Saturday, 31 January 2015

February 1, 2015

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Snejka!

225 years ago
1790

Law

The Supreme Court of the United States convened for the first time, in New York City.

180 years ago
1835


Society
Slavery was abolished in the British colony of Mauritius.

150 years ago
1865


Law
U.S. President Abraham Lincoln signed the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States into law, the day after it had been passed by the House of Representatives. The amedment reads:

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


120 years ago
1895


Africana
Fountains Valley, Pretoria, the oldest nature reserve in Africa, was proclaimed by President Paul Kruger.

100 years ago
1915


Literature
The February 1915 issue of The Strand Magazine contained the sixth segment of The Valley of Fear, the fourth and last Sherlock Holmes novel by A. Conan Doyle.
In this issue: Part II: The Scowrers: Chapter II. The Bodymaster.

75 years ago
1940


War
Soviet forces launched a large assault against Finnish defenses along the Mannerheim Line. Kyosti Kollio, Finnish parliament President, stated his country's willingness to reach a peace agreement with the U.S.S.R. United Mine Workers of American President John L. Lewis claimed that American labour would oppose any U.S. war participation.

Defense
The United States Army tested a new cannon-carrying pursuit plane, travelling up to 400 miles per hour, at Bolling Field, near Anacostia, Maryland.

Economics and finance
The Japanese Diet received a record budget request of 10.282 billion yen, of which 4.460 billion were for the military.

U.S. Senators Robert Wagner (Democrat--New York) and Walter George (Democrat--Georgia) introduced legislation seeking $10 million for rural hospital construction.

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Chairman Jerome Frank urged the creation of a private agency, federally funded, to make loans for small business expansion.

U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt sent the nominations of Marriner Eccles and Chester Davis to the Senate for renomination to the Federal Reserve Board.

70 years ago
1945


Literature
The Thurber Carnival by James Thurber was published.

Abominations
A Communist "People's Tribunal" in Bulgaria executed former Prince Regent Kiril, 49; former Prime Minister and Regent Professor Bogdan Filov; General Nikola Mikhov; and 22 former cabinet ministers, 9 royal advisers, and 67 members of parliament.

War
The U.S. House of Representatives passed and sent to the Senate the May-Bailey bill providing "limited national service" for men aged 18-45. U.S. forces in Germany found little resistance on the Siegfried Line, recording advances of up to 2 miles. Soviet troops in eastern Germany gained 12 miles, reaching Liebenow.

Politics and government
The United States Senate passed the George bill separating lending agencies from the Commerce Department.

50 years ago
1965


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Qué Me Importa Del Mundo (Che M'Importa Del Mondo)--Rita Pavone

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): The Hucklebuck--Brendan Bowyer (3rd week at #1)

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Downtown--Petula Clark
2 You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'--The Righteous Brothers
3 This Diamond Ring--Gary Lewis and the Playboys
4 If You Don't Want My Love--Jack London
5 Bucket "T"--Ronny and the Daytonas
6 The Name Game--Shirley Ellis
7 It's Alright--Adam Faith
8 Paper Tiger--Sue Thompson
9 Let's Lock the Door (And Throw Away the Key)--Jay and the Americans
10 Laugh, Laugh--The Beau Brummels

Singles entering the chart were Little Things by Bobby Goldsboro (#23); Thanks a Lot by Brenda Lee (#24); Give Him a Great Big Kiss by the Shangri-Las (#27); Somewhere in Your Heart by Frank Sinatra (#31); Patch it Up by Linda Scott (#32); Terry by Twinkle (#33); Bye, Bye Baby (Baby Goodbye) by the 4 Seasons (#34); The Jolly Green Giant by the Kingsmen (#35); Put You Down by the Big Town Boys (#37); The Boy From New York City by the Ad Libs (#38); Go Now! by the Moody Blues (#39); and Goldfinger by John Barry and his Orchestra (#40).

On television tonight
The Alfred Hitchcock Hour, on NBC
Tonight's episode: Thanatos Palace Hotel, starring Angie Dickinson, Steven Hill, Barry Atwater, and Bartlett Robinson

Music
The EP 4--By the Beatles was released in North America on Capitol Records. The songs--Honey Don't; I'm a Loser; Mr. Moonlight; and Everybody's Trying to Be My Baby--were all taken from the recent album Beatles '65.

Canadiana
The Hamilton River in Labrador was renamed the Churchill River in honour of Sir Winston Churchill.

Diplomacy
Queen Elizabeth II began a 12-day visit to Africa.

Defense
General Curtis LeMay retired as U.S. Air Force Chief of Staff; he was succeeded by General John P. McConnell, formerly Vice-Chief of Staff.

Boxing
Former world heavyweight champion Floyd Patterson (42-4) won a unanimous 12-round decision over George Chuvalo (29-9-2) at Madison Square Garden in New York in a bout that was chosen by The Ring magazine as its Fight of the Year for 1965.

40 years ago
1975


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Un corpo e un'anima--Wess & Dori Ghezzi

#1 single in the Netherlands (Veronica Top 40): Voulez-vous coucher avec moi ce soir (Lady Marmalade)--Labelle

#1 single in the U.K.: January--Pilot

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Laughter in the Rain--Neil Sedaka

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Laughter in the Rain--Neil Sedaka
2 Boogie On Reggae Woman--Stevie Wonder
3 You're No Good--Linda Ronstadt
4 Please Mr. Postman--Carpenters
5 Mandy--Barry Manilow
6 Fire--Ohio Players
7 Pick Up the Pieces--Average White Band
8 Never Can Say Goodbye--Gloria Gaynor
9 Best of My Love--The Eagles
10 Some Kind of Wonderful--Grand Funk

Singles entering the chart were Express by B.T. Express (#66); Emotion by Helen Reddy (#71); I've Been This Way Before by Neil Diamond (#74); Emma by Hot Chocolate (#87); My Elusive Dreams by Charlie Rich (#89); Satin Soul by the Love Unlimited Orchestra (#92); Please, Mr. President by Paula Webb (#93); Butter Boy by Fanny (#94); Devil in the Bottle by T.G. Sheppard (#95); Chevy Van by Sammy Johns (#96); We May Never Love Like This Again by Maureen McGovern (#97); Charmer by Tim Moore (#98); (Hey Won’t You Play) Another Somebody Done Somebody Wrong Song by B.J. Thomas (#99); and You are You by Gilbert O'Sullivan (#100). We May Never Love Like This Again was from the movie The Towering Inferno (1974), and went on to win the 1974 Academy Award for Best Original Song.

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds--Elton John (4th week at #1)
2 Please Mr. Postman--Carpenters
3 Mandy--Barry Manilow
4 Bungle in the Jungle--Jethro Tull
5 Doctor's Orders--Carol Douglas
6 Angie Baby--Helen Reddy
7 One Man Woman/One Woman Man--Paul Anka with Odia Coates
8 Boogie On Reggae Woman--Stevie Wonder
9 Morning Side of the Mountain--Donny and Marie Osmond
10 Some Kind of Wonderful--Grand Funk

Singles entering the chart were Dancin' (On a Saturday Night) by Bond (#82); In the Mood by Rush (#84); Johnny Get a Gun by Five Man Electrical Band (#85); Judy Played the Juke Box by the Crescent Street Stompers (#86); My Boy by Elvis Presley (#87); To the Door of the Sun by Al Martino (#89); You're Right as Rain by Nancy Wilson (#91); Lady Marmalade by LaBelle (#92); Movin' On by Bad Company (#93); I've Lost My Place by Billand (#95); I am Love by the Jackson 5 (#96); Help Your Brother by Copperpenny (#97); and The South's Gonna Do It by the Charlie Daniels Band (#99).

Winnipeg's top 30 (CFRW)
1 Mandy--Barry Manilow
2 Changes--David Bowie
3 Please Mr. Postman--Carpenters
4 Morning Side of the Mountain--Donny and Marie Osmond
5 Dream On--The Righteous Brothers
6 Junior's Farm--Paul McCartney & Wings
7 Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds--Elton John
8 Bungle in the Jungle--Jethro Tull
9 Some Kind of Wonderful--Grand Funk
10 Kung Fu Fighting--Carl Douglas
11 You're the First, the Last, My Everything--Barry White
12 Only You--Ringo Starr
13 Never Can Say Goodbye--Gloria Gaynor
14 Boogie On Reggae Woman--Stevie Wonder
15 Doctor's Orders--Carol Douglas
16 You're No Good--Linda Ronstadt
17 One Man Woman/One Woman Man--Paul Anka with Odia Coates
18 Lonely People--America
19 Have You Never Been Mellow--Olivia Newton-John
20 Laughter in the Rain--Neil Sedaka
21 When Will I See You Again--The Three Degrees
22 Black Water--The Doobie Brothers
23 You Beat Me to the Punch--Charity Brown
24 Sally G--Paul McCartney & Wings
25 Roll on Down the Highway--Bachman-Turner Overdrive
26 Get Dancin'--Disco Tex and the Sex-O-Lettes
27 Lady--Styx
28 Fairytale--The Pointer Sisters
29 Best of My Love--The Eagles
30 California Jam--Klaatu

