Saturday, 28 February 2015

February 29 (2015)

175 years ago
1840

Born on this date

William H. Carney. U.S. soldier. Mr. Carney was born a slave in Virginia, but escaped to freedom through the Underground Railroad. As a member of the all-Negro Company C of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, Mr. Carney distinguished himself in the U.S. Civil War at the Battle of Fort Wagner, outside Charleston, South Carolina, on July 18, 1863, when despite being wounded four times, he made his way back to his unit carrying the flag, and proudly claimed that it never hit the ground. Although the Union forces lost the battle, the 54th was hailed for its courage, and Mr. Carney was promoted to sergeant. In 1900 he was finally awarded the Medal of Honor, becoming the first Negro soldier to win it. He died at the age of 68 on December 9, 1908 in an elevator accident at the Massachusetts State House in Boston, where he had been employed for 35 years.

John Philip Holland. Irish-born U.S. engineer. Mr. Holland is regarded as the father of the modern submarine, having designed the first submarine to be formally commissioned by the U.S. Navy, and the first U.K. Royal Navy submarine, the Holland 1. He died on August 12, 1914 at the age of 74.

75 years ago
1940


Movies
The Academy Awards for 1939 were prsented at the Coconut Grove in the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. Gone With the Wind won a then-record 10 Oscars: Picture; Director (Victor Fleming); Actress (Vivian Leigh); Supporting Actress (Hattie McDaniel); Screenplay (Sidney Howard); Cinematography--Color (Ernest Haller and Ray Rennahan); Art Direction (Lyle Wheeler); Film Editing (Hal Kern and James E. Newsom); a special award to William Cameron Menzies for his use of color; and a special technical award to Don Musgrave for pioneering the use of coordinated equipment in the production of Gone With the Wind. Max Steiner’s memorable original score for Gone With the Wind didn’t win; Herbert Stothart won for The Wizard of Oz. The Wizard of Oz also won for Original Song (Over the Rainbow, written by Harold Arlen and E.Y. Harburg), and Judy Garland won a special Oscar for outstanding juvenile performance. Robert Donat won the Best Actor Oscar for Goodbye, Mr. Chips, while Thomas Mitchell, who appeared in Gone With the Wind, won supporting actor honours for Stagecoach. Stagecoach also won for Score (Richard Hageman, Franke Harling, John Leipold, Louis Gruenberg, Leo Shuken). Other Oscars went to Wuthering Heights for Cinematography--Black and White (Gregg Toland); Mr. Smith Goes to Washington for Original Story (Lewis R. Foster); and The Rains Came for Special Effects (E.H. Hansen and Fred Sersen). David O. Selznick won the Irving C. Thalberg Memorial Award.

War
Representatives of 23 religious denominations, meeting in Philadelphia, urged neutral nations to band together and negotiate an end to the European war. Finland initiated peace negotiations with the U.S.S.R., as Soviet forces were reported to be just 1 mile from the Finnish city of Viborg. Brazilian Foreign Minister Oswaldo Aranha protested the February 12 British naval action against the German freighter Wakama as a violation of Brazilian waters. China claimed to have repulsed Japanese efforts to clean up guerrilla areas on the Anhwei-Kiangsu border southeast of Nanking.

Protest
Jews in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv demonstrated against the new British restriction, announced the previous day, on Jewish purchases of land in Palestine. The executive committee of the League of Nations adopted a resolution condemning the British action.

Economics and finance
The French government revalued its gold stocks to make a 30-billion franc paper profit for the purpose of war finances.

Politics and government
Manuel Quezon, President of the Philippine Commonwealth, said that he would not be a candidate for re-election in 1941.

Science
In a ceremony held in Berkeley, California because of the European war, American physicist Ernest Lawrence received the 1939 Nobel Prize in Physics, "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements," from Sweden's Consul General in San Francisco. The Nobel Prize ceremonies usually took place in Stockholm, with the exception of the ceremony for the Peace Prize, which was held in Oslo.

Education
U.S. education commissioner John W. Studebaker said that controversial subjects should be taught in schools.

February 28, 2015

190 years ago
1825


Diplomacy
The United Kingdom and Russia signed a treaty in London settling the border between Canada and Alaska, then a Russian possession.

130 years ago
1885


Business
American Telephone and Telegraph Company was incorporated in New York as the subsidiary of American Bell Telephone.

100 years ago
1915


Born on this date
Zero Mostel
. U.S. actor. Samuel Joel Mostel was best known for his comic roles in Broadway plays, winning Tony Awards for his starring performances in Rhinoceros (1961); A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1962); and Fiddler on the Roof (1964). In the early 1950s, Mr. Mostel was accused of being a Communist, and was blacklisted from making movies for several years. His best-known movies came in a reprise of his Broadway role in A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1966) and The Producers (1968). Mr. Mostel died of an apparent aortic aneurysm on September 8, 1977 at the age of 62.

Ketti Frings. U.S. author. Mrs. Frings, born Katherine Hartley, was best known for her novel Hold Back the Dawn (1940) and her play--based on Thomas Wolfe's novel--Look Homeward, Angel (1957), which won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1958. She died of cancer at the age of 65 on February 11, 1981, 17 days before her 66th birthday.

Peter Medawar. Brazilian-born U.K. biologist. Sir Peter shared the 1960 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Frank Burnet of Australia "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance." He died on October 2, 1987 at the age of 72.

90 years ago
1925


Died on this date
Friedrich Ebert, 54
. Chancellor of Germany, 1918-1919; 1st President of Germany, 1919-1925. Mr. Ebert, leader of the Social Democratic Party, became Chancellor as Kaiser Wilhelm II was fleeing for the Netherlands, and took office as provisional President on February 11, 1919, and retained the position after the new constitution came into effect in August 1919. He cooperated with nationalist groups in suppressing worker uprisings, which made him a figure of controversy. Mr. Ebert died of septic shock after an emergency appendectomy.

Disasters
The Charlevoix-Kamouraska earthquake, measuring 6.2 on the moment magnitude scale, struck northeastern North America. It was felt most strongly in Quebec, where there were no fatalities, but damage to buildings. 55 aftershocks were recorded.

80 years ago
1935


Died on this date
Chiquinha Gonzaga, 87
. Brazilian musician. Miss Gonzaga was a prominent pianist who composed pieces for piano, as well as theatrical works.

Technology
Gerard Berchet, working under the direction of Wallace Carothers, an organic chemist at the DuPont Experimental Station laboratory near Wilmington, Delaware, first produced the substance that would come to be known as nylon.

75 years ago
1940


On television today
The first live telecast of a basketball game occurred when a college match between Fordham University and the University of Pittsburgh at Madison Square Garden was broadcast by the experimental station W2XBS to several hundred homes in New York. There was a 20-minute blackout due to technical problems.

Americana
U.S. population was reported at 131,669,275, with 12,865,518 Negroes (9.8%).

War
The U.S.S.R. gave Finland 48 hours to respond to its peace proposal. Soviet forces fought to within 7 miles of the Finnish city of Viborg.

World events
The United Kingdom announced a curb on Jewish land purchases in agricultural areas of Palestine.

Economics and finance
The U.S. House of Representatives passed and sent to conference a bill providing for a $100-million increase in the lending authority of the Import-Export Bank.

Disasters
Floods in northern California from Tehchapi to the Oregon state line marooned 4,000 people and caused $1 million in damages.

70 years ago
1945


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Amor, Amor--Bing Crosby (1st month at #1)

At the movies
A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, starring Joan Blondell, Peggy Ann Garner, and James Dunn, received its premiere screening in New York.

Literature
Richard Wright's autobiography Black Boy was published.

War
The Korean provisional government in Chungking, not yet recognized by any nation, declared war on Germany in order to participate in the founding conference of the United Nations in San Francisco. U.S. troops in Germany crossed the Erft River, the last natural obstacle before the Rhine River, in the vicinity of Sindorf. Soviet troops in Germany seized the Pomeranian rail centre of Neustettin. American forces in the Philippines landed on Palawan and quickly seized control of vital points without much opposition. U.S. Marines pushed forward on Iwo Jima, reaching the uncompleted northern air strip.

Diplomacy
U.S. charge d'affaires in Chungking George Atcheson sent a telegram to the U.S. State Department criticizing the Chinese Nationalist government as ineffectual, and urging more even-handed treatment of the Communists. The cable provoked a bitter conflict between the State Department's "China hands" and U.S. Army General Patrick Hurley, U.S. adviser to the Nationalist government.

The British House of Commons approved the decisions taken on Poland at the recent Yalta Conference.

Egyptian and Turkish representatives signed the United Nations declaration in Washington.

At the Inter-American Conference in Mexico City, the U.S.A. proposed a plan to guarantee hemispheric boundaries and an assurance that it would take action with Latin American states against any nation attacking their territorial integrity.

Defense
U.S. Army Air Forces commanding General Hap Arnold revealed that the Army's first jet-propelled combat plane, the P-80 Shooting Star, was in production.

Economics and finance
The U.S. State Department reached a Lend-Lease agreement with France to provide the latter with immediate and postwar reconstruction aid.

Labour
The U.S. National War Labor Board granted a wage increase of $2-$4 per week to 21,250 telephone employees in New York City, Louisville, Washington, and Memphis.

60 years ago
1955


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Jim, Johnny & Jonas--Hula Hawaiian Quartett (2nd month at #1)

On television tonight
Sherlock Holmes, starring Ronald Howard and H. Marion Crawford
Tonight's episode: The Case of the Careless Suffragette

40 years ago
1975


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand: I Can Help--Billy Swan (4th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): I Can Help--Billy Swan

#1 single in Switzerland: I Can Help--Billy Swan (5th week at #1)

Television
It was reported that Jim Johnston, anchorman of the evening newscast at CFCN in Calgary, had resigned on the air in protest of the station's decision to reduce the newscast's time for one evening that week by 5 minutes, with the final 5 minutes being handed over to Alberta's governing Progressive Conservative Party for a free political advertisement. A provincial election was scheduled for March 25.

