Monday, 31 March 2014

March 31, 2014

240 years ago
1774


Politics and government
The Kingdom of Great Britain ordered the port of Boston, Massachusetts closed pursuant to the Boston Port Act.

160 years ago
1854


Diplomacy
Commodore Matthew Perry signed the Treaty of Kanagawa with the Japanese government, opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade.

Exploration
John Rae set out across Rae Isthmus for Pelly Bay in what is now Canada's Northwest Territories.

125 years ago
1889


Franciana
The Eiffel Tower was officially opened in paris, as French engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiffel unfurled the French flag from atop the tower to mark its completion.

100 years ago
1914


Born on this date
Octavio Paz
. Mexican poet and author. Mr. Paz was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1990. He died on April 19, 1998 at the age of 84.

Defense
Canada had 3,000 officers and men in the Permanent Force and 5,615 officers and 68,991 men in the militia.

Disasters
78 hunters died, many crippled by frostbite, in a two-day-long storm in Newfoundland when their sealing steamer, the Newfoundland, failed to pick them up due to mistaken orders.

75 years ago
1939


At the movies
The Hound of the Baskervilles, starring Basil Rathbone as Sherlock Holmes and Nigel Bruce as Doctor Watson, opened in theatres. It was the first of 14 movies featuring the two actors in their respective roles.

70 years ago
1944


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): You'll Never Know--Vera Lynn and Joe Loss (2nd month at #1)

Died on this date
Mineichi Koga, 58
. Japanese military officer. Admiral Koga, commander-in-chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy's Combined Fleet, was killed in a plane crash between Palau and Davao during a typhoon while overseeing the withdrawal of the Combined Fleet from its Palau headquarters.

War
The Royal Air Force's bomber command suffered its heaviest loss when 94 bombers of about 1,000 failed to return from a raid on Nuremberg. Nazi raids on the Anzio beachhead in Italy forced U.S. troops to retreat 1 1/2 miles southwest of Aprilia. Allied troops advanced about one mile and seized Mount Marrone, 13 miles northeast of Cassino. Soviet forces captured the Black Sea port of Ochakov, 38 miles east of Odessa. British forces abandoned their forward Burmese base of Tiddim, 100 miles south of Imphal in the Indian state of Manipur, in the face of Japanese assaults.

World events
The government of Colombia announced that "concerted revolutionary activity" had been suppressed in the town of Purification with the arrest of 75 people.

Politics and government
The U.S. congressional bill to allow absentee votes from members of the armed services became law without the signature of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who called the "states' rights" measure "inadequate," and asked its amendment to provide wider and freer use of the short federal ballot.

New York Governor Tom Dewey telephoned his supporters in Oregon to withdraw his name from the May 19 Republican party primary for the nomination for President of the United States in the November 1944 election.

Representative John Coffee (Democrat--Washington) accused Connecticut industrialist Vivien Kellems of treason and seditious conduct for urging businessmen not to pay income taxes.

Oil
The U.S.S.R. announced the cancellation of Japanese oil concessions in northern Sakhalin, 26 years in advance of treaty expiration, in view of "operations of our Allies in the Pacific."

60 years ago
1954


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Wir Wir Wir Haben Ein Klavier--Die Zehn Whiskys (1st month at #1)

Boxing
Sonny Liston (5-0) won a 6-round decision over Stanley Howlett (4-1) in a heavyweight bout at St. Louis Arena.

Basketball
NBA
Finals
Syracuse 68 @ Minneapolis 79 (Minneapolis led best-of-seven series 1-0)

50 years ago
1964


On television tonight
The Fugitive, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Never Stop Running, with guest stars Claude Akins, Joanna Moore, and Wright King

World events
A coup d'état in Brazil established a military government under the aegis of General Castello Branco.

Politics and government
Canada's federal and provincial governments began a four-day conference in Quebec City to discuss the Canada Pension Plan and tax equalization.

Literature
University of Toronto historian Donald Creighton and Quebec poet Alain Grandbois became the first recipients of the Canada Council's Molson Prize.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Semi-Finals
Montreal 3 @ Toronto 2 (Montreal led best-of-seven series 2-1)
Chicago 0 @ Detroit 3 (Detroit led best-of-seven series 2-1)

Henri Richard scored with 25 seconds remaining in regulation time as the Canadiens edged the Maple Leafs at Maple Leaf Gardens.

Terry Sawchuk, who had been forced to leave the previous game with a pinched nerve in his shoulder, was granted a six-hour leave by the doctors, and responded with the shutout, while Bruce MacGregor, Paul Henderson, and Alex Delvecchio scored as the Red Wings blanked the Black Hawks at Olympia Stadium.

Baseball
The Washington Senators traded minor league outfielder Lou Piniella to the Baltimore Orioles for pitcher Buster Narum.

40 years ago
1974


Football
WFL
The Toronto Northmen signed Miami Dolphins running backs Larry Csonka and Jim Kiick, and receiver Paul Warfield for the 1975 season. The three had helped the Miami Dolphins win the two most recent Super Bowls.

30 years ago
1984


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Ci Sarà--Albano Carrisi; Romina Power (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (VRT Top 30): Somebody's Watching Me--Rockwell

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Love Is a Battlefield--Pat Benatar (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Hello--Lionel Richie

#1 single in the U.K.: Hello--Lionel Richie (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Footloose--Kenny Loggins

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Footloose--Kenny Loggins
2 Somebody's Watching Me--Rockwell
3 Girls Just Want to Have Fun--Cyndi Lauper
4 Jump--Van Halen
5 I Want a New Drug--Huey Lewis and the News
6 Here Comes the Rain Again--Eurythmics
7 99 Luftballons--Nena
8 Automatic--Pointer Sisters
9 Eat It--"Weird Al" Yankovic
10 Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)--Phil Collins

Singles entering the chart were Rock You Like a Hurricane by the Scorpions (#84); I'm Stepping Out by John Lennon (#86); Give Me Tonight by Shannon (#89); and Love Has Finally Come at Last by Bobby Womack and Patti LaBelle (#90).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Girls Just Want to Have Fun--Cyndi Lauper
2 Jump--Van Halen
3 99 Red Balloons--Nena
4 Somebody's Watching Me--Rockwell
5 Thriller--Michael Jackson
6 Footloose--Kenny Loggins
7 I Want a New Drug--Huey Lewis and the News
8 Here Comes the Rain Again--Eurythmics
9 Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)--Phil Collins
10 Karma Chameleon--Culture Club

Singles entering the chart were Automatic by the Pointer Sisters (#44); Black Stations/White Stations by M + M (#45); and Rockit by Herbie Hancock (#50).

Died on this date
Joe L. Evins, 73
. U.S. politician. Mr. Evins, a Democrat, represented Tennessee's 4th District in the United States House of Representatives from 1953-1977.

Canadiana
One-legged runner Steve Fonyo dipped his artificial leg in St. John's Harbour to start a run across Canada to raise money for cancer research, and to honour the memory of his friend Terry Fox, whose cross-Canada run in 1980 was cut short when his cancer returned and took his life.

Defense
General Gustavo Alvarez Martinez, a key ally of the United States in Central America, resigned as commander of the Honduran armed forces, a move apparently related to corruption and his threat to the regime of President Roberto Suazo Cordova.

25 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): She Drives Me Crazy--Fine Young Cannibals (5th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Looking for Freedom--David Hasselhoff

20 years ago
1994


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Jos sulla on toinen--Taikapeili

World events
South African President F.W. de Klerk declared a state of emergency in the "homeland" of KwaZulu after almost two weeks of rioting had left 150 people dead.

Diplomacy
The Palestine Liberation Organization resumed talks with Israel after the latter agreed to permit the deployment of lightly-armed foreign observers in Hebron. The observers would have no power to settle disputes.

Science
The journal Nature reported the discovery in Ethiopia of the first complete Australopithecus afarensis skull.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported, in its final revision of gross domestic product for 1993, that the economy had grown at an annual rate of 7.0% during the last quarter of the year.

10 years ago
2004


War
In Fallujah, Iraq, four American private military contractors working for Blackwater USA were killed after being ambushed. Frenzied crowds dragged their burned, mutilated bodies and strung two of them from a bridge.

Economics and finance
About 50 nations pledged more than $4.4 billion in grants and loans to Afghanistan, with more than half coming from the United States.

Sunday, 30 March 2014

March 30, 2014

200 years ago
1814


War
Forces of the Sixth Coalition (United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, Russia, Portugal, Sweden, Spain, and a number of German states) marched into Paris.

In the War of 1812, British troops commanded by James Wilkinson defeated an American force of 4,000 troops at Lacolle, Lower Canada, forcing them to retreat to Plattsburg, New York.

180 years ago
1834


Politics and government
William Lyon Mackenzie was appointed the first mayor of Toronto by city council, defeating John Rolph.

170 years ago
1844


War
One of the most important battles of the Dominican War of Independence from Haiti took place near the city of Santiago de los Caballeros, when Dominican troops led by General José María Imbert defeated an outnumbering force of the Haitian Army led by General Jean-Louis Pierrot.