Winnipeg's top 30 (CKRC)
1 Mandy--Barry Manilow (3rd week at #1)
2 Please Mr. Postman--Carpenters
3 Morning Side of the Mountain--Donny and Marie Osmond
4 Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds--Elton John
5 Bungle in the Jungle--Jethro Tull
6 Never Can Say Goodbye--Gloria Gaynor
7 You're No Good--Linda Ronstadt
8 Kung Fu Fighting--Carl Douglas
9 You're the First, the Last, My Everything--Barry White
10 One Man Woman/One Woman Man--Paul Anka with Odia Coates
11 My Eyes Adored You--Frankie Valli
12 Some Kind of Wonderful--Grand Funk
13 You Beat Me to the Punch--Charity Brown
14 Boogie On Reggae Woman--Stevie Wonder
15 Roll on Down the Highway--Bachman-Turner Overdrive
16 Doctor's Orders--Carol Douglas
17 Best of My Love--The Eagles
18 Laughter in the Rain--Neil Sedaka
19 Junior's Farm--Paul McCartney & Wings
20 Lady--Styx
21 Black Water--The Doobie Brothers
22 Pick Up the Pieces--AWB
23 Lady Ellen--James Leroy
24 Sweet Surrender--John Denver
25 Cat's in the Cradle--Harry Chapin
26 Mother Earth--Ian Thomas
27 Angie Baby--Helen Reddy
28 Fire--Ohip Players
29 Lady Marmalade--LaBelle
30 (Make Me Do) Anything You Want--A Foot in Coldwater

Calgary's top 10
1 Please Mr. Postman--Carpenters
2 Mandy--Barry Manilow
3 Bungle in the Jungle--Jethro Tull
4 Ride 'Em Cowboy--Paul Davis
5 Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds--Elton John
6 Some Kind of Wonderful--Grand Funk
7 Best of My Love--The Eagles
8 Kung Fu Fighting--Carl Douglas
9 Boogie On Reggae Woman--Stevie Wonder
10 Promised Land--Elvis Presley
Pick hit of the week: Sweet Surrender--John Denver

War
Civil war in Ethiopia pitted government troops against rebels in the province of Eritrea.

Defense
Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko began a five-day visit to Syria and Egypt to discuss defense.

Economics and finance
The European Economic Community pledged $4 billion in aid and trade over five years to 46 backward nations in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific.

30 years ago
1985


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Shout--Tears for Fears

#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): I Want To Know What Love Is--Foreigner (2nd week at #1)

25 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Get Up! (Before the Night is Over)--Technotronic

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Nothing Compares 2 U--Sinéad O'Connor (2nd week at #1)

World events
East German Premier Hans Modrow, addressing a press conference in East Berlin, outlined a plan for reunifying East and West Germany. He described an approach for integrating economic and governmental institutions into a country that would become militarily neutral. West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl said he would not begin any negotiations until after East German elections in March.

Politics and government
Bulgarian Premier Georgi Atanasov and his cabinet resigned. The Communist Party of Bulgaria ratified a manifesto that endorsed democratic ideals but kept its Marxist-Leninist ideology.

The National Salvation Front agreed to a power-sharing arrangement prior to elections in Romania. It was agreed that the interim legislative body would be increased in size and would include representatives of 30 registered political parties.

Scandal
Albert Hakim was sentenced to two years’ probation and fined $5,000 for illegally supplementing the salary of former U.S. National Security Council staff member Oliver North.

U.S. Attorney General Richard Thornburgh recommended that an independent counsel be appointed to investigate Samuel Pierce, Jr. and other former high officials in the Department of Housing and Urban Development. In compliance with procedures established by law, Mr. Thornburgh made his recommendations to a special three-judge panel. He said that the counsel would investigate charges that Mr. Pierce, a former secretary of HUD, and other officials had awarded grants to developers backed by well-known Republicans.

Business
Humanitas publishing house was founded in Bucharest by philosopher Gabriel Liiceanu.

20 years ago
1995


Law
The United States House of Representatives voted 360-74 in favour of a bill making it difficult for Congress to pass laws that required action by states and cities but did not provide federal funds for implementation. The Senate had passed such legislation five days earlier.

Labour
Major league baseball club owners and representatives of major league players met for the first time in 1995, in Washington, D.C. The players had gone on strike on August 11, 1994, ending the season unfinished.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Federal Reserve Board increased the federal funds rate (the interest rate banks charged each other for overnight loans) by 0.5% to 6%, and increased the discount rate (the interest rate charged by the Federal Reserve on loans to commercial banks) 0.5% to 5.25%. Both rates were at their highest levels in three years. In response to these increases, most major banks raised their prime rate from 8.5%-9.0%.

The United States Commerce Department reported that the index of leading economic indicators had increased 0.1% in December 1994.

10 years ago
2005


Died on this date
John Vernon, 72
. Canadian actor. Mr. Vernon, born Adolphus Raymondus Vernon Agopsowicz in Zehner, Saskatchewan, starred in the CBC television series Wojeck (1966; 1968) and appeared in such movies as Point Blank (1967); Topaz (1969); Dirty Harry (1971); Animal House (1978); and Rat Tales (1986).

Politics and government
King Gyanendra of Nepal carried out a coup d'état to capture the country's democracy as he dismissed Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba's government for failing to make arrangements for parliamentary elections and being unable to restore peace in the country, then in the midst of a civil war led by Maoist insurgents. King Gyanendra became Chairman of the Councils of ministers.

January 31, 2015

150 years ago
1865


War
General Robert E. Lee became General-in-Chief of Confederate States forces.

Law
The United States House of Representatives passed the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, more than nine months after it had been passed by the Senate.

100 years ago
1915


Born on this date
Thomas Merton
. French-born U.S. Roman Catholic monk. Mr. Merton joined the Roman Catholic Church in 1938 and became a Trappist monk in 1941. He was a mystic who became increasingly interested in Eastern religions and promoting interfaith understanding. Mr. Merton's books included The Seven Storey Mountain (1948) and Seeds of Contemplation (1949). He was attending an interfaith conoference in suburban Bangkok when he died suddenly, reportedly by accidental electrocution from a fan while stepping out of the bathtub, on December 10, 1968 at the age of 53.

Garry Moore. U.S. television personality. Mr. Moore, born Thomas Garrison Morfit III, worked in radio in the 1930s and '40s, but was best known as the host of several television programs, most notably the game shows I've Got a Secret (1952-1964) and To Tell the Truth (1969-1976). He hosted several versions of his own variety program, The Garry Moore Show, from 1950-1958; 1958-1964; and 1966-1967. The Garry Moore Show helped to launch the careers of performers such as Carol Burnett, Jonathan Winters, Alan King, and Don Adams. Mr. Moore died on November 28, 1993 at the age of 78.

War
Germany became the first nation to make large-scale use of poison gas in warfare in the Battle of Bolimów against Russia in Poland.

90 years ago
1925


Europeana
Albania declared itself a republic, with Ahmet Zogu as President.

75 years ago
1940


Defense
The first of 100 planes ordered from the United States arrived in the Australian capital of Canberra.

Diplomacy
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain asked the nations of the world to be tolerant of U.K. interference with their trade because of the war.

The United States Labor Department modified its deportation order against 68 Czech nationals working for the Bata Shoe Company, permitting them to stay in the U.S. unitl June 30, 1940.

Economics and finance
Japanese Foreign Minister Arita said that his nation did not intend to block the legitimate trading rights of third parties in Asia.

Disasters
A blizzard struck north-central Japan, causing 78 deaths.

Tennis
Australia announced that it would retain possession of the Davis Cup until competition was resumed.

70 years ago
1945


Died on this date
Eddie Slovik, 24
. U.S. soldier. Private Slovik was executed in France by firing squad for deserting his infantry unit in October 1944. It was the first such execution of an American soldier since the Civil War.

War
U.S. forces in Germany drove into the Monschau Forest and completed the capture of Rocherath, Andler, Schonberg, Amelscheid, Heuem, and Alzerath. Soviet troops captured Beyersdorf and were within 63 miles of Berlin. U.S. forces in the Philippines went ashore on the west coast of the province of Batangas, thus outflanking Manila to the south. The British 3rd Commando Brigade repulsed a Japanese counterattack on their positions and precipitated a general retirement from the Arakan Peninsula, ending the Battle of Hill 170 during the Burma Campaign.

Abominations
About 5,000 inmates from the Stutthof concentration camp in Poland were forcibly marched into the Baltic Sea at Palmnicken (now Yantarny, Russia) and machine-gunned to death by Nazis, six days after being evacuated from the camp.

Law
The United Nations War Crimes Commission elected Lord Wright of Australia as chairman.

Four days after U.S. Federal Judge Philip Sullivan ruled in Chicago that the U.S. Army's seizure of Montgomery Ward & Company properties in seven localities was illegal, the U.S. government took its case to the Circuit Court of Appeals.

Defense
The United States and Canada reached an agreement whereby Canada would not pay for defense facilities established in Canada that would not be removed at war's end.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that exports in 1943, including Lend-Lease, broke all records with a value of $14,065 billion.