Diplomacy
Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau began a 16-day European tour aimed at closer ties with the European Economic Community.

Politics and government
The Canadian House of Commons passed a bill to allow for a second MP to represent the Northwest Territories, effective the next federal election. The N.W.T. was currently represented by Wally Firth of the New Democratic Party, elected in 1972 and re-elected in 1974.

Disasters
An underground train failed to stop at Moorgate terminus station in London and crashed into the end of the tunnel, killing 43 people.

Baseball
The Chicago Cubs traded relief pitcher Dave LaRoche and outfielder Brock Davis to the Cleveland Indians for relief pticher Milt Wilcox. Mr. LaRoche had posted a record of 5-6 with 5 saves and an earned run average of 4.79 in 1974. Mr. Wilcox was 2-2 with 4 saves and an ERA of 4.69 in 1974. Mr. Davis, a major league veteran, spent the 1974 season in the Texas League, and his contract was transferred from Midland to San Antonio.

The San Francisco Giants sold left fielder-first baseman-third baseman Dave Kingman to the New York Mets for an estimated $125,000. In 1974, he batted .223 with 18 home runs and 55 runs batted in in 121 games. In four seasons with the Giants, Mr. Kingman batted .224 with 77 homers and 217 RBIs.

30 years ago
1985


Terrorism
The Provisional Irish Republican Army carried out a mortar attack on the Royal Ulster Constabulary police station at Newry, killing nine officers in the highest loss of life for the RUC on a single day.

Crime
Publisher Ernst Zundel was convicted in Toronto for distributing hate literature in a book that said the mass extermination of Jews in Germany in World War II never occurred.

25 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Nothing Compares 2 U--Sinéad O'Connor (2nd week at #1)

Personal
This blogger concluded a two-month term as museum assistant at Musee Heritage Museum in St. Albert, Alberta. It was an interesting and enjoyable job, and I was sorry to leave.

Diplomacy
South African Zulu chief Mangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi met with U.S. President George Bush in Washington and called on him to lift economic sanctions against South Africa.

Hockey
NHL
Edmonton 2 @ Los Angeles 4

Because of fights mainly consisting of players milling around and waltzing, this may have been the longest game I’ve ever seen that was completed in regulation time.

20 years ago
1995


War
Ecuador and Peru signed the Montevideo Declaration, "reiterating their commitment to proceed to an immediate and effective ceasefire," and effectively ending the month-old Cenepa War.

Crime
Raul Salinas de Gortari, brother of former Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari, was indicted for the September 1994 murder of Jose Francisco Ruiz Massieu, deputy leader of the country's governing Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). Carlos Salinas de Gortari's term as President had expired in December 1994.

Scandal
A judicial report on sexual abuse of boys at Kingsclear Training Centre in New Brunswick was released; it was critical of bureaucratic indifference that had allowed abuse to continue for almost 30 years.

Politics and government
Former Australian Liberal Party leader John Hewson resigned from parliament almost two years after the Liberals had lost the 1993 federal election.

Former Tennessee Governor and U.S. Education Secretary Lamar Alexander announced that he would seek the Republican Party nomination for President of the United States in the 1996 election. He urged that many federal programs be eliminated and responsibility given to state governments.

10 years ago
2005


Died on this date
Chris Curtis, 63
. U.K. musician. Mr. Curtis, born Christopher Crummey, was the drummer, as well as singer and songwriter, with the Searchers from 1960-1966. In 1967 he helped to found the rock group Roundabout, which soon changed its name to Deep Purple. Mr. Curtis left the music business soon after to become a civil servant, performing music locally in Liverpool.

Terrorism
127 people were killed in a suicide bombing at a police recruiting centre in Al Hillah, Iraq.

Politics and government
Lebanon's pro-Syrian Prime Minister, Omar Karami, resigned amid large anti-Syria street demonstrations in Beirut.

Crime
BTK serial killer Dennis Rader was charged in Wichita, Kansas with 10 counts of first-degree murder. He later pled guilty and received multiple life sentences.

Friday, 27 February 2015

February 27, 2015

100 years ago
1915


Born on this date
Denis Whitaker
. Canadian military officer and football player. Brigadier-General Whitaker was a quarterback with the Hamilton Tigers from 1937-1939 and 1945-1946. He won two Distinguished Service Orders with the Canadian Army during World War II, and led a team of Canadian football players to a 16-6 win over an American team in the Tea Bowl, played in England in 1944. Mr. Whitaker was inducted into the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame in 1990. He died on May 30, 2001 at the age of 86.

80 years ago
1935


Movies
The Academy Awards for 1934 were presented at the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles. It Happened One Night became the first film to sweep the major categories: Best Picture; Best Director (Frank Capra); Best Actor (Clark Gable); Best Actress (Claudette Colbert); and Best Adapted Screenplay (Robert Riskin).

75 years ago
1940


War
The U.S.S.R. reported the first Soviet success since Christmas 1939 on the Petsamo front in Finland.

Politics and government
The New York State Assembly passed a resolution petitioning the United States Congress to pass a law prohibiting a third term for any President.

Through his supporters, U.S. Vice President John Nance "Cactus Jack" Garner entered the race for New York delegates to the Democratic National Convention in the contest for the 1940 nomination for President of the United States.

Herman Laborde and Valentin Campa, president and secretary, respectively, of the Mexican Communist Party, were purged from the party.

Economics and finance
After months of negotiations, plans for the Inter-American Bank were finally approved by the Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory Committee.

Science
Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben discovered carbon-14.

70 years ago
1945


Politics and government
U.S. Army General Douglas MacArthur turned control of the civil government of the Philippines over to President Sergio Osmena.

Law
The United States Senate Judiciary Committee decided to shelve all proposed constitutional amendments for the duration of World War II.

Defense
Major General Clayton Bissel, in charge of U.S. Army intelligence, and Assisant U.S. War Secretary John McCloy testified at a House of Representatives Military Affairs Committee investigation that they knew of no Communists who had been given commissions in the Army.

Labour
The U.S. National War Labor Board announced authorization of regional loans to permit payment of an hourly wage of 55c to eliminate rates that resulted in a low standard of living.

50 years ago
1965


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Under the Boardwalk/Walking the Dog--The Rolling Stones (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France: Les Filles de mon Pays--Enrico Macias

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Se piangi, se ridi--Bobby Solo

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Kleine Annabell--Ronny (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Letkiss--Gudrun Jankis; Stig Rauno (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): I'll Never Find Another You--The Seekers (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): This Diamond Ring--Gary Lewis and the Playboys (2nd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 This Diamond Ring--Gary Lewis and the Playboys
2 My Girl--The Temptations
3 You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'--The Righteous Brothers
4 Downtown--Petula Clark
5 Eight Days a Week--The Beatles
6 I Go to Pieces--Peter and Gordon
7 All Day and All of the Night--The Kinks
8 King of the Road--Roger Miller
9 The Jolly Green Giant--The Kingsmen
10 The Boy from New York City--The Ad Libs

Singles entering the chart were Do the Clam by Elvis Presley (#69); The Race is On by Jack Jones (#72); Nowhere to Run by Martha & the Vandellas (#76); You Better Get It by Joe Tex (#78); 10 Little Bottles by Johnny Bond (#81); For Mama (La Mamma), with versions by Connie Francis and Jerry Vale (#87, and versions by Matt Monro and Vic Damone mentioned but not charted); I Don't Want to Spoil the Party by the Beatles (#88); Stranger in Town by Del Shannon (#89); It's Gonna Be Alright by Maxine Brown (#90); (Here They Come) From All Over the World by Jan & Dean (#92); This is My Prayer by the Ray Charles Singers (#93); Gee Baby (I’m Sorry) by Three Degrees (#95); Apache '65 by the Arrows (#97); and Land of a Thousand Dances (Part 1) by Thee Midniters (#100, with the version by Cannibal and the Headhunters mentioned but not charted). Do the Clam was from the movie Girl Happy (1965). I Don't Want to Spoil the Party was the B-side of Eight Days a Week.

On television tonight
Sherlock Holmes, starring Douglas Wilmer and Nigel Stock, on BBC 1
Tonight's episode: The Devil's Foot

40 years ago
1975


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): January--Pilot (4th week at #1)

30 years ago
1985


Died on this date
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., 82
. U.S. politician and diplomat. Mr. Lodge, a Republican, was descended from a long line of politicians, and continued the family tradition by representing Massachusetts in the United States Senate from 1937-1944 and 1947-1953. He then served as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations from 1953-1960. In 1960 Mr. Lodge was the vice-presidential running mate to Republican Party presidential candidate Richard Nixon, losing a close and disputed election to the Democratic Party ticket of John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. Mr. Lodge served as U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam from 1963-1964 and again from 1965-1967, during the early years of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. He then served as U.S. Ambassador to West Germany from 1968-1969, before leading the U.S. delegation at the Paris peace talks from 1969-1973. Mr. Lodge occasionally represented U.S. Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford to the Vatican from 1970-1977.

J. Pat O'Malley, 80. U.K.-born U.S. actor and singer. Mr. O'Malley began his career as a singer in England before moving to the United States, where he was a familiar character actor in many films and television programs. He co-starred with Shirley Booth in the television comedy series A Touch of Grace (1973).

25 years ago
1990


On television tonight
The Wonder Years, on ABC
Tonight’s episode: The Glee Club

This was one of my favourite episodes.

Diplomacy
Recently-freed South African anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela went to Zambia to meet with African National Congress leaders, and was greeted by official delegations from many countries.