150 years ago
1864


Politics and government
Etienne-Paschal Taché formed the Taché-Macdonald government of Canada with John A. Macdonald.

140 years ago
1874


Politics and government
Louis Riel arrived in Hull, Quebec to claim his Canadian House of Commons seat representing the Manitoba riding of Provencher. He stayed in Hull rather than going to Ottawa because of a warrant for his arrest for the 1870 murder of Thomas Scott.

100 years ago
1914


Born on this date
Sonny Boy Williamson
. U.S. musician. Mr. Williamson, born John Lee Curtis Williamson, became known as the "father of modern blues harp," and was popular from 1937 until his death on June 1, 1948 at the age of 34 when he was beaten and robbed while walking home after a performance in Chicago.

70 years ago
1944


War
Allied bombers conducted their most severe bombing run on Sofia, Bulgaria. Along the east coast of England, 795 aircraft were despatched, including 572 Lancasters, 214 Halifaxes and 9 Mosquitos, for an Allied bombing run on Nuremberg. The bombers met resistance at the coasts of Belgium and the Netherlands from German fighters. Soviet forces captured Cernauti in northern Bukovina. U.S. troops occupied Pityilu Island in the Admiralty Islands.

Business
General Motors announced that sales in 1943 were a record $3,796,115,800, with 93.3% of the production in munitions.

Basketball
U.S. university
The University of Utah defeated St. John's University 43-36 to win the unofficial national college championship.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
The Montreal Canadiens erupted for 7 goals in the 3rd period as they embarrassed the Toronto Maple Leafs 11-0 at Maple Leaf Gardens to win their semi-final series 4 games to 1. The rout set a record for the most lopsided game in modern Stanley Cup history, and the Canadiens also set playoff records for the fastest 4 goals (2 minutes, 35 seconds) and fastest 5 goals (3 minutes, 36 seconds) by one team. Toe Blake scored at 7:58 of the 3rd period, and scored again at 8:37; he was followed by Maurice "Rocket" Richard (9:17); Ray Getliffe (10:33) and Buddy O'Connor (11:34). Doug Bentley scored 3 goals as the Chicago Black Hawks defeated the Detroit Red Wings to win their semi-final series 4 games to 1.

60 years ago
1954


On television tonight
Suspense, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Torment, starring Martin Kosleck and Luise Rainer

Transportation
Canada's first subway line opened, along Yonge Street in Toronto.

50 years ago
1964


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): If I Had a Hammer--Trini Lopez (9th week at #1)

On television tonight
The Outer Limits, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Fun and Games, starring Nick Adams, Nancy Malone, Robert Johnson, Bill Hart, and Charles MacQuarry

The U.S. game show Jeopardy, hosted by Art Fleming, was first broadcast on NBC.

Space
The mission of the Soviet satellite Cosmos 19, launched August 6, 1963, ended.

40 years ago
1974


Hit parade
#1 single in the Netherlands (Veronica Top 40): Tiger Feet--Mud

#1 single in the U.K.: Billy - Don't Be a Hero--Paper Lace (3rd week at #1)

Australia's top 10 (Go-Set)
1 My Coo Ca Choo--Alvin Stardust (2nd week at #1)
2 Farewell Aunty Jack--Grahame Bond
3 Sorrow--David Bowie
4 The Lord's Prayer--Sister Janet Mead
5 I Love You Love Me Love--Gary Glitter
6 Goodbye Yellow Brick Road--Elton John
7 The Joker--Steve Miller Band
8 Heartbeat - It's a Lovebeat--DeFranco Family
9 Smokin' in the Boy's Room--Brownsville Station
10 Daytona Demon--Suzi Quatro

Singles entering the chart were Hitch a Ride on a Smile by Jamie Redfern (#35) and You Won't Find Another Fool Like Me by the New Seekers (#37).

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Sunshine on My Shoulders--John Denver

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Sunshine on My Shoulders--John Denver
2 Dark Lady--Cher
3 Mockingbird--Carly Simon and James Taylor
4 Hooked on a Feeling--Blue Swede
5 Bennie and the Jets--Elton John
6 Jet--Paul McCartney & Wings
7 Rock On--David Essex
8 TSOP (The Sound of Philadelphia)--MFSB featuring the Three Degrees
9 Eres Tu (Touch the Wind)--Mocedades
10 The Lord's Prayer--Sister Janet Mead

Singles entering the chart were Don't You Worry 'Bout a Thing by Stevie Wonder (#76); Werewolf by the Five Man Electrical Band (#82); It Only Hurts When I Try to Smile by Tony Orlando & Dawn (#83); Summer Breeze (Part 1) by the Isley Brothers (#84); All in Love is Fair by Barbra Streisand (#86); Standing at the End of the Line by Lobo (#87); Goin' Down Slow by Bobby Blue Bland (#91); One Hell of a Woman by Mac Davis (#95); Loving Arms by Kris Kristofferson and Rita Coolidge (#98); No Charge by Melba Montgomery (#99); and Simone by Henry Gross (#100).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Rock On--David Essex
2 Dark Lady--Cher
3 Sunshine on My Shoulders--John Denver
4 Mockingbird--Carly Simon and James Taylor
5 Jet--Paul McCartney & Wings
6 Eres Tu (Touch the Wind)--Mocedades
7 Love Song--Anne Murray
8 Hooked on a Feeling--Blue Swede
9 The Lord's Prayer--Sister Janet Mead
10 Rock and Roll, Hoochie Koo--Rick Derringer

Singles entering the chart included Sundown by Gordon Lightfoot (#76); (I've Been) Searchin' So Long by Chicago (#79); Heavenly by the Temptations (#80); Werewolf by the Five Man Electrical Band (#87); It's Been a Long Time by New Birth (#88); Mr. Natural by the Bee Gees (#90); A Dream Goes On Forever by Todd Rundgren (#91); Might Just Take Your Life by Deep Purple (#92); Would You Lay with Me by Tanya Tucker (#93); Madelaine by Stu Nunnery (#94); Power of Love by Martha Reeves (#95); Dance with the Devil by Cozy Powell (#97); I'm a Train by Albert Hammond (#98); Homely Girl by the Chi-Lites (#99); and Stagger Lee by Teen Angel and the Rockin' Rebels (#100).

Calgary's top 10
1 The Lord's Prayer--Sister Janet Mead
2 Sunshine on My Shoulders--John Denver
3 Dark Lady--Cher
4 Jet--Paul McCartney & Wings
5 The Way We Were--Barbra Streisand
6 Jungle Boogie--Kool & The Gang
7 Eres Tu (Touch the Wind)--Mocedades
8 Rock and Roll, Hoochie Koo--Rick Derringer
9 You're Sixteen--Ringo Starr
10 Love's Theme--The Love Unlimited Orchestra
Pick hit of the week: Keep on Singing--Helen Reddy

30 years ago
1984


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Poi E--Patea Maori Club (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Relax--Frankie Goes to Hollywood (6th week at #1)

At the movies
Romancing the Stone, starring Kathleen Turner, Michael Douglas, and Danny DeVito, opened in theatres.

Died on this date
Lorne Anderson, 52
. Canadian hockey goaltender. Mr. Anderson spent many years in the minor leagues, but played 3 games with the New York Rangers in the 1951-52 season, averaging 6.00 goals against while posting a 1-2 record. In his final NHL game on March 23, 1952, Mr. Anderson gave up 3 goals to Billy Mosienko of the Chicago Black Hawks in a 21-second span, a record for the fastest 3 goals by a single player that still stands.

War
U.S. President Ronald Reagan formally ended U.S. participation in the multinational peacekeeping force in Beirut.

Defense
The United States restricted the sale to Iraq of five chemical compounds that could be used to make poison gases.

Economics and finance
The United States, Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, and a group of commercial banks agreed on a package of assistance that would permit Argentina to make a long-overdue interest payment to American banks. The sum of $500 million included $100 million of Argentina's own reserves.

20 years ago
1994


Football
NFL
Former University of Oklahoma head coach Barry Switzer was named as head coach of the Dallas Cowboys, succeeding Jimmy Johnson, who had resigned the previous day after leading the Cowboys to two straight Super Bowl championships.

10 years ago
2004


Died on this date
Alistair Cooke, 95
. U.K.-born U.S. journalist. Mr. Cooke began his career reporting on Britain to radio listeners in the U.S.A., but after emigrating to the United States in 1937, he spent the rest of his life reporting on the U.S.A. to British listeners until just a few weeks before his death. He hosted the television documentary series America: A Personal History of the United States in 1972, and hosted Masterpiece Theatre on PBS from 1971-1992.

Timi Yuro, 63. U.S. singer. Miss Yuro was best known for her version of Hurt, which reached #4 on the Billboard Hot 100 pop chart in 1961. Her other hits inclued Whats a Matter Baby (Is It Hurting You) (#12, 1962) and Make the World Go Away (#24, 1963).

Terrorism
Canadian Auditor General Sheila Fraser reported that, despite a plan to spend nearly $8 billion to improve national security, Canada's security agencies were failing to cooperate effectively to combat terrorism. She also cited vulnerabilities at airports and border crossings.