Scandal
Five Brooklyn College basketball players--Robert Leder, Lawrence Pearlstein, Stanley Simon, Jerome Greene, and Bernard Barret--admitted accepting a $1,000 bribe to throw the game in Boston that night against the University of Akron.

60 years ago
1955


On television tonight
Sherlock Holmes, starring Ronald Howard and H. Marion Crawford
Tonight's episode: The Case of the Greystone Inscription

Died on this date
John R. Mott, 89
. U.S. religious leader. Mr. Mott supported Protestant ecumenical missionary work, and especially supported efforts that promoted peace. He was a longtime leader of the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) and World Student Christian Federation (WSCF). Mr. Mott shared the 1946 Nobel Peace Prize with Emily Balch, Honorary International President of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. Mr. Mott was known for the slogan "The Evangelization of the World in this Generation."

Labour
Ford Motor Company workers in the Ontario cities of Windsor, Oakville, and Etobicoke began a 109-day strike.

40 years ago
1975


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand: Lovely Lady--John Hanlon (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Tränen Lügen Nicht--Michael Holm (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: I Can Help--Billy Swan

Ottawa's top 30 (CFGO)
1 Mandy--Barry Manilow
2 Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds--Elton John
3 Doctor's Orders--Carol Douglas
4 Please Mr. Postman--Carpenters
5 Never Can Say Goodbye--Gloria Gaynor
6 You're the First, the Last, My Everything--Barry White
7 Bungle in the Jungle--Jethro Tull
8 Kung Fu Fighting--Carl Douglas
9 Morning Side of the Mountain--Donny and Marie Osmond
10 Angie Baby--Helen Reddy
11 Changes--David Bowie
12 Cat's in the Cradle--Harry Chapin
13 Get Dancin'--Disco Tex and the Sex-O-Lettes
14 Dancin' Fool--The Guess Who
15 Boogie On Reggae Woman--Stevie Wonder
16 I Wouldn't Want to Lose Your Love--April Wine
17 Ride 'Em Cowboy--Paul Davis
18 Best of My Love--The Eagles
19 Linda Put the Coffee On--Ray Materick
20 Ramona--Stampeders
21 When Will I See You Again--The Three Degrees
22 (Make Me Do) Anything You Want--A Foot in Coldwater
23 Pick Up the Pieces--AWB
24 You're No Good--Linda Ronstadt
25 Black Water--The Doobie Brothers
26 Some Kind of Wonderful--Grand Funk
27 Lonely People--America
28 Have You Never Been Mellow--Olivia Newton-John
29 You Beat Me to the Punch--Charity Brown
30 Up in a Puff of Smoke--Polly Brown

30 years ago
1985


Music
The Beach Boys, with k.d. lang and the reclines as the opening act, performed at Northlands Coliseum in Edmonton. This blogger was in attendance, and enjoyed the company of a lovely lady. I paid $15.75 for my ticket.

25 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Another Day in Paradise--Phil Collins (6th week at #1)

Politics and government
U.S. President George Bush delivered his annual State of the Union address. He proposed a ceiling of 225,000 on the number of U.S. and Soviet troops that could be deployed in Europe. Under his plan, no more than 195,000 could be deployed by each side in the central zone of Europe. At present, the U.S. had 300,000 troops in Europe and the U.S.S.R. had 565,000.

Popular culture
The first McDonald's restaurant in the U.S.S.R. was opened by George Cohon in Moscow's Pushkin Square.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Commerce Department reported that the index of leading economic indicators had risen 0.8% in December 1989.

Hockey
NHL
Detroit 7 Edmonton 5

20 years ago
1995


Died on this date
George Abbott, 107
. U.S. theatre producer, director, and playwright. Mr. Abbott was active on Broadway for more than 80 years, beginning in 1913 as an actor. As a playwright and director, his works included Broadway (1926); Three Men on a Horse (1935); The Pajama Game (1954); and Damn Yankees (1955). Mr. Abbott also produced and directed the movie versions of The Pajama Game (1957) and Damn Yankees (1958). He remained active to the end of his life.

George Stibitz, 90. U.S. physicist. Dr. Stibitz was a Bell Labs researcher in the 1930s and '40s who became known as one of the fathers of the modern digital computer.

John Smith, 63. U.S. actor. Mr. Smith, born Robert Errol Van Orden, starred in the Western television series Cimarron City (1958-1959) and Laramie (1959-1963). He died of cirrhosis of the liver and heart problems, likely brought on by heavy drinking.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Bill Clinton used his emergency powers to authorize a $20-billion loan to Mexico to stabilize its economy. The loan consisted of short-term loans and longer-term loan guarantees. As collateral, buyers of oil from the Mexican national oil company would deposit part of their payments into a U.S. Federal Reserve Bank fund. The U.S. also obtained pledges of support from the International Monetary Fund and the Bank for International Settlements. Canada, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia were other donors, bringing the overall commitment to Mexico of $49.5 billion.

Crime
The prosecution began presenting its case in the Los Angeles murder trial of former football star O.J. Simpson, charged with the June 12, 1994 murders of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman.

Thursday, 29 January 2015

January 30, 2015

200 years ago
1815


Americana
President James Madison approved an act of Congress appropriating $23,950 to purchase former President Thomas Jefferson's library of 6,487 volumes.

180 years ago
1835


Crime
In the first assassination attempt against a President of the United States, Richard Lawrence attempted to shoot president Andrew Jackson outside the U.S. Capitol in Washington, but failed and was subdued by a crowd, including several congressmen.

100 years ago
1915


Born on this date
John Profumo
. U.K. politician. Mr. Profumo was Secretary of State for War in the government of Prime Minister Harold Macmillan from 1960-1963. During this time, he had an affair with Christine Keeler, a call girl who had also had sexual relations with Soviet naval attache Yevgeni Ivanov. The implications of the scandal for national security forced Mr. Profumo to resign, followed by Mr. Macmillan. Mr. Profumo spent his later years cleaning toilets as a volunteer at Toynbee Hall, a charity in the east end of London. He died on March 9, 2006 at the age of 91.

90 years ago
1925


Religion
The Turkish government of President Mustafa Kemal exiled Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Constantine VI to Greece. Constantine VI had held his positionn for only 43 days, succeeding Gregory VII.

75 years ago
1940


Died on this date
Bronislaw Dembjnski
. Polish historian. Professor Dembjnski was murdered by the Gestapo in Poland.

War
German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler proclaimed in Berlin that the second phase of the European war, carrying it to the West, was beginning.

12 more people were killed in Hindu-Muslim riots in Rangoon.

Diplomacy
Russo-Japanese negotiations in Tokyo to adjust the Outer Mongolia-Manchukuo border broke down.

Defense
U.S. Army General George Marshall told Congress that the Army would need $40 million to give the nation an air raid warning system.

Politics and govenrment
The U.S. House of Representatives Appropriations Committee cut $154 million from the Agriculture Department's appropriation bill.

Business
An Associated Press report indicated a 67% increase in profits for 1939 over 1938 in the top 100 U.S. corporations.

70 years ago
1945


At the movies
Kolberg, the most expensive German film made during World War II, premiered at two theatres in Berlin and at the German naval base in La Rochelle, France.

War
In a radio broadcast, German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler told the German people that there was still hope for victory by maintaining unity. A strong American push into Germany developed on a broad front directed at the Siegfried Line. The Soviet drive on Berlin went unchecked with a gain of 21 miles. 126 American Rangers and Filipino resistance fighters liberated 513 Allied prisoners from the Japanese-controlled Cabanatuan prisoner of war camp near Cabu. The Japanese advance on the Hankow-Canton railroad reduced the line to a 20-mile section in the Chinese province of Hunan.

Disasters
The German passenger ship MV Wilhelm Gustloff, overfilled with German refugees evacuating from Courland, East Prussia, sank in the Baltic Sea after being torpedoed by a Soviet submarine, killing approximately 9,500 people--including 5,000 children--in the deadliest known maritime disaster.

Diplomacy
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at Malta for talks prior to the conference with Soviet dictator Josef Stalin at Yalta in the Crimea several days hence.

Medicine
Medical Press and Circular announced in London the discovery of a drug called hypholin, which was made from penicillin notatum. It had been successfully used in cases of meningitis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, impetigo, and staphylococcale.

Football
NCAA
William Alexander announced his resignation after 25 seasons as head coach at Georgia Institute of Technology. He compiled a record of 134-95-15, leading the Yellow Jackets to the national championship in 1928. Assistant coach Bobby Dodd was named to succeed Mr. Alexander.