Politics and government
The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. gave its approval to President Mikhail Gorbachev’s proposal for a popularly elected president having broad executive powers.

Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega said that Contra rebels would have to demobilize before the Sandanistas yielded control of the army and police. Violetta Chamorro, who had defeated Mr. Ortega in the general election two days earlier, called on the Contras to disband to help speed the transfer of power.

Environment
Exxon Corporation and Exxon Shipping were indicted on five criminal counts relating to the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill off Alaska.

20 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Zombie--Ororo (7th week at #1)

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Bang and Blame--R.E.M. (2nd week at #1)
2 Take a Bow--Madonna
3 When I Come Around--Green Day
4 Mishale--Andru Donalds
5 Strong Enough--Sheryl Crow
6 Buddy Holly--Weezer
7 She's a River--Simple Minds
8 On Bended Knee--Boyz II Men
9 The Ballad of Peter Pumpkinhead--Crash Test Dummies
10 Better Man--Pearl Jam

Singles entering the chart were Murder Incorporated by Bruce Springsteen (#60); She Forgot to Laugh by Rymes with Orange (#77); You Got It by Bonnie Raitt (#81); Thank You By Boyz II Men (#82); Come Back by Londonbeat (#83); We Celebrate by the Barra MacNeils (#84); Give Me a Reason to Stay by Freddy Curci (#87); Ode to My Family by the Cranberries (#88); Big Yellow Taxi by Amy Grant (#89); If You Don't Love Me (I’ll Kill Myself) by Pete Droge (#92); Until the End of Time by Foreigner (#93); Gotta Get Away by Oilspring (#95); and Letting Go by Julie Masse (#97).

War
1,800 U.S. Marines began coming ashore in Somalia to assist United Nations peacekeepers in their withdrawal. The UN was in the process of pulling its peacekeeping force out of Somalia after two years.

Terrorism
A terrorist explosion in a market in the city of Zakho in Iraqi Kurdistan left about 100 dead and 150 wounded.

Economics and finance
Canadian Finance Minister Paul Martin tabled his budget; he wanted to cut federal spending 8.8% and bring the deficit down to 3% of gross domestic product.

Politics and government
Massachusetts Governor William Weld said that he would not run for the Republican Party nomination for President of the United States in 1996.

Hockey
NHL
St. Louis 3 Toronto 2

10 years ago
2005


Movies
The Academy Awards for 2004 were presented at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, California. Awards for Million Dollar Baby included Best Picture; Best Director (Clint Eastwood); Best Actress (Hilary Swank); and Best Supporting Actor (Morgan Freeman). Other awards included: Best Actor--Jamie Foxx (Ray); Best Supporting Actress--Cate Blanchett (The Aviator); and Best Foreign Language Film--The Sea Inside.

Wednesday, 25 February 2015

February 26, 2015

200 years ago
1815


World events
Former French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte escaped, in the ship Swiftsure, from the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany, where he had been in exile since April 1814.

130 years ago
1885


Diplomacy
The 15-nation Congress of Berlin agreed to give the Congo to King Leopold II as his personal possession, and gave Nigeria to the United Kingdom.

80 years ago
1935


Defense
German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler ordered the Luftwaffe to be re-formed, violating the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. Reichsmarshall Hermann Goering began Luftwaffe operations.

Robert Watson-Watt carried out a demonstration near Daventry, England, which led directly to the development of radar in the United Kingdom.

Baseball
After 15 seasons with the New York Yankees, right fielder Babe Ruth was given his release, and signed with the Boston Braves as a player and executive.

75 years ago
1940

On the radio

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce
Tonight’s episode: The Reigate Puzzle

Diplomacy
The Pan-American Neutrality Committee established sharp limitations on auxiliary ships of belligerent nations in American territorial waters.

U.S. Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles delivered a confidential message from U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini in Rome.

Defense
The United States Air Defense Command was established at Mitchell Field on Long Island, New York.

Journalism
U.S. newsman James R. Young was indicted in Tokyo for violating the Japanese army code by disseminating slanderous material about the Japanese military.

Labour
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that only the National Labor Relations Board, not labour unions, could take the initiative in compelling employers to comply with NLRB orders.

Medicine
Dr. H.J. Corper of National Jewish Hospital in Denver announced the isolation of a tuberculosis vaccine.

Academia
British philosopher Bertrand Russell was appointed a professor at City College of New York.

Education
The U.S. National Education Association's legislative commitee charged that U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's policies toward public education were meaningless.

70 years ago
1945


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Rum and Coca-Cola--The Andrews Sisters
--Abe Lyman and his Orchestra
--Vaughn Monroe and his Orchestra
2 Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate the Positive--Johnny Mercer and the Pied Pipers
--Artie Shaw and his Orchestra
--Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters
3 Don't Fence Me In--Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters
--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
--Kate Smith
--Horace Heidt and his Musical Knights
4 Saturday Night (Is the Loneliest Night in the Week)--Frank Sinatra
--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
5 I Dream of You (More than You Dream I Do)--Tommy Dorsey and his Orchestra
--Andy Russell
--Frank Sinatra
--Perry Como
6 Confessin' (That I Love You)--Ella Fitzgerald and the Song Spinners
--Perry Como
7 I'm Making Believe--The Ink Spots and Ella Fitzgerald
8 There Goes that Song Again--Russ Morgan and his Orchestra
--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
--Kay Kyser and his Orchestra
9 Cocktails for Two--Spike Jones and his City Slickers
10 Robin Hood--Les Brown and his Orchestra
--Tony Pastor and his Orchestra

Singles entering the chart were the versions of Rum and Coca-Cola by Abe Lyman and his Orchestra and Vaughn Monroe and his Orchestra; My Dreams are Getting Better All the Time, with versions by Les Brown and his Orchestra and the Phil Moore Four (#16); Candy, with versions by Johhny Mercer, Jo Stafford and the Pied Pipers, and Dinah Shore (#25); Guess I'll Hang My Tears Out to Dry by Harry James and his Orchestra (#27); Poor Little Rhode Island by Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians (#35); I Wanna Get Married by Gertrude Niesen (#36); and I Wonder, with versions by Louis Prima and his Orchestra and Louis Armstrong and his Orchestra.

On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on MBS
Tonight's episode: The Disappearance of Lady Frances Carfax

War
Canadian Army Sergeant Aubrey Cosens was awarded the Victoria Cross for bravery in Rhine fighting. The Syrian Chamber of Deputies voted approval of a declaration of war against Germany and Japan. U.S. troops in Germany reached 10 1/2 miles west of Cologne and opened artillery barrages against the city. U.S. Marine observation planes began operating from the southern airfield on Iwo Jima.

Diplomacy
The Allies returned the Algerian supply centre of Oran to the French.

Defense
U.S. Army Air Forces commanding General Hap Arnold warned in his annual report that the United States would be the first target in the next war, and that air power would be the next weapon.

Politics and government
U.S. Senator Hugh Butler (Repuplican--Nebraska) accused President Franklin D. Roosevelt of "secrecy," and demanded that he give Congress an account of the conduct of foreign policy, particularly at the recent Yalta Conference.

Economics and finance
At the Inter-American Conference in Mexico City, the U.S.A. proposed an "economic charter" designed to help the conversion to peacetime economies and raise living standards in the hemisphere.

Society
The U.S. nationwide midnight curfew on entertainment went into effect. In New York City, police were instructed to take the names and addresses of all people violating the curfew.

Labour
In accordance with the Smith-Connally Act, the United Mine Workers of America filed formal notice of a possible strike when contracts expired on March 31, 1945.

60 years ago
1955


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Hold My Hand--Don Cornell; Nat "King" Cole (5th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Mirror): Give Me Your Word--Tennessee Ernie Ford (2nd week at #1)

#1 singles in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Sincerely--The McGuire Sisters (Best Seller--3rd week at #1; Disc Jockey--3rd week at #1); Hearts of Stone--The Fontane Sisters (Jukebox--3rd week at #1)

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Melody of Love--Billy Vaughn and his Orchestra (4th week at #1)
--David Carroll and his Orchestra
--The Four Aces
2 Earth Angel (Will You Be Mine)--The Penguins
--The Crew-Cuts
3 Sincerely--The McGuire Sisters
4 Ko Ko Mo (I Love You So)--Perry Como
--The Crew-Cuts
5 Tweedlee Dee--Georgia Gibbs
--LaVern Baker and the Gliders
6 Hearts of Stone--The Fontane Sisters
--The Charms
7 Let Me Go Lover--Joan Weber
8 The Crazy Otto--Johnny Maddox and the Rhythmasters
9 Mr. Sandman--The Chordettes
--The Four Aces
10 The Naughty Lady of Shady Lane--The Ames Brothers
--Archie Bleyer

Singles entering the chart were The Ballad of Davy Crockett by Bill Hayes (#19); Pledging My Love, with versions by Johnny Ace and Teresa Brewer (#20); Danger! Heartbreak Ahead by Jaye P. Morgan (#21); Birth of the Boogie (#24)/Mambo Rock (#35) by Bill Haley and his Comets; The Sand and the Sea by Nat "King" Cole (#27); A Man Chases a Girl (Until She Catches Him) by Eddie Fisher (#28); and If Anyone Finds This, I Love You by Kay Starr (#44). The Ballad of Davy Crockett was the theme song of several episodes of the television anthology series Disneyland; the first program about Davy Crockett was broadcast on ABC on December 15, 1954. The Sand and the Sea was the B-side of Darling Je Vous Aime Beaucoup, which was currently uncharted after entering the chart on February 12 for two weeks.