Saturday, 29 March 2014

March 29, 2014

125 years ago
1889


Born on this date
Warner Baxter
. U.S. actor and inventor. Mr. Baxter won the 1928-29 Academy Award for Best Actor for playing the Cisco Kid in In Old Arizona (1928), becoming the first to win the award for a sound film. He starred in the Crime Doctor series of 10 detective movies from 1943-1948. Mr. Baxter co-invented a revolving searchlight for use in law enforcement, and helped to develop a radio device to allow emergency vehicles to alter traffic signals from two blocks away. He died of pneumonia on May 7, 1951 at the age of 62.

70 years ago
1944


War
Allied forces withdrew from the eastern slopes of Mount Cassino in Italy, leaving the Nazis in control of all heights dominating the highway entering the Liri Valley. Nazi assaults at the Anzio beachhead were driven off. Soviet troops crossed the Prut River and reached the outskirts of Cernauti, capital of northern Bukovina. The U.S. Pacific Fleet attacked Japanese positions on the Palau Islands, 550 miles east of the Philippines, and Woleai and Yap Islands, east of the Palaus, destroying all enemy ships.

Diplomacy
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a bill authorizing American participation in the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration.

Politics and government
A report from the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Un-American Activities said that the Congress of Industrial Organizations' Committee for Political Action was Communist-dominated and that Sidney Hillman had replaced Earl Browder "as the Communist political leader in the United States."

Economics and finance
The U.S. Office of Price Administration announced the end of rationing for all frozen fruits and vegetables effective April 2.

Labour
Montgomery Ward & Company labour relations manager John Barr told the U.S. National War Labor Board that the firm would not obey a board directive to renew a contract with the Congress of Industrial Organizations United Retail, Wholesale and Warehouse Workers Union because it had pending a court decision to declare the directive illegal.

40 years ago
1974


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand: Baby Blue--George Baker Selection (4th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Dan the Banjo Man--Dan the Banjo Man

At the movies
The Great Gatsby, starring Robert Redford, Mia Farrow, Sam Waterston, Bruce Dern, Karen Black, and Wiliam Atherton, opened in theatres.

Radio
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation announced that it would gradually remove commercials from its AM stations.

Space
NASA's Mariner 10 became the first probe to fly by Mercury.

Archaeology
Local farmers in Lintong District, Xi'an, Shaanxi province, China, discovered the Terracotta Army sculptures that had been buried with Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China, in the 3rd century B.C.

Crime
One present member and seven former members of the Ohio National Guard were indicted by a U.S. federal grand jury in Cleveland with violating the civil rights of four students at Kent State University who had been killed and nine who had been wounded during protests at the campus on May 4, 1970. The grand jury did not find any evidence of conspiracy.

Disasters
2,000-5,000 people died in floods in Brazil that ended on this day. As many as 1,000 were killed in Tubaro in southern Brazil.

Basketball
ABA
Western Division playoff
San Diego 131 @ Denver 111 (San Diego won sudden-death playoff for fourth place)

The Conquistadors defeated the Rockets at Denver Coliseum in a playoff necessitated by the teams finishing tied for fourth place in the Western Division with records of 37-47. The Conquistadors moved on to play the first-place Utah Stars in the Western Division semi-finals.

30 years ago
1984


Labour
Lynn Williams of Toronto became the first Canadian to be elected president of the United Steelworkers of America.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the Index of Leading Economic Indicators had risen 0.7% in February.

Football
NFL
The Baltimore Colts moved all of their belongings from Owings Mills, Maryland to Indianapolis in a convoy of 12 moving vans that left in the middle of the night.

25 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Like a Prayer--Madonna (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Did I Tell You--Jerry Williams (6th week at #1)

Movies
The Academy Awards for 1988 were presented. Rain Man won for Best Picture (Mark Johnson, Producer); Director (Barry Levinson); Actor (Dustin Hoffman); and Original Screenplay (Ronald Bass and Barry Morrow). Other awards included: Actress--Jodie Foster (The Accused); Supporting Actor--Kevin Kline (A Fish Called Wanda); Supporting Actress--Geena Davis (The Accidental Tourist); Original Song--Let the River Run (Working Girl); Original Score--Dave Grusin (The Milagro Beanfield War); and Foreign Language Film--Pelle the Conqueror.

Terrorism
The leader of Belgium's Muslim community and a colleague were shot to death in Brussels. Two days later, a pro-Iranian terrorist group claimed that it had killed the leader because he had criticized the fatwa (legal judgment) of Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini against British author Salman Rushdie, whose novel The Satanic Verses (1988) was regarded as disrespectful toward the prophet Muhammad.

Environment
Five days after the U.S. tanker Exxon Valdez had spilled 240,000 barrels of oil into Prince William Sound in Alaska, the spill had extended to 45 miles.

Scandal
Michael Milken, head of the so-called "junk bond" division of the Wall Street investment firm Drexel Burnham Lambert, was indicted along with his brother and a third DBL employee on 98 counts of racketeering, mail fraud, securities fraud, and other criminal charges. The indictment charged that Mr. Milken had led a conspiracy to defraud DBL clients, shareholders, and the investing public. Mr. Milken, who had received $550 million in compensation from the firm in 1987, said that he would plead not guilty to all charges.

Former U.S. Attorney General Edwin Meese concluded two days of testimony at the trial of former National Security Council member Oliver North, who was facing 12 charges in relation to his involvement with the mid-1980s Iran-Contra arms-for-hostages scandal. Mr. Meese testified that as the scandal unfolded, the administration of President Ronald Reagan had feared the possibility that Mr. Reagan would be impeached.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the Index of Leading Economic Indicators had declined 0.3% in February.

20 years ago
1994


Died on this date
Bill Travers, 62
. U.K. actor. Mr. Travers was known for his starring roles in movies such as Bhowani Junction (1956) and Born Free (1966), the latter of which inspired him to spend the rest of his life as an animal welfare advocate.

Abominations
Evangelical and Roman Catholic leaders signed the joint declaration Evangelicals and Catholics Together: The Christian Mission in the 3rd Millennium. Dave Hunt provided an excellent commentary on the event in The Berean Call's May 1994 newsletter, The Gospel Betrayed.

War
Bosnian Serbs stepped up their bombardment of Gorazde, 35 miles southeast of Sarajevo, which they had first surrouned in May 1993. Gorazde had been intended to be one of six "safe areas" established under a United Nations agreement in May 1993, but few steps had been taken to protect the city.

Politics and government
Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon, who had served as Mexico's secretary of the budget and then as secretary of education, was chosen as the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)'s candidate in the upcoming presidential election, six days after the assassination of the PRI's previous candidate, Luis Donaldo Colosio Murrieta. A second suspect was arrested by Mexican federal agents in Tijuana.

Football
NFL
Jimmy Johnson, who had led the Dallas Cowboys to Super Bowl championships after the 1992 and 1993 seasons, resigned as the team's head coach. Mr. Johnson and team owner Jerry Jones had differing opinions over who was more responsible for the team's recent success.

10 years ago
2004


Defense
Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as full members.

Society
The Republic of Ireland became the first country in the world to ban smoking in all workplaces, including pubs and restaurants.

The state legislature of Massachusetts vorted 105-92 in faour of an amendment to create civil unions for sodomites and lesbians and ban same-sex "marriages."

Friday, 28 March 2014

March 28, 2014

1,650 years ago
364


Politics and government
Roman Emperor Valentinian I appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor.

810 years ago
1204


War
The Siege of Château Gaillard ended in a French victory over English forces under King John, who lost control of Normandy to King Philip II.

180 years ago
1834


Economics and finance
The United States Senate voted to censure President Andrew Jackson for the removal of federal deposits from the Bank of the United States.

160 years ago
1854


War
After Russia ignored an Anglo-French ultimatum to withdraw from the Danubian Principalities, France formally declared war on Russia.

125 years ago
1889


Died on this date
Hanna Johansdotter, 21, or 22. Swedish murder victim. Miss Johansdotter was murdered by her husband Per Nilsson and his mother Anna Månsdotter in Yngsjö, Sweden.

100 years ago
1914


Born on this date
Edmund Muskie
. U.S. politician. Mr. Muskie, a Democrat, was Governor of Maine from 1955-1959, represented Maine in the United States Senate from 1959-1980, and served as U.S. Secretary of State in the administration of President Jimmy Carter from 1980-1981. He was Vice President Hubert Humphrey's vice presidential nominee when Mr. Humphrey was the Democratic Party presidential candidate in 1968. Mr. Muskie was regarded as the favourite for the 1972 Democratic presidential nomination, but he performed poorly in caucuses, and his emotional reaction to attacks by the Manchester Union Leader on his wife hurt his campaign. He died on March 26, 1996, two days before his 82nd birthday.

Edward Anhalt. U.S. screenwriter. Mr. Anhalt won Academy Awards for his screenplays for Panic in the Streets (1950) and Becket (1964). He dies on September 3, 2000 at the age of 86.