50 years ago
1965


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): I Feel Fine/She's a Woman--The Beatles (8th week at #1)

#1 single in France: Sacré Charlemagne--France Gall (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Non son degno di te--Gianni Morandi (7th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Das ist die Frage aller Fragen--Cliff Richard

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): I Feel Fine--The Beatles (5th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Go Now!--The Moody Blues (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Downtown--Petula Clark (2nd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Downtown--Petula Clark (2nd week at #1)
2 You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'--The Righteous Brothers
3 Love Potion No. 9--The Searchers
4 The Name Game--Shirley Ellis
5 This Diamond Ring--Gary Lewis and the Playboys
6 Hold What You've Got--Joe Tex
7 Come See About Me--The Supremes
8 Keep Searchin' (We'll Follow the Sun)--Del Shannon
9 How Sweet it Is (To Be Loved by You)--Marvin Gaye
10 All Day and All of the Night--The Kinks

Singles entering the chart were What Have They Done to the Rain by the Searchers (#72); King of the Road by Roger Miller (#75); At the Club by the Drifters (#76); Little Things by Bobby Goldsboro (#77); Somewhere by P.J. Proby (#81); I'm Over You by Jan Bradley (#82); A Change is Gonna Come by Sam Cooke (#83); Goldfinger by Shirley Bassey (#90, with versions by Billy Strange and Jack LaForge and his Orschestra mentioned but not charted); Let Her Love Me by Otis Leavill (#94); I Wonder by the Butterflys (#95); Suddenly I'm All Alone by Walter Jackson (#97); That's How Strong My Love Is by Otis Redding (#98); Real Live Girl by Steve Alaimo (#99); and Six Boys by J. Frank Wilson (#100). A Change is Gonna Come was the B-side of Shake, charting at #11. Goldfinger was the title song of the movie.

Vancouver's top 50 (CFUN)
1 Downtown--Petula Clark
2 You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'--The Righteous Brothers
3 All Day and All of the Night--The Kinks
4 The Name Game--Shirley Ellis
5 The "In" Crowd--Dobie Gray
6 Give Him a Great Big Kiss--The Shangri-Las
7 Laugh, Laugh--The Beau Brummels
8 Love Potion No. 9--The Searchers
9 Boom Boom--The Animals
10 I Feel Fine/She's a Woman--The Beatles
11 Heart of Stone--The Rolling Stones
12 I'll Be There--Gerry and the Pacemakers
13 Break Away (From That Boy)--The Newbeats
14 Come See About Me--The Supremes
15 Let's Lock the Door (And Throw Away the Key)--Jay and the Americans
16 I Go to Pieces--Peter and Gordon
17 This Diamond Ring--Gary Lewis and the Playboys
18 No Arms Can Ever Hold You--The Bachelors
19 Tell Her No--The Zombies
20 Shakin' All Over--Chad Allan and the Expressions (Guess Who?)
21 Look of Love--Lesley Gore
22 Somewhere--P.J. Proby
23 Willow Weep for Me--Chad & Jeremy
24 Bye, Bye Baby (Baby Goodbye)--The 4 Seasons
25 Hold What You've Got--Joe Tex
26 That Weepin' Willow Tree--Ray Griff
27 Say it Again--Terry Black
28 Big Brother--Dickey Lee
29 Smile--Betty Everett & Jerry Butler
30 Wild One--Martha and the Vandellas
31 You'll Always Be the One I Love/You're Nobody Till Somebody Loves You--Dean Martin
32 Have You Looked Into Your Heart--Jerry Vale
33 Come On Do the Jerk--The Miracles
34 What Have They Done to the Rain--The Searchers
35 It's About Time--Bobby Curtola
36 Is it Because--The Honeycombs
37 It's Alright--Adam Faith
38 Shaggy Dog--Mickey Lee Lane
39 Thanks a Lot--Brenda Lee
40 The Jolly Green Giant--The Kingsmen
41 Saturday Night at the Movies--The Drifters
42 My Girl--The Temptations
43 Shake/A Change is Gonna Come--Sam Cooke
44 It's Gotta Last Forever--Billy J. Kramer with the Dakotas
45 Somewhere in Your Heart--Frank Sinatra
46 Lovin' Place--Gale Garnett
47 Promised Land--Chuck Berry
48 Cry Tomorrow--Tom Northcott
49 Goldfinger--Shirley Bassey
50 Cupid--Johnny Rivers
Pick hits of the week: 1 Ferry Cross the Mersey--Gerry & the Pacemakers
2 Goodnight--Roy Orbison

Space
The U.S.S.R. launched the satellite Cosmos 53.

Britannica
An estimated one million people lined the streets of London for the funeral of former Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who had died on January 24 at the age of 90.

Diplomacy
Burundi severed diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, and ordered the Chinese ambassador to leave Bujumbura.

40 years ago
1975


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Ms Grace--The Tymes

Abominations
The Ontario government of Premier William Davis started the Wintario lottery to raise money for recreation and cultural activities and facilities.

Americana
The Monitor National Marine Sanctuary, 16 nautical miles south-southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, was established as the first United States National Marine Sanctuary.

Baseball
The Detroit Tigers sold catcher Gerry Moses to the New York Mets. In 74 games with the Tigers in 1974, Mr. Moses had batted .237 with 4 home runs and 19 runs batted in. The Mets were his sixth major league team in as many seasons.

30 years ago
1985


Law
The Canadian government of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney stated that metric measurement would continue to be mandatory, but retailers could use the imperial system at the same time.

25 years ago
1990


Abominations
The 7% Goods and Services Tax bill passed first reading in the Canadian House of Commons.

Diplomacy
After meeting with East German Premier Hans Modrow, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev indicated that German reunification was to be expected, adding, "No one casts any doubt upon it."

20 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Zombie--Ororo (4th week at #1)

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Insensitive--Jann Arden
2 On Bended Knee--Boyz II Men
3 You Don't Know How it Feels--Tom Petty
4 Take a Bow--Madonna
5 Bang and Blame--R.E.M.
6 The Sweetest Days--Vanessa Williams
7 When I Come Around--Green Day
8 Greasy Jungle--The Tragically Hip
9 House of Love--Amy Grant and Vince Gill
10 Nothing Behind Us--Richard Marx

Singles entering the chart were She's a River by Simple Minds (#61); Truth Untold by Odds (#74); Thank You by Jimmy Page and Robert Plant (#75); The Love in Your Eyes by Dan Hartman (#79); Over You by Anne Murray (#85); L.U.V. by John Mellencamp (#86); Today I Hate Everyone by the Killjoys (#91); Hip Today by Extreme (#92); and Walk on Water by Aerosmith (#93).

Died on this date
Gerald Durrell, 70
. Indian-born U.K. zookeeper. Mr. Durrell believed that the main purpose of zoos should be to act as a reserve of critically endangered species which need captive breeding in order to survive--a belief that was in contrast to the prevailing policy of the time. In 1958, Mr. Durrell founded Jersey Zoological Park, now Durrell Wildlife Park. He helped to finance his work with the proceeds of numerous books, most of them autobiographical, such as The Overloaded Ark (1953) and My Family and Other Animals (1956).

Terrorism
42 people were killed and 300 injured when a car bomb exploded in Algiers. Muslim fundamentalists were attempting to overthrow Algeria's military-led government of Prime Minister Mokdad Sifi.

War
Rebel Serbs in Croatia refused to accept a proposal, drafted by international mediators, that would give them limited autonomy.

Defense
The United Nations Security Council authorized deployment of 6,000 peacekeepers to train Haiti's police and military and to help prepare for elections. They would take over from U.S. troops at the end of March and remain in Haiti until February 1996.

Medicine
Workers with the U.S. National Institutes of Health announced the success of clinical trials testing the first preventive treatment for sickle-cell disease.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 2 Dallas 1

10 years ago
2005


Politics and government
Elections for the 275-member National Assembly of Iraq produced a slight majority for the United Iraqi Alliance (UIA), led by Ibrahim al-Jaafari. The UIA won 140 seats to 75 for the Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan (DPAK), led by Jalal Talabani, and 40 for the Iraqi List, led by Iyad Allawi.

Wednesday, 28 January 2015

January 29, 2015

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Ken Dies!

170 years ago
1845


Literature
Edgar Allan Poe's poem The Raven was published in the New York Evening Mirror.

75 years ago
1940


On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce
Tonight’s episode: The Second Stain

War
German planes bombed targets along 550 miles of Britain's east coast from Shetland to Kent.

Hindu-Muslim clashes in Rangoon continued despite appeals by Burmese civic and religious leaders for harmony.

Diplomacy
A spokesman for the Japanese Foreign Office asserted that Japan must affirm continuation of the Anti-Comintern pact because Communism was the anthithesis of Japan's goals.

The Pan-American Neutrality Committee announced a resolution to standardize treatment of citizens of belligerent countries.

Politics and government
Supporters of New York City District Attorney Thomas Dewey said that they would enter his name in the Illinois primary in April for the Republican Party nomination for President of the United States in the November 1940 election.

Law
The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the U.S. government's contention that a federal appeals court had no right to supervise the Federal Communications Commission.