50 years ago
1965


Hit parade
Edmonton's top 10 (CJCA)
1 Eight Days a Week--The Beatles
2 Ferry Cross the Mersey--Gerry & the Pacemakers
3 This Diamond Ring--Gary Lewis and the Playboys
4 Little Things--Bobby Goldsboro
5 King of the Road--Roger Miller
6 The Jolly Green Giant--The Kingsmen
7 The Birds and the Bees--Jewel Akens
8 Easy Come, Easy Go--Barry Allen
9 Love Potion No. 9--The Searchers
10 Goldfinger--Shirley Bassey
Pick hit of the week: The Boy from New York City--The Ad Libs
New this week: Can't Go to Sleep--Formula 1
Let the People Talk--Neil Sedaka
For Mamma--Jerry Vale
Little Sidewalk Surfer Girl--The Hondells
(Here They Come) From All Over the World--Jan & Dean
Cry is All I Do--The Esquires

(Here They Come) From All Over the World was the theme from The T.A.M.I. Show, a two-day rock concert at Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Santa Monica, California on October 28 and 29, 1964, which was filmed and released as a movie, opening in theatres on December 29, 1964.

Space
The U.S.S.R. launched the satellite Cosmos 58.

40 years ago
1975


Died on this date
Stephen Tibble, 22
. U.K. police officer. Police Constable Tibble had been with the London police force for just six months when he was shot to death by Irish Republican Army terrorist Liam Quinn, who escaped to San Francisco.

Politics and government
Jean Marchand resigned as Quebec leader of the Liberal Party of Canada, but stayed on as Minister of Transport in the cabinet of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau.

30 years ago
1985


Died on this date
Tjalling Koopmans, 74
. Dutch-born U.S. economist. Dr. Koopmans shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences with Leonid Kantorovich "for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources."

25 years ago
1990


Died on this date
Cornell Gunter, 53
. U.S. singer. Mr. Gunter was an original member of the Platters in the early 1950s, before joining the Flairs, and later, the Coasters, with whom he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1987. He was shot to death in his car in Las Vegas.

World events
The U.S.S.R. began pulling its 73,500 troops out of Czechoslovakia, agreeing to be out by July 1991.

Politics and government
Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega conceded defeat to Violetta Chamorro in the previous day’s general election.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 2 @ Vancouver 5

20 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Old Pop in an Oak--Rednex (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Cotton Eye Joe--Rednex (14th week at #1)

Died on this date
Jack Clayton, 73
. U.K. film director. Mr. Clayton directed just seven theatrical films, but they included Room at the Top (1959); The Innocents (1961); and The Great Gatsby (1974). He died of a heart attack three days before his 74th birthday.

Music
This blogger attended a matinee performance of the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra at the Northern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium in Edmonton, with David Hoyt conducting. The guest soloist was violinist Leila Josefowicz.

Scandal
Barings Bank, the United Kingdom's oldest investment banking institute, collapsed after securities broker Nick Leeson lost $1.4 billion by speculating on the Singapore International Monetary Exchange using futures contracts.

Economics and finance
China agreed to take a number of steps to enforce copyright laws and close down the illegal manufacturing of copies of U.S. motion picture and music recordings. The moves came before U.S. tariffs of as much as 100% went into effect on a wide range of goods imported from China.

10 years ago
2005


Died on this date
Jef Raskin, 61
. U.S. computer scientist. Mr. Raskin was best known for conceiving and beginning the Macintosh project in 1979 when he was with Apple Computers. He was a man of various interests, and was a skilled musician and artist. Mr. Raskin died of pancreatic cancer 11 days before his 62nd birthday.

Tuesday, 24 February 2015

February 25, 2015

75 years ago
1940


On television tonight
The New York Rangers defeated the Montreal Canadiens 6-2 at Madison Square Garden in New York in the world's first televised hockey game, broadcast on Westinghouse station W2XBS-TV in New York.

War
Foreign ministers of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden announced that their countries would act as a unit to gain the belligerents' respect for their neutral rights. Japan began constructing extensive fortifications in the Shanghai and Tsingtao areas, indicating her desire to hold the Chinese sea coast.

Diplomacy
Francis B. Sayre, high commissioner of the Philippines, said that the United States would leave the islands as scheduled in 1946.

Politics and government
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt left his name on the Illinois Democratic primary ballot for President of the United States in 1940, to face Vice President John Nance "Cactus Jack" Garner. In the Republican Party, New York District Attorney Thomas Dewey became the only candidate, as New York Congressman Hamilton Fish and New York Mayor Fiorello La Guardia withdrew their names.

Economics and finance
The U.S. National Economy League issued a plan for a balanced federal budget of $7.282 billion.

70 years ago
1945


Radio
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's international shortwave service, Voice of Canada--later renamed Radio Canada International--offically opened in Ottawa.

War
The U.S. 1st Army took Dueren, while the 9th Army reported the capture of 15 other German towns. Soviet forces took the Pomeranian stronghold of Preussisch Friedland and sent tank spearheads to within 60 miles of the Baltic coast. Marianas-based U.S. bombers attacked Tokyo, destroying 240 square blocks of the city.

Politics and government
Rome reported an announcement issued by Harold Macmillan saying that the Allied Control Commitee had relinquished control over liberated Italian territory, and that Italy could now appoint its own functionaries without committee approval except in cases of military necessity, which had to be approved by the Supreme Allied Commander.

Defense
Jack Woolams, chief test pilot with Bell Aircraft Corporation, flew the first prototype of Bell's new twin-jet fighter plane XP-83, and found it underpowered and unstable.

Aviation
Pan American Airways signed a contract in San Diego for 15 giant six-engined clippers from Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation for postwar travel abroad. The planes each weighed 160 tons; had a range of 4,200 miles; carried 204 passengers and 15,300 pounds of baggage; flew at 310-342 miles per hour; and could travel between London and New York in a little over nine hours.

60 years ago
1955


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Softly, Softly--Ruby Murray (2nd week at #1)

50 years ago
1965


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): I'll Never Find Another You--The Seekers

Diplomacy
Chile and Bulgaria re-established diplomatic relations after a 17-year break.

Abominations
The Canadian House of Commons received the preliminary report of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism.

40 years ago
1975


Died on this date
Elijah Muhammad, 77
. U.S. religious leader. Mr. Muhammad, born Elijah Poole, was the son of a Baptist lay preacher, but converted to Islam in the early 1930s, and led the Nation of Islam--commonly known as Black Muslims--from 1934 until his death. He promoted a version of Islam in which white people were "devils," and Negroes would eventually establish hegemony over whites. Malcolm X was a prominent member of the Nation of Islam, but broke with the movement in 1964 after accusing Mr. Muhammad of corruption; the Nation of Islam was accused of Mr. X's assassination on February 21, 1965.

Baseball
The Baltimore Orioles traded first baseman Boog Powell and pitcher Don Hood to the Cleveland Indians for catcher Dave Duncan and outfielder Al McGrew. In 14 seasons with the Orioles, Mr. Powell had batted .266 with 303 home runs and 1,063 runs batted in in 1,763 games. He was named the Most Valuable Player in 1970, when he batted .297 with 35 homers and 114 RBIs. Mr. Powell's productivity had tailed off in recent years; in 1974 he had batted .265 with 12 homers and 45 RBIs in 110 games. Mr. Hood, a middle relief pitcher, had joined the Orioles in 1973; in 1974 he posted a 1-1 record with an earned run average of 3.47 in 20 games. Mr. Duncan, a weak-hitting catcher with strong defensive skills, had batted .216 with 93 home runs and 283 RBIs in 740 games in 10 seasons in the major leagues. In 1974, he had batted .200 with 16 homers and 46 RBIs in 136 games. Mr. McGrew had yet to play in the major leagues.

The Texas Rangers traded pitcher Steve Dunning to the Chicago White Sox for pitcher Stan Perzanowski. Mr. Dunning had entered the major leagues with the Cleveland Indians in 1970 and had been traded to the Rangers in 1973, posting a record of 20-35 with an earned run average of 4.64 through 1974. He spent most of the 1974 season with the Spokane Indians of the Pacific Caost League, pitching in just 1 game with the Rangers. Mr. Perzanowski had pitched with the White Sox in 1971 and 1974, posting a 0-1 record in 7 games with an ERA of 14.63. The Rangers assigned him to Spokane.

30 years ago
1985


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): I Want to Know What Love Is--Foreigner (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Yoisho!--Masahiko Kondō

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Amante Bandido--Miguel Bosé

25 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Welcome to Our World--John Grenell (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Bakerman--Laid Back (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Nothing Compares 2 U--Sinéad O'Connor

Politics and government
The National Opposition Union (UNO) defeated the Sandanista National Liberation Front (FSLN) in the Nicaraguan general election, ending more than 10 years of Sandanista rule. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, who belonged to no party, defeated President Daniel Ortega 55%-41%, and the UNO also won more seats in the National Assembly. The 1978 assassination of Mrs. Chamorro’s husband, an editor, had helped to provoke the overthrow of the regime of President Anastasio Somoza by the Sandanistas in 1979, but Mrs. Chamorro, who initially supported the FSLN, turned against them as they shifted more toward Marxism. Dissatisfaction with the economy was regarded as the prime factor in the defeat of the Sandanistas. 2,000 foreign observers monitored the election. A few days before the election, the Edmonton Journal published an editorial warning the United States to abide by the results of the election; the Journal apparently wasn’t expecting the FSLN to lose.

Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa told provincial Liberals at a party general council meeting that Quebec would not return to the Canadian constitutional bargaining table if the Meech Lake accord failed. The party agreed to establish a committee to start examining the province’s options if the accord was not ratified by the June 25 deadline. Although he did not specifically advocate provincial independence if Meech Lake failed, Mr. Bourassa said that Quebec would not "practice federalism on our knees." Manitoba Premier Gary Filmon, whose province had not yet approved the accord, described Mr. Bourassa’s action as "sabre-rattling." Newfoundland Premier Clyde Wells said that Mr. Bourassa was bluffing, and that Newfoundland would not be influenced by the action.