75 years ago
1939


War
Nationalist forces commanded by Generalissimo Francisco Franco conquered Madrid after a three-year siege, effectively ending the Spanish Civil War.

70 years ago
1944


Died on this date
Stephen Leacock, 74
. U.K.-born Canadian humourist. Mr. Leacock was born in England but moved to Ontario with his family at the age of 6. He was a professor of political economy at McGill University and wrote the standard textbook Elements of Political Science (1936), but was better known for his humourous works, which were collected into books such as Literary Lapses (1910); Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town (1912); and Arcadian Adventures with the Idle Rich (1914). Groucho Marx and Jack Benny were both influenced by Mr. Leacock's writing. The Stephen Leacock Award was created in 1947 to recognize the best of Canadian humour writing.

War
Soviet forces captured Nikolayev on the Black Sea. In the Indian state of Manipur, heavy fighting broke out on the plain as British forces sought to throw back the Japanese invasion force, 35 miles northeast of Imphal.

Diplomacy
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt said that his declaration favouring a Jewish state in Palestine and disapproving of the British White Paper referred to future settlements, and was not in conflict with the U.S. War Department's desire that no action be taken now on the U.S. Senate resolution on the Jewish-Palestine question.

Terrorism
The Jewish organization Irgun Zvai Leumi admitted responsibility for the March 23 bombings in Jerusalem, Haifa, and Jaffa that had killed 6 British constables and injured 12 others.

Basketball
NCAA
Men's championship final @ Madison Square Garden, New York
Utah 42 Dartmouth 40

50 years ago
1964


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): I Saw Her Standing There/Love Me Do--The Beatles (7th week at #1)

#1 single in France: A Présent Tu Peux T'en Aller--Richard Anthony

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Una lacrima sul viso--Bobby Solo (6th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): I Want to Hold Your Hand--The Beatles (5th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Can't Buy Me Love--The Beatles

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): She Loves You--The Beatles (2nd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 She Loves You--The Beatles (2nd week at #1)
2 I Want to Hold Your Hand--The Beatles
3 Twist and Shout--The Beatles
4 Please Please Me--The Beatles
5 Dawn (Go Away)--The 4 Seasons
6 Fun, Fun, Fun--The Beach Boys
7 Hello, Dolly!--Louis Armstrong
8 My Heart Belongs to Only You--Bobby Vinton
9 Java--Al Hirt
10 Hi-Heel Sneakers--Tommy Tucker

Singles entering the chart were Can't Buy Me Love by the Beatles (#21); That's the Way Boys Are by Lesley Gore (#56); Ebb Tide by Lenny Welch (#66); The Matador by Major Lance (#74); Do You Want to Know a Secret (#75)/Thank You Girl (#91) by the Beatles; Giving Up on Love by Jerry Butler (#79); All My Loving by the Beatles (#80); My Girl Sloopy by the Vibrations (#81); Wish Someone Would Care by Irma Thomas (#89); (Just Like) Romeo and Juliet by the Reflections (#90); A Letter to the Beatles by the Four Preps (#92); You Lied to Your Daddy (#93)/It's All Right (You’re Just In Love) by the Tams (#97); You were Wrong by Z.Z. Hill (#95); Baby Baby Baby by Anna King and Bobby Byrd (#98); and Stand By Me by Cassius Clay (#100). Ebb Tide had originally been released in 1962, but hadn't made the chart. All My Loving, like Roll Over Beethoven (charting at #40), was released as a single on Capitol Records in Canada, but not in the U.S.A. The Beatles' popularity was so great that thousands of copies were imported into the U.S.A., selling enough copies to make the chart.

Space
The mission of Soviet satellite Cosmos 27 ended, the day after its launch.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Semi-Finals
Toronto 2 @ Montreal 1 (Best-of-seven series tied 1-1)
Detroit 5 @ Chicago 4 (Best-of-seven series tied 1-1)

Red Kelly and Frank Mahovlich scored in the 1st period, with each assisting on the other's goal, as the Maple Leafs edged the Canadiens at the Montreal Forum. Jean Beliveau scored the Montreal goal in the 2nd period.

Norm Ullman scored 3 goals and Marcel Pronovost and Gordie Howe each scored a goal as the Red Wings outlasted the Black Hawks at Chicago Stadium. Bill Hay and Eric Nesterenko each scored twice for the Black Hawks. Terry Sawchuk started in goal for Detroit and stopped 8 shots in the first 5 minutes and 25 seconds of the game, but was forced to leave at that point with a pinched nerve in his shoulder. Rookie Bob Champoux was pressed into action to replace him, and he made 14 saves in being credited with the win.

40 years ago
1974


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Cross Your Heart--Tina (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Dorothy Fields, 68
. U.S. songwriter. Miss Fields wrote lyrics to over 400 songs for plays and films. Her compositions included I Can't Give You Anything But Love; I'm in the Mood for Love; and On the Sunny Side of the Street. She and Jerome Kern won the Academy Award for Best Original Song for The Way You Look Tonight, from Swing Time (1936).

Arthur "Big Boy" Crudup, 68. U.S. musician. Mr. Crudup was a blues singer, songwriter, and guitarist from Mississippi who was active mainly in the 1940s. He's perhaps best known for writing and performing the songs That's All Right and My Baby Left Me, both of which were later covered by Elvis Presley.

Baseball
The Boston Red Sox released designated hitter Orlando Cepeda. The "Baby Bull," whose major league career had appeared to be over after the 1972 season because of knee injuries, made a strong comeback in the first year that the American League had used the designated hitter, batting .289 with 20 home runs and 86 runs batted in in 142 games in 1973, his only season with the Red Sox.

30 years ago
1984


Died on this date
Carmen Dragon, 69
. U.S. conductor and composer. Mr. Dragon conducted the Hollywood Bowl Symphony Orchestra for many years. He and Morris Stoloff shared the Academy Award for Best Music, Scoring of a Musical Picture for Cover Girl (1944). Mr. Dragon was the father of Daryl Dragon, the Captain of the duo Captain and Tennille, who had a string of hits on the pop charts from 1975-1980.

Labour
An Eaton's store in Brampton, Ontario granted union certification, the first in the company's 115-year history.

Disasters
A series of 24 tornadoes killed 61 people in North and South Carolina. 1,000 people were injured and 3,000 left homeless.

25 years ago
1989


On television tonight
The Wonder Years, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Fate

Music
Crowded House, with opening act Richard Thompson, performed at the Northern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium. This blogger paid $20.75 for his ticket and saw fine performances from both artists.

20 years ago
1994


Hit parade
Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 The Sign--Ace of Base (2nd week at #1)
2 Mr. Jones--Counting Crows
3 Streets of Philadelphia--Bruce Springsteen
4 Without You--Mariah Carey
5 Return to Innocence--Enigma
6 Rock and Roll Dreams Come Through--Meat Loaf
7 Now and Forever--Richard Marx
8 Hasn't Hit Me Yet--Blue Rodeo
9 High Road Easy--Sass Jordan
10 Swimming in Your Ocean--Crash Test Dummies

Singles entering the chart were I'll Remember by Madonna (#52); Dreams by the Cranberries (#75); Misled by Celine Dion (#83); All American Girl by Melissa Etheridge (#97); Call it Romance by Gogh Van Go (#88); Keep Talking by Pink Floyd (#91); and Song of the Land by Susan Aglukark (#93). I'll Remember was from the movie With Honors (1994).

Radio
BBC Radio 5 was closed and replaced with a new news and sports station, BBC Radio 5 Live.

War
Fighting in Johannesburg among Zulu nationalists, the African National Congress, and the police claimed 53 lives and wounded 300. It was reported that the dispute over the future of the Zulus had left more than 150 dead in the province of Natal over the previous 11 days.

Politics and government
Two days of voting concluded in the first general election in Italy since the adoption of a new electoral law that had been approved in reaction to widespread corruption. Under the new rules, 3/4 of the seats in both houses of parliament were to be filled from single-seat constituencies, with the remainder assigned proportionally based on the relative popular strength of the parties. The Alliance for Freedom, a coalition of three conservative parties, obtained 43% of the vote for the Chamber of Deputies (the lower house), with half of that going to Forzia Italiana, led by Silvio Berlusconi, who had promised to cut taxes. The smallest of the conservative coalition parties, the National Alliance, widelay regarded as neo-Fascist, captured 8% of the vote. The Communist-dominated Progressive Alliance took 34% of the vote, and a centrist party coalition led by the Popular Party (formerly the Christian Democrats) took 16% of the vote.

10 years ago
2004


Died on this date
Peter Ustinov, 82
. U.K.-born actor, playwright, and director. Sir Peter won Academy Awards for his supporting performances in Spartacus (1960) and Topkapi (1964), and was nominated for his supporting performance in Quo Vadis (1951) and, with Ira Wallach, for the original screenplay for Hot Millions (1968). His best-known play was Romanoff and Juliet (1956); he wrote, directed, and starred in the movie version (1961). Mr. Ustinov spent many years as an ambassador for the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and served as president of the World Federalist Movement.