70 years ago
1945


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Don't Fence Me In--Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters (5th week at #1)
--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
--Kate Smith
--Horace Heidt and his Musical Knights
2 I Dream of You (More than You Dream I Do)--Tommy Dorsey and his Orchestra
--Andy Russell
--Frank Sinatra
--Perry Como
3 Rum and Coca-Cola--The Andrews Sisters
4 Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate the Positive--Johnny Mercer and the Pied Pipers
--Artie Shaw and his Orchestra
--Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters
5 I'm Making Believe--The Ink Spots and Ella Fitzgerald
6 One Meat Ball--The Andrews Sisters
7 The Trolley Song--The Pied Pipers
--Vaughn Monroe and his Orchestra
--Judy Garland
8 There Goes that Song Again--Russ Morgan and his Orchestra
--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
9 And Her Tears Flowed Like Wine--Stan Kenton and his Orchestra
10 Confessin' (That I Love You)--Ella Fitzgerald and the Song Spinners
--Perry Como

Singles entering the chart were Horace Heidt and his Musical Knights' version of Don't Fence Me In; Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters' version of Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate the Positive; Perry Como's version of Confessin' (That I Love You); Robin Hood, with versions by Les Brown and his Orchestra and Tony Pastor and his Orchestra (#12); Cocktails for Two by Spike Jones and his City Slickers (#13); I'm Beginning to See the Light, with versions by Harry James and his Orchestra and Duke Ellington and his Orchestra (#14); and A Little on the Lonely Side by Frankie Carle and his Orchestra (#21).

On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on MBS
Tonight's episode: The Werewolf of Vair

War
U.S. troops broke into Germany from the Ardennes bulge, crossing at the Our River near Oberhausen and Peteskirsche, and captyured Schlierbach, Welchenhausen, and Stupbach. Soviet troops invaded Germany's northeastern province of Pomerania on a 30-mile front, driving to Woldenberg, only 93 miles from Berlin. U.S. troops in the Philippines took Rosario in northeastern Luzon after two weeks of fighting; other forces landed on the island's west coast, establishing beachheads in the province of Zambales.

Politics and government
King Peter II of Yugoslavia abandoned his stand against plans for a regency.

Law
The Argentine government of President Edelmiro Farrell decreed drastic penalties for almost every form of treason, espionage, and sabotage.

Labour
Harry Bridges, the Australian-born leader of the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU), won a U.S. Supreme Court petition for a review of the U.S. government's order deporting him.

Scandal
The U.S. Justice Department filed suit against seven companies and nine individuals, charging a conspiracy to restrict production, monopolize sales, and arbitrarily inflate prices of 95% of the world's output of diamonds.

Two Brooklyn College basketball players arrived at the Brooklyn apartment of Henry Rosen to tell him and partner Harvey Stemmer that they had decided not to "intentionally lose" their game against the University of Akron, scheduled for the following night at Boston Garden. The players had accepted $1,000 to throw the game. As they arrived at the apartment, so did police and detectives, who suspected Mr. Rosen of being a fence for stolen goods. The statement by the players, who were never publicly identified, was the beginning of the first college basketball gambling scandal.

60 years ago
1955


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Hold My Hand--Don Cornell; Nat "King" Cole

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Mirror): Mambo Italiano--Rosemary Clooney (2nd week at #1)

#1 singles in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Let Me Go Lover--Joan Weber (Best Seller--2nd week at #1; Disc Jockey--3rd week at #1; Jukebox--3rd week at #1)

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Mr. Sandman--The Chordettes (7th week at #1)
--The Four Aces
2 Hearts of Stone--The Fontane Sisters
--The Charms
3 Let Me Go Lover--Joan Weber
--[Teresa Brewer with the Lancers]
4 Melody of Love--Billy Vaughn and his Orchestra
--David Carroll and his Orchestra
--The Four Aces
5 The Naughty Lady of Shady Lane--The Ames Brothers
--Archie Bleyer
6 That's All I Want from You--Jaye P. Morgan
7 Sincerely--The McGuire Sisters
8 (My Baby Don’t Love Me) No More--The DeJohn Sisters
--[The McGuire Sisters]
9 Teach Me Tonight--The DeCastro Sisters
10 Make Yourself Comfortable--Sarah Vaughan

Singles entering the chart were Earth Angel (Will You Be Mine) by the Crew-Cuts (#11, charting with the version by the Penguins); I Gotta Go Get My Baby by Teresa Brewer (#21); and All of You by Sammy Davis, Jr. (#37, charting with the version by Tony Martin).

Journalism
The original version of the Brooklyn Eagle, which had published its first edition on October 26, 1841, published its last edition.

50 years ago
1965


Hit parade
Edmonton's top 10 (CJCA)
1 This Diamond Ring--Gary Lewis and the Playboys
2 Love Potion No. 9--The Searchers
3 Downtown--Petula Clark
4 Look of Love--Lesley Gore
5 Paper Tiger--Sue Thompson
6 I Go to Pieces--Peter and Gordon
7 The Name Game--Shirley Ellis
8 Keep Searchin' (We'll Follow the Sun)--Del Shannon
9 I Feel Fine--The Beatles
10 The Wedding--Julie Rogers
Pick hit of the week: It's Gotta Last Forever--Billy J. Kramer with the Dakotas
New this week: Angel--Johnny Tillotson
I'm Coming Back for You--George Maharis
The Man--Lorne Greene
True Love--Nancy Sinatra
Born to Be Together--The Ronettes
Coming on Too Strong--Wayne Newton

40 years ago
1975


Diplomacy
British Prime Minister Harold Wilson arrived in Ottawa for talks with Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. Mr. Wilson offered to help Canada establish special relations with the European Economic Community.

Politics and government
Danish Prime Minister Poul Hartling announced his resignation, the day after a motion in parliament calling for his resignation had passed 86-85. Queen Margrethe II then asked the 10 political parties to seek a compromise solution.

Health
Environment Canada declared the levels of arsenic in Yellowknife to be safe. Recent reports of high levels of arsenic had led to tests of Yellowknife residents. This blogger was among those tested, and I was clean.

Hockey
NHL
California 3 @ Toronto 5

Gary Sabourin scored 2 goals to lead the Maple Leafs over the Golden Seals before 16,485 fans at Maple Leaf Gardens in the Wednesday Hockey Night in Canada telecast.

Baseball
The Los Angeles Dodgers released outfielder Von Joshua on waivers to the San Francisco Giants. In five seasons with the Dodgers, Mr. Joshua batted .246 with 4 home runs and 41 runs batted in in 253 games. In 1974 he batted .234 with 1 homer and 16 RBIs in 81 games, and was hitless in 4 at bats in as many games in the World Series.

30 years ago
1985


Scandal
New Brunswick Premier Richard Hatfield was found not guilty in Fredericton of possession of marijuana. The drug had been discovered in his bag during a Royal Visit security search on September 25, 1984, leading to a British tabloid headline "Pot on the Royal Plane."; Mr. Hatfield claimed the marijuana had been planted in his bag.

Academia
Oxford University dons, by a vote of 738-319, voted to deny British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher an honourary degree. Academics led a campaign against honouring Mrs. Thatcher in protest against the government's cuts in funding for education.

25 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Australian Music Report): Love Shack--The B-52's (6th week at #1)

Politics and government
Former Progressive Conservative MP and Justice Minister Ray Hnatyshyn was sworn in as Canada’s 24th Governor General, succeeding Jeanne Sauve.

It was announced that former Bulgarian Communist Party leader Todor Zhivkov, under house arrest since January 18 on charges of malfeasance in office and misuse of government property and money, had been transferred to a prison.

A congress of Poland’s United Workers’ (Communist) Party in Warsaw voted overwhelmingly to disband and create at once a new Social Democracy Party. Some former Communist Party members bolted and formed yet another new group, the Social Democratic Union.

Protest
A judge investigating the violence in December 1989 in Timosoara, Romania, said that only 95 civilian deaths had been verified, contrary to earlier reports that there had been thousands of victims.

Diplomacy
U.S. Vice-President Dan Quayle concluded a three-day visit to Panama, Honduras, and Jamaica. His purpose was to explain the Latin American policy of the administration of U.S. President George Bush.

Society
Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney deplored a motion by the city council of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario declaring English the official language of the municipality.

Scandal
Marilyn Harrell, a private escrow agent, pled guilty in U.S. federal court to embezzling $4.5 million that was supposed to go to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. She also admitted underreporting income on her tax return for 1987. Ms. Harrell had previously claimed that she had given much of the money to charities and the poor, and had been nicknamed "Robin HUD." Prosecutors said that Ms. Harrell had been "her own biggest charity."

Economics and finance
U.S. President George Bush submitted a budget for the 1991 fiscal year to Congress that called for no increase in taxes. The $1.23-trillion budget included a small cut in real spending for defense--a 1.9% increase in outlays that was below the rate of inflation. Larger cuts were proposed for some domestic programs, but not for environmental programs, the war on drugs, and space projects. Overall, the budget adhered to the deficit limitation of the Gramm-Rudman law, but the Congressional Budget Office and some economists said that the deficit projections were based on economic forecasts that were far too optimistic.

Bank of Canada Governor John Crow told a Canadian Senate banking committee that any reduction in interest rates would have to be done cautiously and gradually.

20 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Old Pop in an Oak--Rednex

#1 single in Switzerland: Cotton Eye Joe--Rednex (10th week at #1)

Defense
U.S. Secretary of State William Perry said that Haiti was "safe and secure," and that U.S. troops had put an end to all but occasional uses of violence.

Tennis
Andre Agassi defeated Pete Sampras 4-6, 6-1, 7-6, 6-8, 6-4 in the men's final at the Australian Open in Melbourne.

