Thursday, 27 February 2014

February 29 (2014)

510 years ago
1504


Exploration
Christopher Columbus, stranded in Jamaica during his fourth voyage to the West, used a correctly predicted lunar eclipse to frighten hostile natives into providing food for his crew.

310 years ago
1704


War
In Queen Anne's War, 200-300 French soldiers and their American Indian allies raided and captured the frontier settlement of Deerfield, Massachusetts.

110 years ago
1904


Americana
U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt appointed a seven-member commission to facilitate completion of the Panama Canal.

70 years ago
1944


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): You'll Never Know--Vera Lynn and Joe Loss (1st month at #1)

Died on this date
P.E. Svinhufvud, 82
. Prime Minister of Finland, 1930-1931; President of Finland, 1931-1937. Mr. Svinhufvud was a leader of the movement for Finnish independence and was the country's first head of state, as Chairman of the Senate from 1917-1918 and Regent from May 18-December 12, 1918. He was a conservative known for his opposition to Communism.

War
The U.S.S.R. offered peace terms to Finland if Finland would break with Germany, withdraw her troops to the 1940 borders, and intern Nazi troops and equipment. In their drive on Pskov, Soviet troops captured 250 more inhabited places and, with the capture of Pogorelka and Podlipye, moved to within six miles of the city. In a new offensive designed to wipe out the Allies' beachhead at Anzio, German units attacked between Aprilia and Cisterna. In Operation Brewer, U.S. troops commanded by General Douglas MacArthur landed on Los Negros Island in the Admiralty Islands, 300 miles north of Rapaul, and quickly secured Momote airfield. British and Indian troops, with some Canadians, finally drove the Japanese invaders from Burma.

Politics and government
A conference of the United States Senate and House of Representatives reached a compromise on the issue of votes by military personnel in the November 1944 national elections. Use of a federal ballot would be permitted for residents of states that had not provided for absentee voting.

Mrs. Dorothy Vredenburgh was named secretary of the U.S. Democratic National Committee, becoming the first woman to hold the post.

Society
The South Carolina House of Representatives adopted and sent to the state Senate a resolution reaffirming "belief and allegiance to established white supremacy" and warning "damned agitators of the North to leave the South alone."

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that one of every three American families now had an annual income of more than $3,000, as compared with only one in ten between 1935 and 1940.

Literature
Lillian Smith's novel Strange Fruit, a story of inter-racial prejudice in Georgia, was published.

50 years ago
1964


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): I Saw Her Standing There/Love Me Do--The Beatles (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in France: Et Pourtant--Charles Aznavour (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Una lacrima sul viso--Bobby Solo (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): I Want to Hold Your Hand--The Beatles

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Anyone Who Had a Heart--Cilla Black (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): I Want to Hold Your Hand--The Beatles (5th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 I Want to Hold Your Hand--The Beatles (6th week at #1)
2 She Loves You--The Beatles
3 Dawn (Go Away)--The 4 Seasons
4 Java--Al Hirt
5 You Don't Own Me--Lesley Gore
6 California Sun--The Rivieras
7 Navy Blue--Diane Renay
8 Stop and Think it Over--Dale & Grace
9 Um, Um, Um, Um, Um, Um--Major Lance
10 Please Please Me--The Beatles

Singles entering the chart were My Heart Belongs to Only You by Bobby Vinton (#60); (That’s) What the Nitty Gritty Is by Shirley Ellis (#79); Needles and Pins by the Searchers (#80); The Shoop Shoop Song (It’s In His Kiss) by Betty Everett (#81); I'm Your Hoochie Coochie Man by Dion Di Muci (#86); I Wonder Who's Kissing Her Now by Bobby Darin (#91); Nadine (Is It You?) by Chuck Berry (#93); Run, Run, Run by the Supremes (#96); Suspicion by Terry Stafford (#97); Always in My Heart by Los Indios Tabajaras (#98); and Crooked Little Man by the Serendipity Singers (#100).

Born on this date
Queen Elizabeth II's cousin Princess Alexandra and her husband Angus Ogilvy became the parents of James Robert Bruce Ogilvy, believed to be the first member of the British royal family to be born on February 29.

Died on this date
Frank Albertson, 55
. U.S. actor. Mr. Albertson was a character actor whose movies included It's a Wonderful Life (1946) and Psycho (1960).

Swimming
In Sydney, Australian Dawn Fraser set a world record in the 100-metre freestyle competition of 58.9 seconds.

30 years ago
1984


Politics and government
Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau announced that he would be resigning after more than 15 years in office. Saying that it was time "for someone else to assume this challenge," he said he would stay on as Prime Minister until after a Liberal Party leadership convention in late June 1984. When asked why he chose February 29th to announce his retirement, Mr. Trudeau replied, "Well, because it's a good day. It's the first day of the rest of my life - it seemed like a good day to have a last day."

United States Senator Alan Cranston (California) withdrew from the contest for the Democratic party nomination for President of the United States in the November 1984 election after a poor showing in the previous day's New Hampshire primary.