Terrorism
More than 40 people were killed in bombings in the Uzbekistani capital of Tashkent and the city of Bukhara. President Islam Karimov blamed Islamic terrorists.

Thursday, 27 March 2014

March 27, 2014

220 years ago
1794


Diplomacy
Denmark and Sweden formed a neutrality compact.

Defense
The United States Government established a permanent navy and authorized the building of six frigates, including the Constitution ("Old Ironsides").

200 years ago
1814


War
U.S. forces under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Creek Indians in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in central Alabama.

175 years ago
1839


Born on this date
John Ballance
. Irish-born New Zealand politician. Mr. Ballance emigrated to New Zealand at the age of 27. He founded the Liberal Party and served as leader of the opposition from 1889-1891 and as Prime Minister from 1891 until his death at the age of 54 on April 27, 1893 after an operation for an intestinal disease.

160 years ago
1854


War
The United Kingdom entered the Crimean War by declaring war on Russia.

130 years ago
1884


Technology
The first long-distance telephone call was made, between Boston and New York.

Protest
A mob in Cincinnati attacked members of a jury who had returned a verdict of manslaughter in a clear case of murder, beginning four days of rioting that destroyed the courthouse and resulted in over 50 deaths.

125 years ago
1889


Died on this date
John Bright, 77
. U.K. politician. Mr. Bright, a Liberal, sat in the House of Commons from 1843 until his death. He founded the Anti-Corn Law League, aimed at abolishing the laws that were seen as unfairly protecting the interests of landowners. Mr. Bright supported free trade, electoral reform, and religious freedom, and was opposed to England's involvement in the Crimean War.

100 years ago
1914


Born on this date
Richard Denning
. U.S. actor. Mr. Denning, born Louis Albert Heindrich Denninger, Jr., co-starred with Lucille Ball in the radio comedy series My Favorite Husband (1948-1951), and then starred in science fiction and horror movies, including Creature from the Black Lagoon (1954). He died on October 11, 1998 at the age of 84.

Budd Schulberg. U.S. author. Mr. Schulberg was best known for his novels What Makes Sammy Run? (1941), The Disenchanted (1950), and The Harder They Fall (1947), and the screenplays for On the Waterfront (1954)--for which he won an Academy Award--and A Face in the Crowd (1957). He died on August 5, 2009 at the age of 95.

90 years ago
1924


Diplomacy
Canada recognized the U.S.S.R.

80 years ago
1934


Died on this date
Francis William Reitz, 89
. South African lawyer and politician. Mr. Reitz held various positions in his long legal and political career, including Chief Justice of the Orange Free Stae (1876-1889); State President of the Orange Free State (1889-1895); State Secretary of the South African Republic (1898-1902); and President of the Senate of the Union of South Africa (1910-1921).

75 years ago
1939


Basketball
NCAA
Men's championship final
Oregon won the first NCAA tournament with a 46-33 victory over Ohio State at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois.

70 years ago
1944


On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on MBS
Tonight's episode: The Haunted Bagpipes

War
A fourth column of Japanese troops entered the Indian state of Manipur fro teh Sumra jungle area on the Burmese border. Three German attacks on the Allied beachhead at Anzio were reulsed. The Polish Telegraph Agency announced that underground leaders in Poland had been instructed to get in touch with Soviet military leaders "to coordinate military operations against the Germans.

Music
A $90,000 suit by Operas on Tour against American Federation of Musicians president James C. Petrillo was announced in New York. The suit alleged that Mr. Petrillo had interfered with the plaintiff's efforts to present grand opera through recordings.

Literature
The American Academy of Arts and Letters announced that its Award of Merit and $1,000 cash prize would go to novelist Theodore Dreiser.

Law
The U.S. Supreme Court refused to review the conviction of German-born journalist and propgagandist George S. Viereck under the Foreign Agents Registration Act.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Supreme Court sustained the power of the Office of Price Administration to fix ceiling prices on meats and rents.

Labour
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that miners must be paid for time spent going from the face of the mine to working places.

60 years ago
1954


Hit Parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Rags to Riches--Tony Bennett (5th week at #1)

#1 singles in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Make Love to Me--Jo Stafford (Best Seller--2nd week at #1; Jukebox--3rd week at #1); Secret Love--Doris Day (Disc Jockey--4th week at #1)

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Secret Love--Doris Day (4th week at #1)
2 Make Love to Me--Jo Stafford
3 Wanted--Perry Como
4 Stranger in Paradise--Tony Bennett
--The Four Aces
--Tony Martin
5 Young at Heart--Frank Sinatra
6 I Get So Lonely (When I Dream About You)--The Four Knights
7 From the Vine Came the Grape--The Gaylords
--The Hilltoppers
8 Cross Over the Bridge--Patti Page
9 Oh, Mein Papa (Oh! My Pa-Pa)--Eddie Fisher
--Eddie Calvert
10 Answer Me, My Love--Nat "King" Cole

Singles entering the chart were A Girl, A Girl (Zoom-Ba Di Alli Nella) by Eddie Fisher (#16); Such a Night, with versions by Johnnie Ray and Bunny Paul (#28); Cleo and Meo by the Four Lads and Jill Corey (#34); You'll Never Walk Alone by Roy Hamilton (#35); Am I in Love by Joni James (#37); Trumpet Sorrento by Frankie Avalon (#42); I Really Don't Want to Know by Les Paul and Mary Ford (#43); Heidelberg by Hugo Winterhalter and his Orchestra (#44); and Long Distance Love by Frankie Laine (#46). A Girl, A Girl (Zoom-Ba Di Alli Nella) was the B-side (or maybe the A-side) of Anema e Core (With All My Heart And Soul), which charted at #29. Am I in Love was the B-side (or maybe the A-side) of Maybe Next Time, which charted at #47. You'll Never Walk Alone was the first single by Mr. Hamilton. Trumpet Sorrento was the first single for Mr. Avalon, who was 13 years old at the time.

50 years ago
1964


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): I Love You Because--Jim Reeves

On television tonight
Twilight Zone, hosted by Rod Serling, on CBS
Tonight's episode: I Am the Night--Color Me Black, starring Michael Constantine, Eve McVeagh, Paul Fix, George Lindsey, Ivan Dixon, and Terry Becker

The Alfred Hitchcock Hour, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Behind the Locked Door, starring Gloria Swanson, James MacArthur, Lynn Loring, and Whit Bissell

Space
The U.S.S.R. launched the satellite Cosmos 27. The mission of the Soviet satellite Cosmos 23, launched December 13, 1963, ended.

The U.K./U.S.A. satellite Ariel 2 was launched. Its mission was to measure galactic radio noise, vertical distribution of ozone, and micrometeoroid flux.

Defense
The first Canadians started duties with a United Nations peacekeeping force in Cyprus.

Disasters
The Good Friday Earthquake, the most powerful in U.S. history at a magnitude of 9.2 on the Richter scale, struck south-central Alaska 80 miles east of Anchorage, killing 125 people and inflicting massive damage to the city of Anchorage.

40 years ago
1974


Hit parade
#1 single in Switzerland: Tchip Tchip--Cash & Carry (2nd week at #1)

Scandal
A report on U.S. President Richard Nixon's role in the June 1972 break-in at the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. and the subsequent cover-up was delivered to the House of Representatives Judiciary Committee, which was exploring the possibility of impeachment proceedings against the President. Presidential Press Secretary Ron Ziegler said that some of the 42 tapes of White House conversations requested by the committee may not exist.

Oil
Canada's federal and provincial governments agreed that the price of domestic crude oil would rise from $4-$6.50 per barrel.

Baseball
The Montreal Expos traded catcher John Boccabella to the San Francisco Giants for relief pitcher Don Carrithers. Mr. Boccabella had been with the Expos since being selected in the National League expansion draft in 1968. He was coming off his best season, in which he had played in a career-high 118 games, batting .233 with 7 home runs and 46 runs batted in. On July 6, 1973, Mr. Boccabella had tied a major league record by hitting 2 home runs in the same inning. Mr. Carrithers had spent 4 seasons with the Giants, and had appeared in 25 games in 1973, with a record of 1-2 and an earned run average of 4.81.

30 years ago
1984


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Radio Ga Ga--Queen (4th week at #1)

Politics and government
U.S. Senator Gary Hart (Colorado) won the Connecticut primary in the contest for the Democratic party nomination for President of the United States in the November 1984 election.

25 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Australian Music Report): She Drives Me Crazy--Fine Young Cannibals

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Like a Prayer--Madonna (3rd week at #1)

Died on this date
May Allison, 98
. Miss Allison was a star in the early days of silent films, and was romantically teamed with Harold Lockwood in 25 movies from 1915-1918, becoming Hollywood's first popular on-screen romantic team, until Mr. Lockwood died in the influenza epidemic in 1918. Miss Allison retired from movies after The Telephone Girl (1927).

Scandal
William Parkin, a defense consultant, pleaded guilty to bribing a public official, wire fraud, and fraud conspiracy in connection with a plan to help Teledyne Electronics obtain a U.S. Air Force contract. The official who received the bribe, U.S. Navy contract specialist Stuart Berlin, had pleaded guilty on March 23 to wire fraud and receiving bribes.