Football
NFL
Super Bowl XXIX @ Joe Robbie Stadium, Miami
San Francisco 49 San Diego 26

Steve Young threw 6 touchdown passes, breaking the Super Bowl record set by former teammate Joe Montana, as the 49ers defeated the Chargers before 74,107 fans to become the first team to win five Super Bowls. Jerry Rice caught 3 of Mr. Young's TD passes, while Ricky Watters caught 2 more and rushed for another touchdown.

10 years ago
2005


Died on this date
Eric Griffiths, 64
. U.K. musician. Mr. Griffiths was a guitarist with the Liverpool skiffle/rock and roll group The Quarrymen, a group he co-founded with John Lennon and others. Paul McCartney joined in 1957 and George Harrison in 1958, and Mr. Griffiths departed shortly after. He spent most of his adult life as a civil servant with the English Prison Service, working there for 30 years before taking over the family business, a chain of dry cleaners. Mr. Griffiths and surviving original members of the Quarrymen reunited in 1997 and recorded an album. Mr. Griffiths toured with the group until November 2004, when he was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

Diplomacy
The first direct commercial flights from mainland China (from Guangzhou) to Taiwan since 1949 arrived in Taipei. Shortly afterward, a China Airlines flight from Taiwam landed in Beijing.

January 28, 2015

160 years ago
1855


Transportation
The first locomotive with freight and passenger cars passed from sea to sea across the Isthmus of Panama along the 47-mile Panama Railroad.

130 years ago
1885


War
Frederick Charles Denison reached Khartoum with his Canadian Nile Voyageurs too late to rescue British General Charles Gordon, who had been killed two days earlier by Mahdist warriors. 16 Canadians lost their lives in this, Canada's first overseas military expedition.

125 years ago
1890


Born on this date
Robert Stroud
. U.S. criminal and ornithologist. Mr. Stroud was a murderer whose death sentence was commuted to life in prison in solitary confinement, first at Leavenworth Penitentiary in Kansas (1920-1942), and then at Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary in California (1942-1959) and Medical Center for Federal Prisoners in Springfield, Missouri (1959-1963). While at Leavenworth, he found a nest with three injured sparrows, and began studying ornithology, eventually writing the book Diseases of Canaries (1933). Mr. Stroud became famous as the "Birdman of Alcatraz," although he was not allowed to keep birds when he was transferred from Leavenworth. Mr. Stroud died on November 21, 1963 at the age of 73.

100 years ago
1915


Music
Maurice Ravel's Piano Trio in A Minor was given its premiere performance.

Defense
An act of the U.S. Congress created the United States Coast Guard as a branch of the United States Armed Forces.

80 years ago
1935


Died on this date
Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov, 75
. Russian composer. Mr. Ippolitov-Ivanov was best known for Caucasian Sketches (1894; 1896).

Abominations
Iceland became the first Western country to legalize therapeutic abortion.

75 years ago
1940


War
Japanese forces tightened their blockade of Tientsin, China.

Diplomacy
Italian Foreign Minister Count Ciano urged a new anti-Comintern grouping, omitting Germany from the revised agreement.

A Gallup Poll reported that 34% of the American people had given thought to an international peace after the war, and favoured the creation of a new international organization and complete disarmament.

Protest
Riots among pacifists, Communists, and military personnel erupted in Auckland, New Zealand.

Religion
The German government of Fuehrer Adolf Hitler denied Vatican charges of persecution against Polish Catholics and the closing of their churches.

70 years ago
1945


Died on this date
Roza Shanina, 20
. U.S.S.R. soldier. Senior Sergeant Shanina was a sniper credited with 59 confirmed kills, including 12 during the Battle of Vilnius in 1944. She was killed in action during the East Prussian offensive while shielding a fellow soldier.

War
In a sudden attack, U.S. troops moved norheast of St. Vith and gained up to 2 miles, while French troops to the south threatened to outflank Colmar. Soviet forces captured Memel in Lithuania and cleared German forces from German-Polish Silesia, areas that produced 20% of Germany's coal supply. U.S. troops in the Philippines took Angeles in the province of Pampanga, 44 air miles northwest of Manila. The first convoy of American supplies from India arrived at Wanting in northern Burma over the newly reopened Burma Road. Japanese troops captured Kukong in the province of Kwangtung, the last Chinese strong point on the Hangkow-Canton railway, thus cutting the eastern section of China to the coast from the rest of the country.

Defense
The 27,000-ton aircraft carrier USS Antietam was commissioned in Philadelphia.

Golf
Sammy Byrd won the Texas Open, finishing 1 stroke ahead of Byron Nelson.

60 years ago
1955


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): The Finger of Suspicion--Dickie Valentine with the Stargazers (3rd week at #1)

50 years ago
1965


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): Go Now!--The Moody Blues

Abominations
Alan Beddoe's design of the Flag of Canada was chosen by an act of Parliament. The winning design was chosen from about 2,000 entries.

40 years ago
1975


On television tonight
Be My Valentine, Charlie Brown, on CBS

This was the first broadcast of this Peanuts special. The first Canadian broadcast was on CBC on February 10, 1975.

Politics and government
A motion in the Danish parliament calling for the resignation of Prime Minister Poul Hartling passed 86-85.

Defense
U.S. President Gerald Ford asked Congress for $522 million in added military aid for South Vietnam and Cambodia.

30 years ago
1985


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Do They Know it's Christmas?--Band Aid (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): You Gotta Chance: Dance de Natsu wo Dakishimete--Kōji Kikkawa (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): ¿Cómo Pudiste Hacerme Esto a Mí?--Alaska y Dinarama (3rd week at #1)

Music
Various prominent artists performing together as USA for Africa (United Support of Artists for Africa) recorded the song We Are the World to help raise funds for Ethiopian famine relief. The single was the American equivalent of the recent British single Do They Know it's Christmas? by Band Aid.

25 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Love Shack--The B-52's (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): All Around the World--Lisa Stansfield (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Girl I'm Gonna Miss You--Milli Vanilli (9th week at #1)

Died on this date
Sandra "Puma" Jones, 36
. U.S. singer. Miss Jones was a member of the Jamaican reggae group Black Uhuru from 1979-1987. She died after a long battle with breast cancer.

Protest
Tens of thousands of Romanian pro-democracy demonstrators took to the streets of Bucharest to protest against the interim government of Premier Ion Iliescu.

Football
NFL
Super Bowl XXIV @ Louisiana Superdome, New Orleans
San Francisco 55 Denver 10

Joe Montana completed 22 of 29 passes (including 13 straight completions at one point) for 297 yards and 5 touchdowns in leading the 49ers to their second straight Super Bowl win, which was basically over at halftime, when the 49ers led 27-3. Mr. Montana was the game’s Most Valuable Player. Jerry Rice, who caught 7 passes for 148 yards, was on the receiving end of 3 of Mr. Montana’s touchdown passes, with the others going to Brent Jones and John Taylor. Tom Rathman rushed for 2 touchdowns on short runs, and Roger Craig rushed 1 yard for the game’s final major score. Mike Cofer was successful on 7 of 8 convert attempts. Denver quarterback John Elway scored the Broncos’ only touchdown on a 3-yard run in the third quarter. David Treadwell, who had kicked a 42-yard field goal in the first quarter, converted. Mr. Craig led all rushers with 69 yards, and caught 5 passes for 34. Mr. Rathman rushed for 38 yards and caught 4 passes for 43. Mr. Taylor caught 3 passes for 49 yards and returned 3 punts for 38. The 49ers amassed 461 yards in net offense. Mr. Elway completed just 10 of 26 passes for 108 yards and 2 interceptions. Bobby Humphrey led the Broncos with 61 yards rushing and 38 yards on 3 pass receptions. George Seifert, who had replaced the retired Bill Walsh, won the Super Bowl in his first season as an NFL head coach. 72,919 witnessed the slaughter at the Louisiana Superdome.

20 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): Zombie--The Cranberries (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Denmark (Nielsen Music Control & IFPI): Old Pop in an Oak--Rednex (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Old Pop in an Oak--Rednex

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Think Twice--Celine Dion (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Creep--TLC

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 On Bended Knee--Boyz II Men (9th week at #1)
2 Another Night--Real McCoy
3 Take a Bow--Madonna
4 Here Comes the Hotstepper--Ini Kamoze
5 Creep--TLC
6 Always--Bon Jovi
7 You Want This/70's Love Groove--Janet Jackson
8 I Wanna Be Down--Brandy
9 Hold My Hand--Hootie & the Blowfish
10 Every Day of the Week--Jade

Singles entering the chart were Bang and Blame by R.E.M. (#21); Candy Rain by Soul For Real (#69); Whiney, Whiney (What Really Drives Me Crazy) by Willi One Blood (#73); and I Apologize by Anita Baker (#89).

Diplomacy
The U.S.A. and Vietnam agreed to exchange low-level diplomats and open liaison offices in each other's capital city. Vietnam agreed to pay $208.5 million to settle claims on American property confiscated at the end of the Vietnam War in the 1970s, while the U.S. would unfreeze $130 million in Vietnamese assets in the United States.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 2 Calgary 1

10 years ago
2005


Died on this date
Jim Capaldi, 60
. U.K. musician. Mr. Capaldi was a drummer who was best known as a founding member of the group Traffic in the late 1960s. He had some success as a solo artist in the 1970s and '80s, with Love Hurts (1975) being his biggest hit. Mr. Capaldi died of stomach cancer.