War
The U.S.S.R. vetoed a United Nations Security Council resolution, proposed by France, that would have sent an international peacekeeping force to Beirut.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the Index of Leading Economic Indicators had risen 1.1% in January, and that the U.S. merchandise trade deficit had increased by a record $9.47 billion.

10 years ago
2004


Died on this date
Harold Bernard "Bree" St. John, 72
. Prime Minister of Barbados, 1985-1986. Mr. St. John was leader of the Barbados Labour Party from 1970-1971 and 1985-1987.

Movies
The Academy Awards for 2003 were presented. Lord of the Rings: Return of the King won 11 Oscars, including Best Picture of 2003, and Best Director (Peter Jackson), tying the record shared by Ben-Hur (1959) and Titanic (1997).

Politics and government
Jean-Bertrand Aristide resigned as President of Haiti and fled into exile in the Central African Republic. Haiti's Chief Justice, Boniface Alexandre, was sworn in as Mr. Aristide's replacement.

February 28, 2014

230 years ago
1784


Religion
John Wesley signed the Deed of Declaration, formalizing the establishment of the Wesleyan faith, better known as Methodism.

170 years ago
1844


Died on this date
Abel Upshur, 53
; Thomas Gilmer, 41. U.S. politicians. Mr. Upshur, Secretary of State since July 24, 1843, and Mr. Gilmer, Secretary of the Navy for only nine days, were among eight people killed and 20 injured aboard the U.S. Navy warship USS Princeton when a gun known as the "Peacemaker" exploded when it was fired during a cruise down the Potomac River. President John Tyler was aboard, but was below decks and escaped injury.

160 years ago
1854


Politics and government
About 50 opponents of slavery met in Ripon, Wisconsin to call for creation of a new political group; the resulting organization became the Republican Party.

100 years ago
1914


World events
The Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus was proclaimed in Gjirokastër by Greeks living in southern Albania.

Baseball
The New York Giants and Chicago White Sox boarded the Lusitania in Liverpool to return to the United States at the conclusion of their four-month post-season exhibition tour of the U.S.A. and the world.

70 years ago
1944


On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on MBS
Tonight's episode: The Missing Button

War
In two weeks of fighting in the jungles of western Burma around Arakan, the Allies had reportedly dispersed 8,000 Japanese troops.

Abominations
A Soviet commission investigating German atrocities during the occupation of Kiev reported that 195,000 people there had been "tortured to death, shot or poisoned in murder vans."

Labour
United Mine Workers President John L. Lewis said that the Congress of Industrial Organizations was dominated by Communists and that its leaders were "prisoners of the Communists and can't do a thing about it."

Journalism
University of Chicago President Robert Hutchins announced the organization of a commission to make a two-year study of "the nature, duties, and responsibilities of the press in America."

60 years ago
1954


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Anneliese--Hans-Arno Simon (1st month at #1)

Television
The first color television sets in the United States using the NTSC standard were offered for sale to the general public.

50 years ago
1964


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Needles and Pins--The Searchers (3rd week at #1)

Edmonton's top 10 (CJCA)
1 She Loves You--The Beatles (2nd week at #1)
2 Kissin' Cousins--Elvis Presley
3 Please Please Me--The Beatles
4 I Want to Hold Your Hand--The Beatles
5 Roll Over Beethoven--The Beatles
6 Navy Blue--Diane Renay
7 Don't Talk to Him--Cliff Richard and the Shadows
8 Young and in Love--Chris Crosby
9 Puppy Love--Barbara Lewis
10 Little Girl Blue--Bobby Curtola

Pick hit of the week: My Boyfriend Got a Beatle Haircut--Donna Lynn
New this week: Johnny Zero--Merle Kilgore
I Wonder Who's Kissing Her Now--Bobby Darin
Oh Boy--Jackie DeShannon
I Am Woman--Barbra Streisand
Little Betty--The Cascades
The Waiting Game--Brenda Lee

The Waiting Game was the B-side of Think, which charted in the United States, but not in Edmonton.

On television tonight
Twilight Zone, hosted by Rod Serling, on CBS
Tonight's episode: An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge, starring Roger Jacquet, Anne Cornaly, and Anker Larsen

This was a film that had been released in theatres in France in 1962 and in the United States in 1963. For broadcast on Twilight Zone, several minutes were cut from the film in order to permit time for commercial breaks and introductory and closing remarks by Mr. Serling.

Music
The single A World Without Love/If I Were You by Peter and Gordon was released in the United Kingdom on Columbia Records.

Transportation
The Toronto International Airport terminal building opened.

40 years ago
1974


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Devil Gate Drive--Suzi Quatro

Died on this date
Bobby Bloom, 28
. U.S. singer. Mr. Bloom was known for his hit single Montego Bay (1970). Mr. Bloom apparently shot himself while cleaning his gun.

Politics and government
The Labour Party, led by former Prime Minister Harold Wilson, won a narrow plurality in the U.K. general election, but wasn't immediately able to form a majority needed to unseat the Conservative government of Prime Minister Edward Heath. Labour captured 301 of 635 seats in the House of Commons, the Conservatives won 297, and the Liberals, led by Jeremy Thorpe, 14. Going into the election, the Conservatives held 334 seats, Labour 281, and Liberals 6. Unionist parties in Northern Ireland, the Scottish National Party, and Plaid Cymru in Wales all achieved success.