20 years ago
1994


Hit parade
#1 single in Austria (Ö3): All For Love--Bryan Adams, Rod Stewart, and Sting (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Move on Baby--Cappella (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K.: Doop--Doop (3rd week at #1)

Defense
The European Fighter Aircraft made its maiden flight in Germany, two years later than expected.

10 years ago
2004


Died on this date
Art James, 74
. U.S. television host. Mr. James, born Artur Simeonvich Elimchik, acted as host or announcer for more than a dozen television game shows from the late 1950s through the 1990s.

Adán Sánchez, 19. U.S. singer. Mr. Sánchez was the son of singer Chalino Sánchez, who was kidnapped and murdered in Mexico in 1992. Adán began his recording career at the age of 10 and acquired a large following of Mexican-American young people. He was killed in a car accident 18 days before his 20th birthday, while on tour in Mexico; 15,000 fans jammed the streets of Norwalk, California to attend his wake five days later.

Defense
HMS Scylla, a decommissioned Leander class Royal Navy frigate, was sunk as an artificial reef off Cornwall, the first of its kind in Europe.

Wednesday, 26 March 2014

March 26, 2014

670 years ago
1344


War
The Siege of Algeciras by the Castillian forces of King Alfonso XI of Spain, assisted by the fleets of the Kingdom of Aragon and the Republic of Genoa, came to an end. It was one of the first European military engagements where gunpowder was used.

530 years ago
1484


Literature
William Caxton printed his translation of Aesop's Fables.

175 years ago
1839


Sport
The first Henley Royal Regatta was held on the River Thames in England.

100 years ago
1914


Born on this date
William Westmoreland
. U.S. military officer. General Westmoreland commanded U.S. military operations in the Vietnam War from 1964-1968, and served as U.S. Army Chief of Staff from 1968-1972. He was commander of military operations in Vietnam when North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces launched the Tet offensive early in 1968, and caught U.S. and South Vietnamese forces by surprise. The attack was eventually repelled, but Gen. Westmoreland bore the brunt of much of the criticism for being caught off guard, and his appointment as Chief of Staff in June 1968 was seen by many as punishment. He died on July 18, 2005 at the age of 91.

Edmontonia
300 members of the Edmonton Industrial Association adopted the slogan "City Beautiful," and EIA president William Magrath announced a prize of $50 in gold to anyone writing a song about the city, to be sung at the association's gatherings.

80 years ago
1934


Britannica
The driving test was introduced in the United Kingdom.

75 years ago
1939


War
Nationalist forces began their final offensive of the Spanish Civil War.

70 years ago
1944


War
Soviet forces drove German forces back to the Romanian border along a 53-mile front. British commandos reached a point 147 miles from Myitkyina, the main Japanes base above the Burma Road.

Politics and government
The Greek government-in-exile rejected suggestions of the guerrilla group National Liberation Front to broaden the government to include the NLF.

U.S. Representative Martin Dies (Democrat--Texas), chairman of the House of Representatives Committee on Un-American Activities, assailed newspaper columnist and radio broadcaster Walter Winchell as the "tool" of an organized movement to undermine the prestige of Congress. In response, Mr. Winchell challenged Rep. Dies to take his case to court.

Basketball
U.S. University
The St. John's University Redmen, coached by Joe Lapchick, defeated DePaul 47-39 at Madison Square Garden in New York to become the first back-to-back winner of the National Invitation Tournament.

60 years ago
1954


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): I See the Moon--The Stargazers (3rd week at #1)

50 years ago
1964


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand: Needles and Pins--The Searchers

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): Little Children--Billy J. Kramer with the Dakotas (2nd week at #1)

Edmonton's top 10 (CJCA)
1 All My Loving--The Beatles (3rd week at #1)
2 Twist and Shout--The Beatles
3 Can't Buy Me Love--The Beatles
4 Kissin' Cousins--Elvis Presley
5 She Loves You--The Beatles
6 This Boy--The Beatles
7 I Want to Hold Your Hand--The Beatles
8 One Minute to One--Rick Nelson
9 Please Please Me--The Beatles
10 White on White--Danny Williams
Pick hit of the week: Can't Buy Me Love--The Beatles
New this week: The Brotherhood of Man--The Chumingbirds
Bits and Pieces--The Dave Clark Five
The Closest Thing to Heaven--Neil Sedaka
Today--The New Christy Minstrels
Barbara Allen--Dave Dudley
(The Best Part Of) Breakin' Up--The Ronettes

This Boy was the B-side of All My Loving. The Chumingbirds were sponsored by Toronto radio station CHUM. Today was from the movie Advance to the Rear (1964).

Theatre
The musical Funny Girl, starring Barbra Streisand, Sydney Chaplin, Roger De Koven, and Jean Stapleton, opened at the Winter Garden Theatre on Broadway in New York City.

Defense
Canadian Defence Minister Paul Hellyer announced plans to integrate the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, and Royal Canadian Air Force into one service.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Semi-Finals
Toronto 0 @ Montreal 2 (Montreal led best-of-seven series 1-0)
Detroit 1 @ Chicago 4 (Chicago led best-of-seven series 1-0)

Bernie "Boom Boom" Geoffrion and Ralph Backstrom scored for the Canadiens and Charlie Hodge provided shoutout goaltending as the Canadiens blanked the Maple Leafs at the Montreal Forum. Mr. Geoffrion's goal came while the Maple Leafs were shorthanded, but shouldn't have been. Penalty box timekeeper George Ogg detained Dave Keon 33 seconds longer than he should have, erroneously believing that the time on Mr. Keon's penalty should have begun later. NHL President Clarence Campbell disallowed the Toronto protest on the grounds that there was no rule to cover such a situation and that Mr. Ogg had made an honest mistake.

Murray Balfour scored the winning goal at 8:21 of the 3rd period as the Black Hawks beat the Red Wings at Chicago Stadium.

40 years ago
1974


Hit parade
#1 single in France: Titi à la neige--Tweety & Sylvester (8th week at #1)

Education
Henry Grant, a grade 8 "student" who had never put in more than 2 1/2 days in any week at Yellowknife Public School since arriving from elsewhere several months earlier, was expelled. The last straw came in that afternoon's Grade 8 French class when he threw a Life Saver (the candy, that is) at the teacher, Mr. Pilkington. This blogger was in attendance.

Law
Abortionist Henry Morgentaler's acquittal was overturned by the Quebec Appeal Court in spite of the jury's verdict that he was not guilty of violating the Criminal Code of Canada's restrictions on abortion; the decision was later upheld by the Supreme Court of Canada.

Protest
Gaura Devi led a group of 27 women of Laata village, Henwalghati, Garhwal Himalayas, India to form circles around trees to stop them being felled, giving rise to the Chipko Movement in India.

Crime
The program of distribution of food to the poor in California enacted by San Francisco Examiner publisher Randolph Hearst in order to win the freedom of his daughter Patty, who had been kidnapped by Symbionese Liberation Army terrorists on February 4, ran out of money. Mr. Hearst said that the program would be resumed with an additional $4 million if Miss Hearst were released unharmed.

Police in St. Paul, Minnesota reported that all but $80 of a $200,000 ransom paid for the release of the wife of St. Paul bank president Gunnar Kronholm had been recovered. Mrs. Kronholm had been kidnapped from her home on March 15, and released unharmed three days later. James William Johnson, a local contractor, had been charged with the kidnapping.

Boxing
George Foreman (40-0) retained his world heavyweight title with a technical knockout of Ken Norton (30-3) at 2 minutes of the 2nd round at El Poliedro in Caracas. Mr. Norton was knocked down 3 times.

Baseball
The Los Angeles Dodgers released outfielder Tommie Agee, ending the outfielder's 12-year major league career. After brief trials with the Cleveland Indians from 1962-1965, Mr. Agee was traded to the Chicago White Sox in 1966, and was named the American League Rookie of the Year, batting .273 with 22 home runs, 86 runs batted in, and 44 stolen bases. He was traded to the New York Mets in 1968, and was a key player with their World Series championship team in 1969, batting .271 with 26 homers and 76 RBIs, and making several great catches in center field in the World Series against the Baltimore Orioles. Mr. Agee was traded to the Houston Astros in 1973, and hit .235 with 8 home runs and 15 runs batted in in 83 games before being traded to the St. Louis Cardinals on August 18. He hit just .177 with 3 homers and 7 RBIs in 26 games, and was traded to the Dodgers for relief pitcher Pete Richert on December 5. Mr. Agee saw little action in spring training games with Los Angeles in 1974. In 12 seasons in the major leagues, Mr. Agee batted .255 with 999 hits, 130 home runs, 433 runs batted in, and 167 stolen bases in 1,129 games.