Diplomacy
U.S. President George Bush and West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl concluded two days of talks. At a press conference they endorsed the concept of a united Germany within NATO. Mr. Bush said that the United States formally recognized the current German-Polish border. Some Poles were concerned that a united Germany might want to regain territory ceded to Poland after World War II.

Protest
Hundreds of thousands of pro-democracy demonstrators took to the streets in more than 30 cities in the U.S.S.R.

Hockey
NHL
Calgary 10 Edmonton 4

20 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): Another Night--Real McCoy (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Denmark (Nielsen Music Control & IFPI): Here Comes the Hotstepper--Ini Kamoze

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): The Reason is You--Nina

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Think Twice--Celine Dion (7th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Take a Bow--Madonna

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Take a Bow--Madonna (2nd week at #1)
2 Creep--TLC
3 On Bended Knee--Boyz II Men
4 Strong Enough--Sheryl Crow
5 If You Love Me--Brownstone
6 Hold My Hand--Hootie & the Blowfish
7 You Gotta Be--Des'ree
8 Every Day of the Week--Jade
9 I Know--Dionne Farris
10 Sukiyaki--4 P.M.

Singles entering the chart were If I Wanted To/Like the Way I Do by Melissa Etheridge (#16); Red Light Special by TLC (#45); Thank You by Boyz II Men (#50); If You Think You're Lonely Now by K-Ci Hailey of Jodeci (#60); Come Back by Londonbeat (#62); You Got It by Bonnie Raitt (#64); If You Don't Love Me (I’ll Kill Myself) by Pete Droge (#67); Dream About You/Funky Melody by Stevie B (#83); Don't Tell Me (What Love Can Do) by Van Halen (#85); I Live My Life for You by Firehouse (#87); and Never Find Someone Like You by Keith Martin (#90).

Music
Frank Sinatra made his last appearance as a singer before an audience of 1,200 select guests at the Palm Desert Marriott Ballroom, on the last night of the Frank Sinatra Desert Classic golf tournament.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 5 Winnipeg 2

10 years ago
2005


Died on this date
Peter Benenson, 83
. U.K. lawyer. Mr. Benenson, born Peter Solomon, founded the human rights organization Amnesty International in 1961.

Leo Labine, 73. Canadian hockey player. Mr. Labine was a right wing with the Boston Bruins (1951-61) and Detroit Red Wings (1961-62), scoring 321 points on 128 goals and 193 assists in 643 regular season games and 12 goals and 11 assists in 60 playoff games. His best season was probably 1954-55, when he scored 24 goals and 18 assists. Mr. Labine concluded his professional career with the Los Angeles Blades of the Western Hockey League (1962-67).

Eddie Patten, 65. U..S. singer. Mr. Patten was a member of Gladys Knight and the Pips, and was Miss Knight's first cousin. He died of a stroke.

February 24, 2015

Born on this date
Happy birthday, Kavis Reed!

200 years ago
1815


Died on this date
Robert Fulton, 49
. U.S. engineer. Mr. Fulton was credited with developing the first commercially successful steamboat, and designed the first working submarine, the Nautilus. He also invented some of the world's first naval torpedoes. Mr. Fulton died of tuberculosis.

125 years ago
1890


Born on this date
Marjorie Main
. U.S. actress. Miss Main, born Mary Tomlinson, was best known for playing Ma Kettle in a series of 10 Ma and Pa Kettle movie comedies in the 1940s and '50s. She died on April 10, 1975 at the age of 85.

120 years ago
1895


War
Revolution broke out in Baire, a town near Santiago de Cuba, beginning the Cuban War of Independence.

110 years ago
1905


Hockey
Members of the Ottawa Silver Seven celebrated their Stanley Cup championship by booting the cup onto the frozen Rideau Canal. Captain Harry Smith retrieved it unharmed the following day.

100 years ago
1915


War
The Canadian Corps took over 4 miles of a section of trench line near Armentières, France.

90 years ago
1925


Died on this date
Hjalmar Branting, 64
. Prime Minister of Sweden, 1920; 1921-1923; 1924-1925. Mr. Branting led the Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1907 until his death. He was awarded a share of the 1921 Nobel Peace Prize "for his work in the League of Nations." Upon Mr. Branting's death, he was succeeded as Prime Ministe by Rickard Sandler.

Diplomacy
Canada and the U.S.A. signed a boundary treaty in Washington, creating the International Lake of the Woods Control Board.

80 years ago
1935

On the radio

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Louis Hector and Leigh Lovell, on NBC

75 years ago
1940


At the movies
The short film Teddy, the Rough Rider, starring Sidney Blackmer, opened in theatres.

War
The German general staff completed the final secret plan for an offensive in the West. The Turkish Supreme Defense Council declared a state of emergency after Soviet troops were reported crossing the Caucasus frontier. Labour leaders in New Zealand issued a statement supporting the war aims of the United Kingdom.

Diplomacy
Speaking in Birmingham, England, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain appealed to all European nations to work together for a new European order. He outlined the U.K.'s peace aims, and offered to seek a settlement with any government that subscribed to them.

Communications
The U.S. Federal Communications Commission urged Congress to bring all U.S. cable and radio services overseas under its rule to avoid foreign interference.

Track and field
Gregory Rice set a world record of 13:55.9 for the three-mile run at Madison Square Garden in New York.

70 years ago
1945


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Rum and Coca-Cola--The Andrews Sisters (3rd week at #1)

Died on this date
Ahmad Mahir Pasha, 56(?)
. Prime Minister of Egypt, 1944-1945. Mr. Mahir, leader of the Saadist International Party, took office as Prime Minister on October 10, 1944, following King Farouk's removal of Mustafa an-Nahhas Pasha. Mr. Mahir called for new elections and opposed the Muslim Brotherhood, all of whose candidates were defeated amidst accusations of unfairness in the electoral process. Mr. Mahir was assassinated in the parliamentary chamber in Cairo by Wadf Party member Mustafa Essawy, 28, after reading aloud a declaration of war against Germany and Japan. He was succeeded as Prime Minister by Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha.

Movies
A nationwide Gallup Poll of readers of movie magazines determined that Greer Garson was the most popular star in the United States.

Theatre
Trio, written by Dorothy and Howard Baker, closed at the Belasco Theatre on Broadway in New York after New York License Commissioner Paul Moss had refused to renew the theatre's license if the play continued to run there. Trio 's themes included an older woman's feelings for a girl. It had been scheduledto open at the Cort Theatre on November 8, 1944, but Cort owner Lee Shubert had refused to allow the play to run there. Belasco lease-holder Elmer Rice then permitted Trio to open on December 19, 1944. The play, whose cast included Richard Widmark, closed after 67 performances.

War
The U.S. Selective Service announced that men up to age 34 would have to meet more rigid specifications to be eligible for occupational deferments. German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler delivered a radio address in which he said that "there is no greater terror in store" for Germany, and predicted a turning point in the war in 1945. In two days of fighting across the Roer River, U.S. troops reported the capture of 21 German towns and the taking of 400 prisoners. U.S. troops in the Philippines completed the liberation of Manila with the complete destruction of the Japanese garrison, which made a last stand in the fortress of Intramuros.

Diplomacy
Uruguay became a member of the United Nations, leaving Argentina as the only Latin American republic not yet a member.

Politics and government
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the George bill, stripping the Commerce Department of control over federal lending agencies.

Energy
U.S. Interior Secretary harold Ickes announced the return to owners of 72 bituminous coal mines in West Virginia, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania.

Track and field
At the Amateur Athletic Union championships in New York City, the New York Athletic Club retained its team title, with the United States Military Academy second and he United States Naval Academy third.

60 years ago
1955


Weather
Much of the United Kingdom was cut off from essential supplies because of deep snow and the coldest temperatures in 30 years.

50 years ago
1965


Music
The Beach Boys were at Universal/Radio Recorders Studio in Hollywood, California, where they recorded the single version of Help Me, Rhonda.

Diplomacy
East German President Walter Ulbricht arrived in Cairo for a visit, which caused a breach in relations between Egypt and West Germany.

40 years ago
1975


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Please Mr. Postman--Carpenters

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Todo El Tiempo Del Mundo--Manolo Otero (10th week at #1)

Died on this date
Nikolai Bulganin, 79
. 6th Premier of the Soviet Union, 1955-1958. Mr. Bulganin was an associate of Nikita Khrushchev, and became Minister of Defence in March 1953, after the death of dictator Josef Stalin. Mr. Bulganin relinquished that post the day after taking office as Premier, succeeding Georgy Malenkov. Mr. Bulganin eventually ran afoul of Mr. Khrushchev and was forced to resign in 1958 and forced into retirement in 1960.

