to fight the country’s Marxist guerrillas that it had no hope of defeating them. Because of that, U.S. Secretary of State Al Haig stated that it was even more important to cut off the flow of arms to that country from Cuba and the U.S.S.R.

Medicine
Dr. Genevieve Matanoski of the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health suggested a possible connection between chronic exposure to X-rays and an increased risk of fatal heart disease. In her study she found that the death rate from heart disease was 29% higher in radiologists than in eye doctors.

Religion
Pope John Paul II continued his tour of the Philippines with visits to Davao, Bacolod City, and Iloilo.

Hockey
NHL
Boston 5 Edmonton 1

25 years ago
1986


On television tonight
The Twilight Zone, on CITV
Tonight’s episode: The Leprechaun-Artist, starring Bradley Gregg, Danny Nucci, Joey Green, and Cork Hubbert; Dead Run, starring Steve Railsback

Space
The U.S.S.R. launched the space station Mir.

Diplomacy
A U.S. House of Representatives committee voted 9-0 to end direct aid to the Philippines until a "legitimate government" was formed. Philippines President Ferdinand Marcos was trying to hold on to power amidst allegations that his February 7 re-election had been fraudulent.

Defense
U.S. House of Representatives Speaker Tip O’Neill warned that approval of more aid for the Contra rebels in Nicaragua could lead to the dispatch of more U.S. troops to Nicaragua.

Disasters
NASA released a copy of rocket parts manufacturer Morton Thiokol, Inc.’s final recommendation to launch the U.S. space shuttle Challenger on January 28. The recommendation warned that the O-rings used to seal joints connecting the four segments of the rockets would harden in the cold and would take longer to seal properly, but concluded that the launch would not be significantly different from a flight in January 1985.

20 years ago
1991


World events
The parliament of Slovenia approved amendments to its constitution that would invalidate all Yugoslav federal law in Slovenia. Slovenian President Milan Kucan said that Yugoslavia had "ceased to exist," and proposed immediate negotiations on the dissolution of the country.

Energy
U.S. President George Bush announced a comprehensive national energy plan with the objectives of increasing domestic production and encouraging conservation while ensuring continued economic growth. He proposed to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and some otehr areas in Alaska to oil exploration, and to explore the outer continental shelf off California and in the Gulf of Mexico. The plan also emphasized nuclear power, increased spending on transportation technology, and efficiency standards for electric lights. Congressional critics said the plan did not focus enough on conservation or the use of renewable fuels.

Economics and finance
The United States Labor Department reported that consumer prices had risen 0.4% in January.

10 years ago
2001


Politics and government
Former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak rejected Prime Minister Ariel Sharon’s offer to join his coalition government as Defense Minister, and resigned his seat in the Knesset.

Friday, 18 February 2011

February 19, 2011

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Lee Morrow!

50 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K.: Walk Right Back/Ebony Eyes--The Everly Brothers (2nd week at #1)

World events
Laotian King Savang Vathana said that he had designated the regime of Premier Boun Oum as Laos’ only legal government. The king proclaimed Laos’ neutrality and called on neighbouring Cambodia, Burma, and Malaya to form a commission to help supervise the restoration of peace in Laos, and to end all foreign intervention there. U.S. President John F. Kennedy actively supported the king’s proposal.

Protest
Mounted police in London broke up a demonstration outside the Belgian embassy involving protests against the recent murder of deposed Congolese Premier Patrice Lumumba.

40 years ago
1971


Hit parade
Edmonton's top 10
1 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
2 Amazing Grace--Judy Collins
3 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
4 Bridget the Midget--Ray Stevens
5 Your Song--Elton John
6 Hello Melinda Goodbye--Five Man Electrical Band
7 Watching Scotty Grow--Bobby Goldsboro
8 Stay Awhile--The Bells
9 Put Your Hand in the Hand--Ocean
10 For All We Know--Carpenters

The B-side of Hello Melinda Goodbye was Signs, which became the group’s biggest hit a few months later.

On television tonight
The Interns, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Casualty

30 years ago
1981


Personal
This blogger attended his first class of the Dale Carnegie course in Edmonton. I don't agree with Mr. Carnegie's advice on getting others to do what you want--it smacks to me of manipualtion--but that wasn't emphasized in the classes. If you want to develop the skill of public speaking--which is what the classes are about--I highly recommend the Dale Carnegie course.

War
The U.S. State Department provided embassies of friendly governments in Washington with a memorandum stating that the Marxist insurrection in El Salvador was a textbook case of indirect armed aggression by the Soviets. The guerrilla leaders in El Salvador declared that the United States had sent 100 military advisers to help the ruling junta in the war. The U.S., however, admitted to only 18.

Former Swedish Prime Minister Olaf Palme, acting as a United Nations envoy, met with Iranian President Abolhassan Bani-Sadr in an attempt to negotiate an end to the war between Iran and Iraq. There was some hope that the two countries would agree to allow 70 foreign vessels to leave the disputed Shatt al Arab waterway, where they had been trapped since September 1980, but the Iranians seemed united in backing the refusal to enter peace talks before the Iraqis withdrew from Iran.

Religion
Pope John Paul II visited Cebu in the Philippines.

Weather
It was announced that the drought and heat waves in the United States in the summer of 1980 had killed more than 1,300 people.

25 years ago
1986


Diplomacy
The United States Senate voted 83-11 to ratify a United Nations treaty outlawing genocide. The U.S. had signed the treaty in 1984, and 90 nations had subsequently ratified it. Passage in the U.S. had been delayed because some Senators feared that it would compromise national sovereignty, but amendments were added to meet this concern. The International Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide defined as an international crime any act "committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group."

King Hussein of Jordan abandoned negotiations with the Palestine Liberation Organization after two weeks of talks intended to revive the Middle East peace process. The king accused PLO leader Yasser Arafat of breaking his word after he had won concessions from the United States. King Hussein said that the United States had been prepared to invite the PLO to a Middle East peace conference if the PLO had accepted United Nations resolutions, renounced terrorism, and agreed to negotiate with Israel.

Politics and government
The United States Senate voted 85-9 to regard the February 7 Philippines presidential election as fraudulent. Embattled Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos threatened to use his powers "to the limit" to prevent turmoil.

Disasters
William Rogers, chairman of the presidential commission investigating the January 28 explosion of the U.S. space shuttle Challenger, said that Morton Thiokol Inc., manufacturer of rocket parts, had initially recommended against launching on January 28 because of the cold weather, but then had reversed its recommendation. The panel found that three key NASA officials had not been informed of Morton Thiokol’s initial recommendation not to launch.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 5 @ Edmonton 9

This blogger attended the game at Northlands Coliseum, but left after the 2nd period with the Oilers leading 7-2.

20 years ago
1991


War
U.S. General Norman Schwarzkopf said that the Iraqi forces were "on the verge of collapse." Lt. Gen. Thomas Kelly, chief of operations for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said "we are ready now" to attack on the ground.

Politics and government
Russian Federation President Boris Yeltsin called for the resignation of Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev. He criticized Mr. Gorbachev for wanting to hold on to the old system; for not wanting to grant independence to republics wanting it; and for leading the country to dictatorship under the name of "presidential rule."

10 years ago
2001


Health
A five-mile exclusion zone was placed around an abattoir in Essex, England after a suspected case of foot-and-mouth disease was detected.