30 years ago
1984


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Girls Just Want to Have Fun--Cyndi Lauper (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Thriller--Michael Jackson (6th week at #1)

Died on this date
Bora Laskin, 71
. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1974-1984. Mr. Laskin, a professor from Toronto, was a Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada from 1970-1973 and Chief Justice from 1973 until his death. Despite being the junior member of the Supreme Court, he was appointed Chief Justice by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, violating the tradition of the Chief Justice being the senior member of the Court. The snior Justice at the time was an Albertan, Ronald Martland. Indicative of Mr. Trudeau's meanness was the fact that he forced Justice Martland to swear Mr. Laskin into the position that he should have held. Perhaps the Supreme Court's most notable decision under Chief Justice Laskin came in 1981, when the Court ruled that Mr. Trudeau's attempt to unilaterally patriate the Constitution without the input of the provinces was technically legal, but would violate a tradition that had developed. Mr. Trudeau then began a new round of negotiations with provincial governments, which proved successful in realizing his aims.

Ahmed Sékou Touré, 62. 1st President of Guinea, 1958-1984. Mr. Touré, who became leader of the Democratic Party of Guinea in 1952, was one of the leaders of Guinea's move from French colony to independent nation. As President, he pursued an economic policy based on Marxism, and was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1961. Mr. Touré's administration was an example of Winston Churchill's description of black African politics as "One man, one vote, one time." He died in Cleveland, Ohio where he had been rushed after being struck by a heart problem the previous day while in Saudi Arabia. Mr. Touré was succeeded as acting President by Prime Minister Louis Lansana Béavogui, pending elections that were to be held within 45 days.

Crime
Four male Portuguese immigrants were handed prison sentences of 6-8 years and 9-12 years by Judge William Young in Fall River, Massachusetts after being convicted in two separate trials of aggravated rape for the 1983 gang rape of a woman in a bar in New Bedford, Massachusetts.

25 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in Switzerland: Something's Gotten Hold of My Heart--Marc Almond featuring Gene Pitney (4th week at #1)

Politics and government
An election was held in the U.S.S.R. for 1,500 seats in the new Congress of People's Deputies, marking the first time since 1917 that voters in the Soviet Union were able to participate in a nationwide multicandiate parliamentary election. Boris Yeltsin, who had lost his position as leader of the Moscow Communist Party because of outspoken criticism of party hard-liners, captured 89% of the vote against the Communist Party favourite in winning Moscow's at-large seat. Elsewhere, radical reformers and ethnic nationalists defeated Communist Party regulars in many districts, and many other Communist stalwarts who ran unopposed failed to win election because they failed to obtain at least 50% of the vote.

20 years ago
1994


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): It's Alright--East 17 (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Denmark (Nielsen Music Control & IFPI): Look Who's Talking--Dr. Alban

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): La solitudine--Laura Pausini (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Right in the Night--Jam & Spoon (5th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): The Sign--Ace of Base (3rd week at #1)

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box):
1 The Sign--Ace of Base (2nd week at #1)
2 Without You--Mariah Carey
3 The Power of Love--Celine Dion
4 So Much in Love--All-4-One
5 Bump N' Grind--R. Kelly
6 Now and Forever--Richard Marx
7 Gin and Juice--Snoop Doggy Dogg
8 Whatta Man--Salt-N-Pepa with En Vogue
9 Cantaloop (Flip Fantasia)--Us3
10 Streets of Philadelphia--Bruce Springsteen

Singles entering the chart were Because of Love by Janet Jackson (#11); March of the Pigs by Nine Inch Nails (#38); Return to Innocence by Enigma (#51); Player's Ball by Outkast (#53); A Deeper Love by Aretha Franklin (#56); Love Sneakin' Up on You by Bonnie Raitt (#57); Mass Appeal by Gang Starr (#59); You Don't Love Me (No, No, No) by Dawn Penn (#61); Since I Don't Have You by Guns N' Roses (#62); Somethin' to Ride To (Fonky Expedition) by Conscious Daughters (#64); Electric Relaxation (Relax Yourself Girl) by Tribe Called Quest (#66); and Come to My Window by Melissa Etheridge (#81).

10 years ago
2004


Died on this date
Jan Sterling, 82
. U.S. actress. Miss Sterling was nominated for an Academy Award for her supporting performance in The High and the Mighty (1954). Her other movies included Johnny Belinda (1948) and Ace in the Hole (1951). Miss Sterling died eight days before her 83rd birthday.

Jan Berry, 62. U.S. singer and record producer. Mr. Berry was half of the pop singing duo Jan & Dean, who had a string of hit singles from 1959-1966, most notably Surf City, which reached #1 on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart in 1963. In addition to writing and producing Jan & Dean's records, Mr. Berry was a medical student, but these activities came to an end when he suffered serious brain damage in a car accident on April 12, 1966. He briefly returned to the recording studio a few years later, and he and Dean resumed performing as a nostalgia act from 1978 through the 1990s. Mr. Berry died eight days before his 63rd birthday.

War
Eight Pakistani soldiers taken hostage by foreign terrorists in the South Waziristan region of the country were found dead, believed to have been executed.

Crime
Quebec radio personality Robert Gillet was convicted of having sex with an underage prostitute. He said he thought the girl was of legal age, and he was the star witness in the case of an alleged teen prostitution ring that resulted in charges against 43 men.

Monday, 24 March 2014

March 25, 2014

430 years ago
1584


Americana
Sir Walter Raleigh was granted a patent to colonize Virginia.

380 years ago
1634


Americana
The first settlers sent by Lord Baltimore arrived in Maryland.

175 years ago
1839


Diplomacy
A truce was called in the damaging Aroostook, New Brunswick lumber war over the New Brunswick boundary with Maine; an agreement was later signed by Lord Ashburton and Daniel Webster.

120 years ago
1894


Protest
"Coxey's Army", consisting of unemployed men and led by Ohio businessman Jacob Coxey, departed Massillon, Ohio for Washington, D.C. to demand help from the federal government during a time of economic depression. It was the first significant American protest march.

100 years ago
1914


Born on this date
Norman Borlaug
. U.S. agronomist. Dr. Borlaug introduced high-yield, disease-resistant varieties of wheat into Mexico, and then into Pakistan and India, pioneering what became known as the "Green Revolution." As a result, Dr. Borlaug was called "The man who saved a billion lives." He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970, the U.S. Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977, and the Congressional Gold Medal in 2007, becoming one of seven people to win all three honours. Dr. Borlaug died on September 12, 2009 at the age of 95.

Died on this date
Frédéric Mistral, 83
. French poet and lexicographer. Mr. Mistral shared the 1904 Nobel Prize for Literature with Spanish dramatist José Echegaray. Mr. Mistral won for his efforts to restore Occitan, the historic language of the French region of Provence. His most important work was his 12-song poem Mirèio (Mireille) (1859).

90 years ago
1924


World events
On the anniversary of Greek Independence, and ten days after taking office as Prime Minister as leader of the Agricultural and Labour Party, Alexandros Papanastasiou proclaimed the Second Hellenic Republic. The action was submitted to the approval of the population in a referendum scheduled for April 13.

Hockey
Stanley Cup
Calgary Tigers (WCHL) 0 Montreal Canadiens (NHL) 3 @ Ottawa (Montreal won 2-game, total goals series 9-1)

Howie Morenz, Aurel Joliat, and Bill Boucher scored for the Canadiens and Georges Vezina posted the shutout in goal. The game was played on artificial ice in Ottawa because of the poor condition of the natural ice at Mount Royal Arena in Montreal. The Canadiens had defeated the Pacific Coast Hockey Association champion Vancouver Millionaires before playing the Western Canada Hockey League champion Tigers and defeating them to win the Stanley Cup.

80 years ago
1934


Golf
Horton Smith won the first Masters tournament--then known as the Augusta National Invitational tournament--at Augusta National Club in Augusta, Georgia, shooting an even par 72 in the final round to finish with a score of 284, 4 under par. Tournament founder Bobby Jones came out of retirement and finished 10 strokes behind Mr. Smith. First prize money was $1,500.

70 years ago
1944


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Bésame Mucho (Kiss Me Much)--Jimmy Dorsey and his Orchestra (4th week at #1)

Edmontonia
Edmonton's city council authorized the city's first campaign to attempt to exterminate mosquitoes.

War
Soviet forces made new gains in Ukraine, reaching the outskirts of the Black Sea port of Nikolayev and the Dniester River along a 50-mile front north of Cernauti and Proskurov. U.S. and Chinese troops took Shaduzup in northern Burma, in a blow at the east flank of Japanese forces in the Mogaung Valley.

Politics and government
U.S. Senator Tom Connally (Democrat--Texas) revealed that Secretary of State Cordell Hull had suggested that a congressional committee be established to consult with the State Department on a postwar peace organization.

Labour
Congress of Industrial Orgainzations steel workers presented a brief to the U.S. National War Labor Board demanding a fixed annual wage based upon a 40-hour week.

50 years ago
1964


Died on this date
Charles Benjamin Howard, 78
. Canadian politician. Mr. Howard, a member of the Liberal Party, represented Sherbrooke in the House of Commons from 1925-1940 before being appointed to the Senate, where he represented Wellington from 1940 until his death. He also served as mayor of Sherbrooke in 1950-1951.