Monday, 26 January 2015

January 27, 2015

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Irina!

230 years ago
1785


Academia
The first public university in the United States, the University of Georgia, was incorporated by the Georgia General Assembly.

160 years ago
1855


Politics and government
In Toronto, Sir Alan MacNab took office as Premier and Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché as Deputy Premier of the United Province of Canada.

Transportation
Chief engineer George Totten drove the last spike to complete the Panama Railroad, covering 47 miles across the Isthmus of Panama.

75 years ago
1935

On the radio

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Louis Hector and Leigh Lovell, on NBC

75 years ago
1940


War
South Africa's House of Assembly defeated a motion by General T.B.M. Hertzog to halt the war with Germany.

A clash between Hindus and Muslims in Rangoon resulted in 1 death and 46 injuries.

Diplomacy
Japanese diplomats gathering in Budapest recommended a reaffirmatioon of the Anti-Comintern Pact despite the Germany-U.S.S.R. non-agression pact of 1939.

Politics and government
Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King announced that the federal election would be held on March 26.

70 years ago
1945


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Don't Fence Me In--Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters (6th week at #1)

War
German forces retreated to near the Siegfried Line as the remainder of the bulge in Belgium and the Netherlands was nearly wiped out. Soviet armies surrounded Posen and Torun, Poland and pushed within 4 miles of Koenigsberg, East Prussia. The Soviet Red Army liberated the remaining inmates of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp built by the Nazi Germans on the territory of Poland. Allied planes from the Marianas attacked Tokyo, destroying 31 enemy planes, while India-based planes bombed Saigon for the first time. Japanese forces shelled Clark Field from well-prepared hill positions. Allied forces landed on Cheduba Island, 32 miles off the Burmese coast.

Law
U.S. Federal Judge Philip Sullivan ruled in Chicago that the Army seizure of Montgomery Ward properties in seven localities, ordered by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was illegal.

50 years ago
1965


Died on this date
Hassan Ali Mansur, 41
. Prime Minister of Iran, 1964-1965. Mr. Mansur held various positions before founding the Iran Novin (New Iran) party. Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi appointed Mr. Mansur Prime Minister after the resignation of Asadollah Alam. Mr. Mansur had the support of the U.S. government, and adopted a pro-American foreign policy. He died five days after being shot by 17-year-old Mohammad Bokharaei, a member of the terrorist organization Fada'iyan-e Islam.

Politics and government
South Vietnamese Prime Minister Tran Van Huong resigned after four days of protests by Buddhists and students of conscription age.

40 years ago
1975


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): I Can Help--Billy Swan

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Fuyu no Iro--Momoe Yamaguchi (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Todo El Tiempo Del Mundo--Manolo Otero (6th week at #1)

30 years ago
1985


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Do They Know it's Christmas?--Band Aid (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France (SNEP): Ghostbusters--Ray Parker, Jr. (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: One Night in Bangkok--Murray Head (2nd week at #1)

On the radio
The Stories of Sherlock Holmes, starring Graham Armitage and Kerry Jordan, on Springbok Radio
Tonight's episode: The Italian Intrigue

Football
NFL
Pro Bowl @ Aloha Stadium, Honolulu
AFC 22 NFC 14

New York Jets’ defensive end Mark Gastineau was the Most Valuable Player. Chuck Noll of the Pittsburgh Steelers was the winning head coach over Mike Ditka of the Chicago Bears.

25 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): Love Shack--The B-52's (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Kuchibiru Karabi Yaku--Kudo Shizuka

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Lambada--Kaoma (18th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Pump Up the Jam--Technotronic featuring Felly (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Another Day in Paradise--Phil Collins (4th week at #1)

#1 single in France (SNEP): Les Valses de Vienne--François Feldman

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): All Around the World--Lisa Stansfield (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K.: Tears on My Pillow--Kylie Minogue

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): How am I Supposed to Live Without You--Michael Bolton (2nd week at #1)

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Pump Up the Jam--Technotronic featuring Felly (2nd week at #1)
2 How am I Supposed to Live Without You--Michael Bolton
3 Another Day in Paradise--Phil Collins
4 Downtown Train--Rod Stewart
5 Everything--Jody Watley
6 Just Between You and Me--Lou Gramm
7 Rhythm Nation--Janet Jackson
8 Free Fallin'--Tom Petty
9 Love Song--Tesla
10 Two to Make it Right--Seduction

Singles entering the chart were Love Will Lead You Back by Taylor Dayne (#69); Just a Friend by Biz Markie (#75); Sacrifice by Elton John (#77); Whole Wide World by A'me Lorain (#78); Dirty Deeds by Joan Jett (#81); Anything I Want by Kevin Paige (#83); All My Life by Linda Ronstadt (featuring Aaron Neville) (#86); House of Fire by Alice Cooper (#87); All Nite by Entouch (featuring Keith Sweat (#89); To Know Someone Deeply is to Know Someone Softly by Terence Trent D'Arby (#91); and Real Love by Skyy (#92).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Another Day in Paradise--Phil Collins (7th week at #1)
2 Downtown Train--Rod Stewart
3 Just Between You and Me--Lou Gramm
4 Pump Up the Jam--Technotronic featuring Felly
5 We Didn't Start the Fire--Billy Joel
6 Free Fallin'--Tom Petty
7 Don't Know Much--Linda Ronstadt (featuring Aaron Neville)
8 Blame it on the Rain--Milli Vanilli
9 Janie's Got a Gun--Aerosmith
10 Rhythm Nation--Janet Jackson

Singles entering the chart were Show Don't Tell by Rush (#75); What was Going Through My Head by the Grapes of Wrath (#80); Inside Out by Crash Vegas (#82); Was it Nothing at All by Michael Damian (#84); We Can't Go Wrong by Cover Girls (#86); I'll Be Good to You by Quincy Jones (#88); All or Nothing by Milli Vanilli (#90); I Wish it Would Rain by Phil Collins (#92); The Deeper the Love by Whitesnake (#94); and No Myth by Michael Penn (#96).

Diplomacy
U.S. Vice President Dan Quayle began a three-day visit to Panama, Honduras, and Jamaica to explain the policy of the administration of President George Bush on Latin America.

Politics and government
A congress of Poland’s United Workers’ (Communist) Party opened in Warsaw, with 1,600 delegates in attendance.

Hockey
NHL
Montreal 5 Toronto 3

20 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Tears Don't Lie--Mark 'Oh (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Stay Another Day--East 17 (4th week at #1)

Law
The United States Senate voted 86-10 in favour of a bill making it difficult for Congress to pass laws that required action by states and cities but that did not provide federal funds for implementation.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the economy had expanded at an annual rate of 4.5% for the fourth quarter of 1994, and the rate for the year was 4%, the highest level for an entire year since 1984.

Soccer
Manchester United striker Eric Cantona was fined £20,000 and banned from playing for nine months for an attack on fan Matthew Simmons during a game at Crystal Palace two days earlier. Mr. Cantona was also stripped of his captaincy of the French national team and lost his place on the team.

January 26, 2015

450 years ago
1565


War
Forces of the Islamic sultanates of the Deccan defeated those of the Vijayanagara Empire in the Battle of Talikota, leading to the subjugation, and eventual destruction of the last Hindu kingdom in India, and the consolidation of Islamic rule over much of the Indian subcontinent.

130 years ago
1885


Died on this date
Charles George Gordon, 51
. U.K. military officer. Major-General Gordon, known as "Chinese" Gordon for his success in leading Chinese soldiers in suppressing the Taiping Rebellion in the 1860s, served as Governor-General of the Sudan from 1874-1880. An Islamic Mahdist rebellion led by Muhammad Ahmad threatened Sudan, and General Gordon returned to the country to head off the threat. He led the defense of Khartoum against the Mahdist siege of the city that began in March 1884. A relief column was sent from Britain, but it was too late, and General Gordon was killed in an attack on his palace, two days before his 52nd birthday.

110 years ago
1905


Africana
The world's largest diamond ever, the Cullinan, weighing 3,106.75 carats (0.621350 kilograms), was found at the Premier Mine near Pretoria, South Africa.

100 years ago
1915


Born on this date
William Hopper
. U.S. actor. Mr. Hopper, the son of actor DeWolf Hopper and gossip columnist Hedda Hopper, was best known for playing Paul Drake in the television series Perry Mason (1957-1966). He died of pneumonia on March 6, 1970 at the age of 55, three weeks after suffering a stroke.

75 years ago
1940


Music
Frank Sinatra made his first public appearance as a vocalist with Tommy Dorsey and his Orchestra, at the Coronado Theatre in Rockford, Illinois.

War
Soviet forces broke the Finns' strongest defense, the Mannerheim Line, at Summa on the Karelian Isthmus.

Diplomacy
Dutch Foreign Minister Eduard van Kleffens said that the Netherlands would retain its membership in the League of Nations.