30 years ago
1985


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Born in the U.S.A.--Bruce Springsteen

#1 single in France (SNEP): When the Rain Begins to Fall--Pia Zadora and Jermaine Jackson (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Shout--Tears for Fears

Hockey
NHL
Montreal 4 New York Islanders 3 (OT)

25 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): Nothing Compares 2 U--Sinéad O'Connor

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Un' Estate Italiana--Edoardo Bennato; Gianna Nannini (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Pump Up the Jam--Technotronic featuring Felly (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Get Up! (Before the Night Is Over)--Technotronic

#1 single in France (SNEP): Hélène--Roch Voisine (8th week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Nothing Compares 2 U--Sinéad O'Connor (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K.: Nothing Compares 2 U--Sinéad O'Connor (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Opposites Attract--Paula Abdul (with Wild Pair) (3rd week at #1)

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Two to Make it Right--Seduction
2 Opposites Attract--Paula Abdul (with Wild Pair)
3 Escapade--Janet Jackson
4 Dangerous--Roxette
5 What Kind of Man Would I Be?--Chicago
6 All or Nothing--Milli Vanilli
7 Tell Me Why--Expose
8 How am I Supposed to Live Without You?--Michael Bolton
9 We Can't Go Wrong--Cover Girls
10 Here We Are--Gloria Estefan

Singles entering the chart were Without You by Motley Crue (#63); The Heart of the Matter by Don Henley (#64); True Blue Love by Lou Gramm (#72); A Face in the Crowd by Tom Petty (#76); I'll Be There by Joyce “Fenderella” Irby (#78); Living in Oblivion by Anything Box (#83); and Anytime by McAuley Schenker Group (#87).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Downtown Train--Rod Stewart (3rd week at #1)
2 Opposites Attract--Paula Abdul (with Wild Pair)
3 Janie's Got a Gun--Aerosmith
4 What Kind of Man Would I Be?--Chicago
5 Peace in Our Time--Eddie Money
6 Free Fallin'--Tom Petty
7 Dangerous--Roxette
8 Escapade--Janet Jackson
9 All or Nothing--Milli Vanilli
10 Two to Make it Right--Seduction

Singles entering the chart were Blue Sky Mine by Midnight Oil (#69); Take One Away by Burton Cummings (#70); Don't Look Back by Kenny MacLean (#72); Forever by Kiss (#74); The Pass by Rush (#77); All Around the World by Lisa Stansfield (#81); Look Me in the Heart by Tina Turner (#87); Long Way by Honeymoon Suite (#89); and Bodyguard by the Bee Gees (#93).

Died on this date
Sandro Pertini, 93. 7th President of Italy, 1978-1985. Mr. Pertini had a career as a socialist politician lasting almost 60 years; he was opposed to both Communism and corruption.

Malcolm Forbes, 70. U.S. publisher and socialite. Mr. Forbes was the publisher of Forbes magazine, which had been founded by his father B.C. Forbes. Malcolm Forbes was an advocate of capitalism and a practitioner of an extravagant lifestyle, which included homosexual behaviour that wasn't disclosed until just after his death.

Johnnie Ray, 63. U.S. singer. Mr. Ray rocketed to fame with one of the biggest hit records of the 1950s. Cry was written by Churchill Kohlman, a night watchman in a dry-cleaning plant in Pittsburgh. The B-side, The Little White Cloud that Cried, was written by Mr. Ray. Released in the fall of 1951, the record sold a million copies in eight weeks, and 1½ million by February 1952. Cry held the #1 position on the Billboard chart for 10 weeks, while The Little White Cloud that Cried went to #2. Mr. Ray’s emotional singing style earned him a number of derisive nicknames, including "The Prince of Wails" and "The Nabob of Sob." He broke box office records with live appearances in the U.S.A. in 1952 and elsewhere through the mid-1950s. Mr. Ray was a link between post-World War II crooners and mid-’50s rock and roll artists. He was an inspiration to a young Elvis Presley, and had a hit with Such a Night a decade before Elvis covered it. Mr. Ray failed to duplicate the success of his biggest hit, but he had a respectable run on the charts, with singles such as Please, Mr. Sun/(Here Am I) Broken Hearted (1952); All of Me (#12, 1952); Just Walkin’ in the Rain (#2, 1956); and You Don’t Owe Me a Thing (#10)/Look Homeward, Angel (#36) (1957). Yes Tonight, Josephine (#12, 1957) was his last notable hit in the U.S.A., but as was the case with several other American performers, Mr. Ray remained popular in the U.K. His only movie appearance was in There’s No Business Like Show Business (1954), and his performance has to be seen to be believed. An unhappy private life--bisexuality and heavy drinking--as well as changing musical tastes contributed to his decline. Go here for more about Mr. Ray.

Tony Conigliaro, 45. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Conigliaro was an outfielder with the Boston Red Sox (1964-1970, 1975) and California Angels (1971), batting .264 with 166 home runs and 516 runs batted in in 876 games. In 1965 "Tony C." led the AL with 32 home runs despite missing 24 games. He had 104 home runs as of August 18, 1967--more than Babe Ruth at the same age--when he was hit near the left eye by a pitch from Jack Hamilton of the California Angels. Mr. Conigliaro mised the reat of 1967 and all of 1968, but came back to hit 20 home runs in 1969 and a career-best 36 in 1970. His vision began to deteriorate after his trade to the Angels, and he retired in mid-season in 1971 after hitting just 4 home runs. A comeback in 1975 produced limited success. Mr. Conigliaro then embarked on a career as a sportscaster. In 1982, Mr. Conigliaro suffered a heart attack while being driven to the airport by his brother Billy, and resulting brain damage left him bedridden for the remainder of his life.

Diplomacy
U.S. President George Bush and West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl began two days of talks.

Politics and government
Candidates favouring independence did very well in multiparty elections for the Supreme Soviet of Lithuania. Runoff elections would determine the final outcome.

20 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Conquest of Paradise--Vangelis (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Self Esteem--The Offspring

Energy
Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Georgi Mamedov concluded two days of talks in Washington by telling U.S. officials that Russia would go ahead with an agreement with Iran to construct a nuclear power reactor on the Persian Gulf. Although the project was purportedly for commercial usage, U.S. officials feared that Iran would gain expertise and materials which which to build nuclear weapons.

Politics and government
The day after raising a record $4.1 million at a dinner in Dallas, U.S. Senator Phil Gramm (Republican--Texas) announced his intention to seek his party's nomination for President of the United States in the 1996 election. He declared that he was committed to balancing the federal budget, and pledged to overhaul the welfare system and end affirmative-action job programs.

Monday, 23 February 2015

February 23, 2015

130 years ago
1885


War
In the Sino-French War, the French Army gained an important victory in the Battle of Đồng Đăng in the Tonkin region of Vietnam.

110 years ago
1905


Society
Chicago attorney Paul Harris and three other businessmen met for lunch to form the Rotary Club, the world's first service club.

100 years ago
1915


Born on this date
Jon Hall
. U.S. actor. Mr. Hall, born Charles Felix Locher, was best known for his starring role in the movie The Hurricane (1937). He was also an inventor and aviator, and held patents on an underwater camera, optivision lenses and the design of the hulls of PT boats for the United States Navy. Mr. Hall was suffering from bladder cancer when he committed suicide on December 13, 1979 at the age of 64.

Paul Tibbets. U.S. military officer. Brigadier General Tibbets was a United States Army aviator who was best known as the pilot of the Enola Gay, the plane that dropped the atomic bomb "Little Boy" on Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945. He died on November 5, 2007 at the age of 92.

75 years ago
1940


War
Allied forces established a blockade in the Arctic in an effort to halt shipment of high-grade ore to Germany from Scandinavia.

Economics and finance
Chinese officials rejected a British offer to settle their dispute over $3.2 million in silver by storing it in a neutral bank.

70 years ago
1945


Died on this date
Aleksey Tolstoy, 62
. Russian author. Mr. Tolstoy, the son of Count Nikolai Tolstoy and a distant relative of author Leo Tolstoy, was known for science fiction and historical novels. His novels included Aelita (1923) and The Hyperboloid of Engineer Garin (1927).

War
The Turkish National Assembly voted a declaration of war against Germany and Japan. U.S. Undersecretary of War Robert Patterson said that the Army would need 900,000 more men, and that war industries would need 700,000 in the first six months of 1945. The German town of Pforzheim was annihilated in a raid by 379 British bombers. U.S. forces in Germany crossed the Roer River, and fought their way to Juelich and Dueren. The German garrison in Poznań capitulated to Soviet and Polish forces, with a reported loss of 84,000 German troops in the month-long siege. Manila was liberated by combined Filipino and American forces. The U.S. 11th Airborne Division, with Filipino guerrillas, freed the captives of the Los Baños internment camp. During the Battle of Iwo Jima, a group of United States Marines and a commonly forgotten U.S. Navy Corpsman reached the top of Mount Suribachi on the island and were photographed raising the American flag.

Politics and government
Netherlands Prime Minister Pieter Gerbrandy completed formation of a new cabinet except for two positions to be filled shortly.

Diplomacy
Alberto Tarchiani, the new Italian Ambassador to the U.S.A., arrived in Washington to assume his duties.

60 years ago
1955


On television tonight
Disneyland, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Davy Crockett at the Alamo, starring Fess Parker

This was the third of five episodes starring Mr. Parker as Davy Crockett, sparking a national Davy Crockett craze in the United States.

Defense
The first meeting of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) took place.

50 years ago
1965


Died on this date
Stan Laurel, 74
. U.K.-born U.S. actor. Mr. Laurel, born Arthur Stanley Jefferson, became famous as half of the comedy team of Laurel and Hardy, teaming with Oliver Hardy to star in dozens of silent and sound films from 1927-1950. The pair comprised this blogger's favourite comedy team.

Law
Jacques Hébert was sentenced in Quebec to 30 days in jail and a $3,000 fine for contempt of court for statements in J'Accuse les assassins de Coffin (1963), his book about the 1956 execution of Wilbert Coffin, a prospector who had been convicted of the 1953 murders of three men.

Health
The Ontario Medical Services Insurance Committee recommended a health insurance plan similar to Alberta's.

40 years ago
1975


Hockey
NHL
Toronto 1 @ Buffalo 4

Rick Martin scored 2 goals, including the winner with 1:23 remaining in the 2nd period, to lead the Sabres over the Maple Leafs before 15,863 fans at War Memorial Auditorium in the weekly CBC radio broadcast. Jocelyn Guevremont opened the scoring for Buffalo in the 1st period; after Blaine Stoughton scored for Toronto in the 2nd period to tie the game, Mr. Martin scored his 37th goal of the season, and Rick Dudley scored just 14 seconds later to make the score 3-1. Mr. Martin scored his 38th of the season with 6:27 remaining in the game. Gary Bromley won the goaltending duel over Gord McRae.