40 years ago
1974


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): My Coo Ca Choo--Alvin Stardust (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): La Distancia--Roberto Carlos (2nd week at #1)

30 years ago
1984


Hit parade
#1 single in France: Street Dance--Break Machine (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Relax--Frankie Goes to Hollywood (4th week at #1)

War
France began withdrawing its last 1,250 troops from Beirut.

Politics and government
Incumbent Jose Napoleon Duarte of the centrist Christian Democratic Party received 43% of the vote in the first round of voting in the Salvadoran presidential election, with rightist candidate Roberto D'Aubuisson running second with 30%. An absolute majority was required for victory. Rebels succeeded in preventing voting in areas of El Salvador under their control.

25 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): Like a Prayer--Madonna

#1 single in France (SNEP): Pour toi Arménie--Charles Aznavour and various artists (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Esatto--Francesco Salvi (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Alles kan een mens gelukkig maken--René Froger

#1 single in the U.K.: Like a Prayer--Madonna

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): The Living Years--Mike + the Mechanics

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 The Living Years--Mike + the Mechanics (2nd week at #1)
2 Eternal Flame--Bangles
3 Girl You Know it's True--Milli Vanilli
4 Paradise City--Guns 'N' Roses
5 My Heart Can't Tell You No--Rod Stewart
6 Lost in Your Eyes--Debbie Gibson
7 The Look--Roxette
8 Walk the Dinosaur--Was (Not Was)
9 You're Not Alone--Chicago
10 She Drives Me Crazy--Fine Young Cannibals

Singles entering the chart were Rock On by Michael Damian (#80); Do You Believe in Shame? by Duran Duran (#83); I Only Wanna Be with You by Samantha Fox (#85); Soldier of Love by Donny Osmond (#87); Voices of Babylon by Outfield (#89); and Working on It by Chris Rea (#92).

Environment
Exxon Corporation announced that it accepted full financial responsibility for the previous day's oil spill from the tanker Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

20 years ago
1994


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Sleeping in My Car--Roxette (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Streets of Philadelphia--Bruce Springsteen

War
The last U.S. peacekeeping forces left the Somali capital of Mogadishu, though about 50 soldiers remained to protect U.S. diplomats, and another 12 soldiers remained to provide logistical support to United Nations forces in Mogadishu. 19,000 other UN peacekeepers were still in Somalia.

10 years ago
2004


Diplomacy
British Prime Minister Tony Blair arrived in Tripoli for a visit with Libyan disctator Muammar al-Gaddafi, ending 30 years of diplomatic isolation. The two leaders promised to fight terrorism.

Law
The United States Senate voted 61-38 in favour of a measure making it a crime to harm a fetus while committing a federal crime against a pregnant woman.

March 24, 2014

160 years ago
1854


Society
Slavery was abolished in Venezuela.

80 years ago
1934


Law
The United States Congress passed the Tydings–McDuffie Act, allowing the Philippines to become a self-governing commonwealth.

70 years ago
1944


War
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill said that the Allied invasion of Europe would occur "soon." In an event later dramatized in the movie The Great Escape (1963), 76 Allied prisoners of war began breaking out of the German camp Stalag Luft III. German troops massacred 335 Italian civilians in Rome, and regained one-fourth of the ruins of Cassino and were now strongly entrenched on the western side of the Italian town. Soviet troops reached the Dniester River at Zaleshchiki, on the Bukovina border in southwestern Ukraine. The Colombian government press office reported that Colombia had interned 150 Japanese and German nationals and said that others would be taken into custody. U.S. Selective Service Director Lewis Hershey ordered state directors to call all deferred registrants under the age of 26 for pre-induction physical examinations.

Diplomacy
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt appealed to the people of Germany and Nazi-subjugated nations to aid Jews and other victims of persecution to escape, and asked free nations to open their borders to the refugees.

Law
The United States Senate passed and sent to the House of Representatives the "GI Bill," an omnibus measure providing for hospitalization, education, vocational training, unemployment benefits, and loans for war veterans.

The U.S. Senate passed the independent officers appropriations bill, with drastic reductions to executive agencies, and sent it to conference.

50 years ago
1964


On television tonight
The Fugitive, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Somebody to Remember, with guest stars Gilbert Roland, Madlyn Rhue, and Alan Baxter

Canadiana
Prince Edward Island adopted its own provincial flag.

40 years ago
1974


Diplomacy
U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger arrived in Moscow to begin several days of talks with Soviet leaders, hoping to achieve a "conceptual breakthrough" that would lead to a U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. agreement on strategic arms limitations.

Curling
Air Canada Silver Broom @ Allmend Eisstadion, Bern, Switzerland
Final
Bud Somerville's United States rink defeated the Swedish rink of Jan Ullstrom 11-4 to win the world men's championship. It was the second world championship for Mr. Somerville and the first for the United States since Mr. Somverville's win over Canada's Terry Braunstein in the 1965 Scotch Cup final.

30 years ago
1984


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Ci Sarà--Albano Carrisi; Romina Power (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (VRT Top 30): When The Lady Smiles--Golden Earring

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Love Is a Battlefield--Pat Benatar (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): 99 Red Balloons--Nena (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K.: Hello--Lionel Richie

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Jump--Van Halen (5th week at #1)

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Girls Just Want to Have Fun--Cyndi Lauper (2nd week at #1)
2 Somebody's Watching Me--Rockwell
3 Footloose--Kenny Loggins
4 99 Luftballons--Nena
5 Jump--Van Halen
6 I Want a New Drug--Huey Lewis and the News
7 Here Comes the Rain Again--Eurythmics
8 Thriller--Michael Jackson
9 Automatic--Pointer Sisters
10 New Moon on Monday--Duran Duran

Singles entering the chart were The Longest Time by Billy Joel (#66); Breakdance by Irene Cara (#84); Catch Me I'm Falling by Real Life (#85); Love Me in a Special Way by DeBarge (#87); Hunters of the Night by Mr. Mister (#89); and It's My Life by Talk Talk (#90).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Jump--Van Halen (2nd week at #1)
2 99 Red Balloons--Nena
3 Girls Just Want to Have Fun--Cyndi Lauper
4 Thriller--Michael Jackson
5 Karma Chameleon--Culture Club
6 I Want a New Drug--Huey Lewis and the News
7 Here Comes the Rain Again--Eurythmics
8 Somebody's Watching Me--Rockwell
9 Red Red Wine--UB40
10 Rebel Yell--Billy Idol

Singles entering the chart were Hello by Lionel Richie (#42); You Might Think by the Cars (#44); Love Somebody by Rick Springfield (#45); They Don't Know by Tracey Ullman (#46); Sunshine Reggae by Laid Back (#48); and Never Never by Assembly (#50).

Died on this date
Sam Jaffe, 93
. U.S. actor. Mr. Jaffe was a character actor in movies such as Lost Horizon (1937); Gunga Din (1939); The Asphalt Jungle (1950)--for which he was nominated for an Academy Award; and The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951). He was blacklisted by Hollywood in the 1950s because of alleged Communist sympathies, but made a comeback with a supporting performance in Ben-Hur (1959). Mr. Jaffe was perhaps best known for playing the character Dr. David Zorba in the television series Ben Casey (1961-1965).

25 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): She Drives Me Crazy--Fine Young Cannibals (4th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Something's Gotten Hold of My Heart--Marc Almond featuring Gene Pitney (4th week at #1)

Environment
The U.S. tanker Exxon Valdez spilled 240,000 barrels (38,000 cubic metres) of petroleum after running aground in Prince William Sound in Alaska. It was the worst oil spill in American history. See also here.

Defense
U.S. President George Bush and leaders of the U.S. Congress from both the Democratic and Republican parties signed an agreement on continued aid to the Contras who were opposing the Sandanista regime in Nicaragua. Under the accord, which would have to be approved by both houses, the Contras would receive $4.5 million per month for food, clothing, shelter, and medical supplies through February 1990, by which time the Sandanista government had promised to hold elections. The aid would end if the Contras initiated military action prior to the scheduled elections.

20 years ago
1994


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Look Who's Talking--Dr. Alban (4th week at #1)

War
Somalia's most powerful clan leaders, Mohammed Farah Aidid and Ali Mahdi, signed a peace agreement in Nairobi, Kenya that called for a cease-fire in Somalia's civil war, and repudiated violence.

10 years ago
2004


Health
In an effort to stem the spread of the avian flu virus, Health Canada ordered the culling of 275,000 chickens and turkeys on 10 large farms in British Columbia. Once completed, the cull killed 365,000 birds, about 10% of the province's poultry population.

Politics and government
The United Progressive Party, led by Baldwin Spencer, won the Antigua and Barbudan general election, defeating the incumbent Antigua Labour Party, led by Lester Bird, who had been Prime Minister for 10 years, since replacing his father Sir Vere Bird. The ALP under the Birds had controlled Parliament for 48 of the previous 53 years.

Business
The European Commission fined Microsoft Corporation $603 million and ordered the software company to stop bundling its products, such as Windows Media Player, with its operating system.