Politics and government
Idaho Governor C.A. Bottolfsen, a Republican, appointed John W. Thomas to fill the United States Senate seat that had been vacated by the death on January 19 of William Borah (Republican).

U.S. Senator Burton K. Wheeler (Democrat--Montana) demanded that President Franklin D. Roosevelt state now whether or not he would seek a third term in office.

The Mexican Communist Party announced that it would purge those members not loyal to the U.S.S.R.

Economics and finance
The Japanese-American commercial treaty of 1911 expired, but the U.S. refrained from imposing the higher tonnage and import duties permitted under U.S. law.

Labour
New York Judge Thomas Thacher condemned the quasi-judicial authority of the National Labor Relations Board and urged review of agency decisions by an independent legal authority.

70 years ago
1945


At the movies
The Jade Mask, starring Sidney Toler as Charlie Chan, opened in theatres.

Died on this date
Tom Pendergast, 71
. U.S. politician. Mr. Pendergast was the Democratic Party boss in Kansas City and Jackson County, Missouri, controlling political activity there from approximately 1925-1939, when his career was ended by a conviction for income tax evasion. Mr. Pendergast's most famous protege was Harry Truman, who was elected to the United States Senate in 1934, and took office as Vice-President of the United States six days before Mr. Pendergast's death.

War
U.S. Army Second Lieutenant Audie Murphy stood on top of a tank destroyer and killed or wounded 50 German soldiers while being wounded himself in actions in France that earned him the Medal of Honor. U.S. Army troops joined the attack north of Aachen, supporting British forces against the German salient west of the Roer River. The Soviet Red Army reached the Baltic Sea at Tolkemit and began encircling the German Fourth Army near Heiligenbeil in East Prussia. The Japanese drive against U.S. air bases in southeastern China continued to progress in the provinces of Hunan, Kiangsi, and Kwangtung.

Diplomacy
It was reported that Herbert Pell wouls not return to London as the American commissioner of the United Nations War Crimes Commission because of the congressional failure to appropriate $30,000 for his salary and expenses.

Politics and government
The United States Senate Commerce Committee rejected former Vice President Henry Wallace as Secretary of Commerce, and approved the George bill to separate federal lending agencies from the Department.

Business
A syndicate consisting of Larry MacPhail, Dan Topping, and Del Webb purchased 96.88% of the New York Yankees baseball team and its minor league properties for $2.8 million from the heirs of the late Colonel Jacob Ruppert.

60 years ago
1955


On television tonight
Disneyland, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Davy Crockett Goes to Congress, starring Fess Parker

This was the second of five episodes starring Mr. Parker as Davy Crockett, sparking a national Davy Crockett craze in the United States.

50 years ago
1965


On television tonight
The Fugitive, starring David Janssen, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Fun and Games and Party Favors, with guest stars Katherine Crawford, Mark Goddard, Joan Tompkins, Anthony D. Call, and Peter E. Deuel

Law
Hindi became the official language of India.

40 years ago
1975


Died on this date
Astyanax Douglass, 75
. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Douglass was a catcher who played 4 games with the Cincinnati Reds in 1921 and 7 games with the Reds in 1925, batting .167 (4 for 24) with 1 run batted in.

Politics and government
The Democrat Party, led by Seni Pramoj, finished first in the Thai general election, winning 72 of 269 seats in the national parliament. The Social Justice Party, led by Thawit Klinprathum, finished second with 45 seats, followed by the Thai Nation Party with 28.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 4 @ Vancouver 6

Gregg Boddy, Ron Sedlbauer, Leon Rochefort, Dennis Ververgaert, Paulin Bordeleau, and Mike Robitaille scored for the Canucks as they defeated the Maple Leafs before the usual capacity crowd of 15,570 at Pacific Coliseum in the Sunday CBC radio broadcast. Inge Hammarstrom scored the first 2 Toronto goals, and Darryl Sittler the last 2. Gary Smith was in goal for Vancouver, Doug Favell for Toronto, with each goalie facing 24 shots.

WHA
Toronto 7 @ Edmonton 5

Frank Mahovlich, Pat Hickey, and Jeff Jacques each scored 2 goals for the Toros as they beat the Oilers before 12,237 fans at Edmonton Coliseum. Paul Henderson scored the other Toronto goal. Mr. Mahovlich's second goal, his 20th of the season at 5:44 of the 3rd period, gave Toronto a 6-3 lead, and proved to be the winner. Mr. Hickey scored his second goal into an empty net with 27 seconds remaining. Rusty Patenaude scored twice for Edmonton, with Barry Long, Eddie Joyal, and Ken Baird also scoring. Gilles Gratton won the goaltending duel over Jacques Plante.

30 years ago
1985


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Do They Know it's Christmas?--Band Aid

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): One Night in Bangkok--Murray Head

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Easy Lover--Philip Bailey (with Phil Collins)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): I Want to Know What Love Is--Foreigner

#1 single in the U.K.: I Want to Know What Love Is--Foreigner (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Like a Virgin--Madonna (7th week at #1)

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Like a Virgin--Madonna (5th week at #1)
2 All I Need--Jack Wagner
3 I Want to Know What Love Is--Foreigner
4 Run to You--Bryan Adams
5 You're the Inspiration--Chicago
6 Easy Lover--Philip Bailey (with Phil Collins)
7 Do They Know it's Christmas?--Band Aid
8 Born in the U.S.A.--Bruce Springsteen
9 Cool it Now--New Edition
10 I Would Die 4 U--Prince and the Revolution

Singles entering the chart were Only the Young by Journey (#45); High on You by Survivor (#61); Keeping the Faith by Billy Joel (#70); Go for It by Kim Wilde (#82); The Borderlines by Jeffrey Osborne (#84); Beat of a Heart by Scandal featuring Patty Smyth (#85); Nightshift by the Commodores (#86); Why Can't I Have You by the Cars (#87); Playing to Win by LRB (#88); Rain Forest by Paul Hardcastle (#89); and Obsession by Animotion (#90).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Careless Whisper--Wham! featuring George Michael
2 Do They Know it's Christmas?--Band Aid
3 Like a Virgin--Madonna
4 Run to You--Bryan Adams
5 Easy Lover--Philip Bailey (with Phil Collins)
6 All I Need--Jack Wagner
7 Sea of Love--The Honeydrippers
8 I Want to Know What Love Is--Foreigner
9 Smalltown Boy--Bronski Beat
10 Ti Amo--Laura Branigan

Singles entering the chart were Somebody by Bryan Adams (#81); Nightshift by the Commodores (#87); Jungle Love by the Time (#88); Solid by Ashford & Simpson (#94); Foolish Heart by Steve Perry (#95); and One Night in Bangkok by Murray Head (#96).

25 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Another Day in Paradise--Phil Collins (9th week at #1)

Died on this date
Lewis Mumford, 94
. U.S. sociologist and historian. Mr. Mumford was best known for his studies of cities and urban architecture. His books included The City in History (1961) and The Myth of the Machine (2 volumes, 1967; 1970).

Space
The Canadian Space Agency signed a $146-million contract with Spar Aerospace for the first phase of Radarsat, to be launched in 1994 to send back high-resolution images of Arctic ice, oil spills, etc.

Law
A Canadian inquiry’s report said that the justice system that was supposed to protect him "failed Donald Marshall at every turn." Mr. Marshall, a Micmac Indian, spent 11 years in prison for a 1971 murder that he did not commit. The inquiry into his wrongful conviction and the subsequent mishandling of appeals found that Nova Scotia’s justice system was both incompetent and racist in the handling of his case. False testimony was given at Mr. Marshall’s trial by the police chief in charge of the case, who also pressured young witnesses to falsify stories. The investigation also found that crucial evidence that could have exonerated Mr. Marshall was kept from his lawyer, who was preparing an appeal. The report was also highly critical of a 1983 Nova Scotia Court of Appeal ruling which, although it found Mr. Marshall innocent of the crime, said he was partly to blame for the false conviction because he had lied to police.

World events
U.S. District Court Judge William Hoeveler ordered former Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega held in custody in Florida without bail.

Politics and government
Romanian Vice-President Dumitru Mazilu resigned and accused the regime of the National Salvation Front of using "Stalinist practices."

Economics and finance
The U.S. Commerce Department reported that the gross national product grew 2.9% (later revised to 3.0%) for 1989, down from 4.4% for 1988.

20 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Kourin, kourin--Sikaduo (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Pat Welsh, 79
. U.S. actress. Mrs. Welsh provided the voice of the title character in the movie E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial (1982).

War
Ecuadorean Special Forces attacked Peruvian forces in the Peruvian territory of Quebrada Fashin, beginning the Cenepa War.

Economics and finance
The United States House of Representatives voted 300-132 to approve an amendment to the United States Constitution that would require Congress, in each year beginning with the fiscal year of 2002, to approve a federal budget that was balanced. The language, however, contained a loophole allowing the approval of a budget with a deficit, providing that it received the support of three-fifths of the members of both houses.

10 years ago
2005


Politics and government
Condoleezza Rice was sworn in as U.S. Secretary of State.

Disasters
Two trains derailed, killing 11 and injuring 200 in Glendale, California, near Los Angeles.