30 years ago
1985


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Noi Ragazzi Di Oggi--Luis Miguel

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Do What You Do--Jermaine Jackson (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Shout--Tears for Fears

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): I Know Him So Well--Elaine Paige and Barbara Dickson (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K.: I Know Him So Well--Elaine Paige and Barbara Dickson (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Careless Whisper--Wham! featuring George Michael (2nd week at #1)

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Careless Whisper--Wham! (2nd week at #1)
2 Easy Lover--Philip Bailey (with Phil Collins)
3 I Want to Know What Love Is--Foreigner
4 Loverboy--Billy Ocean
5 California Girls--David Lee Roth
6 The Boys of Summer--Don Henley
7 Sugar Walls--Sheena Easton
8 Can't Fight This Feeling--REO Speedwagon
9 Method of Modern Love--Daryl Hall John Oates
10 The Old Man Down the Road--John Fogerty

Singles entering the chart were Along Comes a Woman by Chicago (#59); All She Wants to Do is Dance by Don Henley (#68); Let's Talk About Me by Alan Parsons Project (#81); Say it Again by Santana (#82); The Bird by the Time (#84); New Attitude by Patti LaBelle (#85); Don't You (Forget About Me) by Simple Minds (#87); One Night in Bangkok by Murray Head (#88); and Look My Way by the Vels (#90). New Attitude was from the movie Beverly Hills Cop (1984).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 I Want to Know What Love Is--Foreigner
2 Easy Lover--Philip Bailey (with Phil Collins)
3 Careless Whisper--Wham! featuring George Michael
4 Neutron Dance--Pointer Sisters
5 You're the Inspiration--Chicago
6 Loverboy--Billy Ocean
7 Method of Modern Love--Daryl Hall John Oates
8 California Girls--David Lee Roth
9 All I Need--Jack Wagner
10 Solid--Ashford & Simpson

Singles entering the chart included Act of an Innocent by Parachute Club (#88); Day by Day by Doug and the Slugs (#93); and Radioactive by the Firm (#96).

Hockey
NHL
Montreal 6 Winnipeg 4
Washington 3 Edmonton 3

Basketball
NCAA
Indiana University basketball coach Bobby Knight, angered by a foul call against one of his players and a technical against himself for yelling an obscenity, was ejected from a game against Purdue for hurling a chair from the bench area across the court during a game in Bloomington.

25 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Pump ab Das Bier--Werner Wichtig (3rd week at #1)

Died on this date
José Napoleón Duarte, 64
. President of El Salvador, 1984-1989. Mr. Duarte was a founding member of the centrist Christian Democratic Party before serving as Mayor of San Salvador from 1964-1970. He lost a close and disputed presidential election in 1972, but when a junta took power in 1979, served as El Salvador's head of state from 1980-1982, during a civil war against the rebel organization Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN). Mr. Duarte was elected President in 1984; he was supported by the United States, and succeeded in ending the civil war. Mr. Duarte served out his term in 1989, despite suffering from terminal stomach cancer.

Politics and government
Kim Campbell, Member of Parliament for Vancouver Centre, became Canada's first female Justice Minister, replacing Doug Lewis, as Prime Minister Brian Mulroney shuffled his Progressive Conservative cabinet. Benoît Bouchard became Minister of Industry, Science and Technology in the shuffle.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 6 @ Edmonton 5

This was the Maple Leafs’ first win in Edmonton since 1979.

20 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Club Bizarre--U96

Died on this date
James Herriot, 78
. U.K. veterinarian and author. Dr. Herriot, born James Alfred Wight, was a veterinary surgeon in rural England whose experiences served as the basis for a number of books, published separately in Britain but collected into several omnibus volumes in North America under the titles All Creatures Great and Small (1972); All Things Bright and Beautiful (1974); and All Things Wise and Wonderful (1977).

Melvin Franklin, 52. U.S. singer. Mr. Franklin, born David Melvin English, was a member of the Temptations from 1960-1994, contributing bass vocals. He suffered from arthritis and diabetes, and died after a series of seizures.

Economics and finance
The Dow Jones industrial average closed above 4,000 for the first time, at 4,003.33.

Politics and government
U.S. Senator Phil Gramm (Republican--Texas) held a dinner in Dallas to raise funds for his campaign for the Republican party nomination for President of the United States in the 1996 election, and raised $4.1 million, believed to be a record for such an event.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 3 Anaheim 1

10 years ago
2005


Education
The French law on colonialism was passed, requiring teachers to teach the "positive values of colonialism." After public outcry, it was repealed at the beginning of 2006.

Sunday, 22 February 2015

February 22, 2015

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Laura Pereverzoff Ong and Maria Melania Belmar Mora!

160 years ago
1855


Academia
Pennsylvania State University was founded in State College, Pennsylvania, as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania.

150 years ago
1865


Law
Tennessee adopted a new constitution, abolishing slavery.

80 years ago
1935

Aviation

Airplanes were prohibited from flying over the White House in Washington, D.C.

75 years ago
1940


War
A Soviet official handed proposed terms of a settlement with Finland to the Swedish minister, warning that harsher terms would be imposed if these were rejected. Ivan Maisky, U.S.S.R. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, presented the Soviet peace proposals to the British Foreign Office. Dispatches from the Chinese capital of Chungking claimed the rout of the forces of Wang Ching-wei--leader of the Japanese-sponsored government in central China--on the Fulkien coast.

Politics and government
General Nuri-es Said formed a new Iraqi cabinet, naming himself both Prime Minister and Foreign Minister.

French socialists abstained in a vote of confidence in the Chamber of Deputies, leaving the government of Prime Minister Edouard Daladier with a majority of one.

Religion
La-Mu-Ton-Chu, a 6-year-old boy, was installed as the 14th Dalai Lama in ceremonies at Lhasa, Tibet.

Society
The U.S. State Department reported that applications for immigration had doubled in 1939 because of the distrurbed conditions in Europe.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported a five-month low in the wholesale price index, as farm products and textiles prices continued to decline.

Business
New York attorney Jacob Javits proposed changes in anti-trust laws to permit industries to form trade associations.

70 years ago
1945


War
The United States Senate Military Affairs Committee reported out a "no-labor-draft" substiture for the House of Representatives May-Bailey bill for "limited national service." The Senate measure would cover all workers, rather than those aged 18-45. A German U-Boat torpedoed the Royal Canadian Navy corvette Trentonian. As U.S. infantry units crossed the Saar River in assault boats south of Saarburg, U.S. troops cleared German forces from the triangle between the Saar and Moselle Rivers. More than 3,000 American planes took part in an assault on German tranportation systems, bombing Lueneberg, Steudal, Haldenstadt, and Nordheim in western, central, and southern Germany. Soviet dictator Josef Stalin claimed that Germany had lost more than 1.15 million men in the 40-day Soviet offensive, and that "full victory is near." Remaining Japanese forces in Manila were trapped by American troops in the ancient walled sector of the city. U.S. forces landed on Capul Island, at the mouth of the San Bernardino Strait off the northwest coast of Samar Island, and occupied it by nightfall.

Diplomacy
U.S. Secretary of State Edward Stettinius, speaking at the Inter-American Conference in Mexico City, reaffirmed the Good Neighbor Policy toward Latin America, and promised that the U.S. would provide economic assistance to help Latin American countries adjust to postwar economic conditions.

Politics and government
U.S. Representatives John Rankin (Democrat--Mississippi) and Frank Hook (Democrat--Michigan) grappled and exchanged blows on the House floor after verbal exchanges over whether the Congress of Industrial Organization Politcal Action Committee was Communist-influenced.

Defense
The U.S. House of Representatives Miltary Arrairs Committee named a subcommittee to investigate charges that Communists had received Army commissions.

Economics and finance
The United States House of Representatives passed the Senate-approved postwar rivers and harbors bill authorizing nearly $500 million in projects, and sent it to the White House for President Franklin D. Roosevelt's signature.

Labour
Public members of the U.S. National War Labor Board reported to President Franklin D. Roosevelt that wages on the average were surpassing prices and that it was essential to maintain the "Little Steel" formula for the time being.

60 years ago
1955


Tennis
Maureen Connolly, who had won the women's singles championship at Wimbledon from 1952-1954, announced her retirement from competitive tennis, seven months after breaking her leg when the horse she was riding was hit by a motor vehicle.

50 years ago
1965


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): La Yenka--Johnny & Charley (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): The Hucklebuck--Brendan Bowyer (6th week at #1)

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Bye, Bye Baby (Baby Goodbye)--The 4 Seasons
2 It's Alright--Adam Faith
3 The Boy from New York City--The Ad Libs
4 Yeh, Yeh--Georgie Fame and the Blue Flames
5 Terry--Twinkle
6 Dusty--The Rag Dolls
7 For Lovin' Me--Peter, Paul and Mary
8 Little Things--Bobby Goldsboro
9 My Girl--The Temptations
10 Shakin' All Over--Chad Allan and the Expressions (Guess Who?)

Singles entering the chart were Come Home by the Dave Clark Five (#18); Goldfinger by Shirley Bassey (#19, with the version by John Barry and his Orchestra); Hurt So Bad by Little Anthony and the Imperials (#35); Everyday by the Rogues (#36); Goodnight by Roy Orbison (#37); The Time Has Come by Dianne James (#38); That Weepin' Willow Tree by Ray Griff (#39); and Born to Be Together by the Ronettes (#40).

On television tonight
The Alfred Hitchcock Hour, on NBC
Tonight's episode: The Trap, starring Anne Francis, Donnelly Rhodes, and Robert Strauss

Died on this date
Felix Frankfurter, 82
. Austro-Hungarian-born U.S. jurist. Mr. Frankfurter, a native of Vienna, immigrated to New York with his family at the age of 12. He graduated from Harvard Law School and helped to found the American Civil Liberties Union. Mr. Frankfurter was appointed an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States by President Fanklin D. Roosevelt in 1939 and sat on the court unitl 1962. He was known for advocating judicial restraint in his decisions.

Space
The U.S.S.R. launched the satellite Cosmos 57, with the mission ending the same day, as it apparently failed to achieve Earth orbit.

Religion
Pope Paul VI, at the first private consistory of his reign, consecrated 27 cardinals.

40 years ago
1975


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Un corpo e un'anima--Wess & Dori Ghezzi (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (Veronica Top 40): Voulez-vous coucher avec moi ce soir (Lady Marmalade)--Labelle (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K.: Make Me Smile (Come Up and See Me)--Steve Harley and Cockney Rebel

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Pick Up the Pieces--Average White Band

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Fire--Ohio Players
2 Pick Up the Pieces--Average White Band
3 Black Water--The Doobie Brothers
4 Best of My Love--The Eagles
5 My Eyes Adored You--Frankie Valli
6 Have You Never Been Mellow--Olivia Newton-John
7 You're No Good--Linda Ronstadt
8 Some Kind of Wonderful--Grand Funk
9 Lady--Styx
10 #9 Dream--John Lennon

Singles entering the chart were I Wanna Learn a Love Song by Harry Chapin (#78); I Have a Dream by Donny Osmond (#81); Hush/I'm Alive by Blue Swede (#89); Long Tall Glasses (I Can Dance) by Leo Sayer (#93); Showdown by Odia Coates (#94); Angel (What in the World’s Come Over Us) by Atlanta Rhythm Section (#97); No Love in the Room by the 5th Dimension (#99); and Hijack by Herbie Mann (#100).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Mandy--Barry Manilow
2 Doctor's Orders--Carol Douglas
3 Never Can Say Goodbye--Gloria Gaynor
4 Please Mr. Postman--Carpenters
5 Pick Up the Pieces--AWB
6 Best of My Love--The Eagles
7 Some Kind of Wonderful--Grand Funk
8 Get Dancin'--Disco Tex and the Sex-O-Lettes
9 You Beat Me to the Punch--Charity Brown
10 Roll on Down the Highway--Bachman-Turner Overdrive

Singles entering the chart were Lady Luck by Ken Tobias (#87); Star on a TV Show by the Stylistics (#88); Uproar by Anne Murray (#92); Don't Call Us, We'll Call You by Sugarloaf/Jerry Corbetta (#95); Shame, Shame, Shame by Shirley (And Company) (#96); Lovin' You by Minnie Riperton (#97); Emotion by Helen Reddy (#98); Part of the Plan by Dan Fogelberg (#99); and Sad Sweet Dreamer by Sweet Sensation (#100).

Winnipeg's top 30 (CFRW)
1 Changes--David Bowie (2nd week at #1)
2 Mandy--Barry Manilow
3 Some Kind of Wonderful--Grand Funk
4 Dream On--The Righteous Brothers
5 Have You Never Been Mellow--Olivia Newton-John
6 Bungle in the Jungle--Jethro Tull
7 You're No Good--Linda Ronstadt
8 Black Water--The Doobie Brothers
9 Boogie On Reggae Woman--Stevie Wonder
10 Please Mr. Postman--Carpenters
11 Lonely People--America
12 Roll on Down the Highway--Bachman-Turner Overdrive
13 You're the First, the Last, My Everything--Barry White
14 Never Can Say Goodbye--Gloria Gaynor
15 Morning Side of the Mountain--Donny and Marie Osmond
16 Get Dancin'--Disco Tex and the Sex-O-Lettes
17 Lady--Styx
18 Best of My Love--The Eagles
19 Doctor's Orders--Carol Douglas
20 Pick Up the Pieces--AWB
21 Junior's Farm--Paul McCartney & Wings
22 My Eyes Adored You--Frankie Valli
23 California Jam--Klaatu
24 You Beat Me to the Punch--Charity Brown
25 Mother Earth--Ian Thomas
26 She's My Lady--Jayson Hoover
27 Lady Marmalade--LaBelle
28 (Make Me Do) Anything You Want--A Foot in Coldwater
29 Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds--Elton John
30 Don't Call Us, We'll Call You--Sugarloaf/Jerry Corbetta

Winnipeg's top 30 (CKRC)
1 Black Water--The Doobie Brothers
2 Mandy--Barry Manilow
3 My Eyes Adored You--Frankie Valli
4 Roll on Down the Highway--Bachman-Turner Overdrive
5 Bungle in the Jungle--Jethro Tull
6 Please Mr. Postman--Carpenters
7 Morning Side of the Mountain--Donny and Marie Osmond
8 Best of My Love--The Eagles
9 Changes--David Bowie
10 Have You Never Been Mellow--Olivia Newton-John
11 Lady Marmalade--LaBelle
12 You Beat Me to the Punch--Charity Brown
13 Never Can Say Goodbye--Gloria Gaynor
14 Some Kind of Wonderful--Grand Funk
15 Lady--Styx
16 Doctor's Orders--Carol Douglas
17 You're No Good--Linda Ronstadt
18 Fire--Ohip Players
19 Pick Up the Pieces--AWB
20 Don't Call Us, We'll Call You--Sugarloaf/Jerry Corbetta
21 Mother Earth--Ian Thomas
22 Sweet Surrender--John Denver
23 Poetry Man--Phoebe Snow
24 Boogie On Reggae Woman--Stevie Wonder
25 Can You Give it All to Me--Myles and Lenny
26 (Make Me Do) Anything You Want--A Foot in Coldwater
27 Powerful People--Gino Vannelli
28 No No Song--Ringo Starr
29 Up in a Puff of Smoke--Polly Brown
30 (Hey Won’t You Play) Another Somebody Done Somebody Wrong Song--B.J. Thomas

30 years ago
1985


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Shout--Tears for Fears (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): I Want To Know What Love Is--Foreigner (5th week at #1)

Died on this date
Efrem Zimbalist, 94 or 95
. Russian-born U.S. musician. Mr. Zimbalist was a famous concert violinist for more than 40 years. He settled in the United States, and directed the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadephia from 1941-1968. Mr. Zimbalist composed several works, mainly for violin. His son Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. became a popular actor.

Alexander Scourby, 71. U.S. actor. Mr. Scourby recorded 422 books for the Talking Books program of the American Foundation for the Blind, and was best known for his 1950 recording of the King James Version of the Bible. He worked in theater and cinema, with his best-known movie being The Big Heat (1953).

25 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Get Up! (Before the Night is Over)--Technotronic (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Nothing Compares 2 U--Sinéad O'Connor (5th week at #1)

Edmonton's top 7 (CFRN)
1 Opposites Atract--Paula Abdul (with Wild Pair)
2 Back to Life--Soul II Soul
3 Dangerous--Roxette
4 Two to Make it Right--Seduction
5 Let Your Backbone Slide--Maestro Fresh-Wes
6 All or Nothing--Milli Vanilli
7 I Go to Extremes--Billy Joel

Scandal
A transcript of former U.S. President Ronald Reagan’s videotaped testimony in the trial of former national security adviser John Poindexter, who was on trial for his part in the Iran-Contra scandal, was made public. Mr. Reagan testified that he had authorized, in general, the policy of selling arms to Iran and aiding the Nicaraguan contras, but he said he had repeatedly told subordinates to obey the law, and he said he had not known that National Security Council staff member Oliver North had been coordinating supply missions for the Contras and otherwise assisting the Contras at a time when the U.S. Congress had banned U.S. support for them. Mr. Reagan often testified that he was unable to remember key meetings or conversations.

Environment
A grain carrier collided with a Polish fishing vessel in Vancouver Harbour, British Columbia, spilling 40,000 litres of diesel fuel.

Health
For the first time, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a low-calorie substitute for fat. Nutrasweet Company had developed the substance, Simplesse, a blend of proteins from egg white and milk. The FDA said Simplesse was safe for use in frozen dessert products, and the company said it could be used in other foods having a high fat content. Other food manufacturers were reported working on fat substitutes in response to concerns about nutrition.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 2 @ Calgary 12

20 years ago
1995


Died on this date
Ed Flanders, 60
. U.S. actor. Mr. Flanders was best known for playing Dr. Donald Westphall on the television series St. Elsewhere (1982-1988). He won three Emmy Awards--including one for his performance in St. Elsewhere--and a Tony Award. Mr. Flanders always seemed mopey on television, and in fact suffered from depression, which contributed to his suicide by shooting himself.

Politics and government
British Prime Minister John Major and Irish Prime Minister John Bruton held a joint news conference where they presented their plan for government in Northern Ireland. The plan contemplated creation of a cross-border assembly for Northern Ireland that would included representatives from Ulster and the parliament of Ireland. This body would deal with economic and cultural development, while the United Kingdom would continue to control taxation and security in Northern Ireland. N.I. Unionists, who favoured continued ties with the U.K., denounced the plan as a blueprint for union with the Republic of Ireland.

Defense
The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency's Corona spy satellite program, in existence from 1959-1972, was declassified.

Politics and government
Lucienne Robillard, newly elected to the House of Commons as a Liberal candidate in a Montreal riding, was appointed federal Minister of Labour in the cabinet of Prime Minister Jean Chretien.

10 years ago
2005


Died on this date
Simone Simon, 94
. French actress. Miss Simon made a number of movies in France, including La Bête Humaine (1938), but is best remembered for Hollywood movies such as The Devil and Daniel Webster (1941); Cat People (1942); and The Curse of the Cat People (1944).