Spread of a military mutiny in Asmara, Ethiopia's second-largest city, forced the resignation of the cabinet of Emperor Haile Selassie.

Diplomacy
The United States and Egypt re-established diplomatic relations after a seven-year break following the Six-Day War in 1967. The decision followed a meeting between Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger.

Hockey
WHL
The Western Hockey League suspended Connie Forey of the Denver Spurs for the rest of the 1973-74 season and all of the 1974-75 season for an attack on referee Malcolm Ashford during a game on February 21 in Seattle against the Totems. Mr. Forey was also ordered to pay $10,000 to Mr. Ashford, whose nose he had broken in the attack.

30 years ago
1984


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): My Oh My--Slade (6th week at #1)

War
Iran denied Iraq's claim of the previous day that it had launched air attacks on oil tankers at Kharg Island, Iran's principal oil export terminal. Iran denied that the terminal or any tankers had been hit.

Politics and government
Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau went for a walk in an Ottawa blizzard and decided to resign. He made the announcement the next day.

United States Senator Gary Hart (Colorado) won the New Hampshire primary for the Democratic party nomination for President of the United States in the November 1984 election. A New York Times/CBS poll made public that day showed former Vice-President Walter Mondale as the national choice for the nomination by a wide margin, but Sen. Hart captured 37% of the vote in New Hampshire to 28% for Mr. Mondale and 12% for U.S. Senator John Glenn (Ohio). In the Republican primary, President Ronald Reagan drew 86% of the vote.

Economics and finance
United States governors, at their convention, voted 28-10 in favour of higher taxes and reduced defense outlays as a means of reducing U.S. budget deficits.

25 years ago
1989


On television tonight
The Wonder Years, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Loosiers

Politics and government
Venezuelan President Carlos Andres Perez declared martial law, amid nationwide riots over government-imposed increases in transportation fares and gasoline prices.

20 years ago
1994


Hit parade
Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 The Power of Love--Celine Dion (2nd week at #1)
2 Streets of Philadelphia--Bruce Springsteen
3 All for Love--Bryan Adams, Rod Stewart, and Sting
4 Distant Sun--Crowded House
5 Mr. Jones--Counting Crows
6 The Sign--Ace of Base
7 Rock and Roll Dreams Come Through--Meat Loaf
8 Now and Forever--Richard Marx
9 Linger--The Cranberries
10 Will You Be There (In the Morning)--Heart

Singles entering the chart were Anniversary Song by Cowboy Junkies (#70); For Whom the Bell Tolls by the Bee Gees (#73); Oh No, Not My Baby by Linda Ronstadt (#81); Lost Without You by Roch Voisine (#88); and Deuces are Wild by Aerosmith (#93).

War
For the first time in its 45-year history, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was involved in actual combat. Six Bosnian Serb aircraft violated the United Nations-imposed no-fly zone in central Bosnia, and some or all dropped bombs on a town containing a munitions factory, but succeeded only in hitting a hospital and storage depot. After the Serb planes ignored readio warnings, four of them were shot down by U.S. fighter planes operating under NATO auspices.

Politics and government
Moldova's main independence party claimed a clear victory in the country's first post-Soviet parliamentary elections.

World events
Three days after Dr. Baruch Goldstein, an Israeli settler in the West Bank, had opened fire on Muslim worshippers in a mosque in Hebron and killed several dozen people, the Palestine Liberation Organization said that Israel must disarm all her settlers in the area and keep them out of the areas of Palestinian concentration.

Wednesday, 26 February 2014

February 27, 2014

200 years ago
1814


Music
Ludwig van Beethoven's Eighth Symphony received its premiere performance in Vienna.

170 years ago
1844


World events
The Dominican Republic gained its independence from Haiti.

150 years ago
1864


War
The first Northern prisoners in the U.S. Civil War arrived at the Confederate prison at Andersonville, Georgia.

70 years ago
1944


War
Soviet troops reached two points within 15 miles of Pskov, with the capture of Zamelnichye and Zakhodtsy. A convoy carrying one of the largest contingents of American troops ever to cross the Atlantic Ocean arrived in England.

Economics and finance
U.S. Foreign Economic Administrator Leo Crowley reported that lend-lease shipments to the U.S.S.R. from October 1941-December 1943 totalled 8.4 million tons valued at $4, 243,804,000.

An interim Allied food commission, meeting in Hot Springs, Virginia, completed plans for a permanent organization to guide production and distribution of food on the postwar period.

Sport
U.S. runner Gil Dodds was awarded the James E. Sullivan Award as "the amateur athlete who did the most to advance the cause of sportsmanship in 1943."

60 years ago
1954


Hit Parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Rags to Riches--Tony Bennett

#1 singles in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Secret Love--Doris Day (Best Seller--1st week at #1); Oh, Mein Papa (Oh! My Pa-Pa)--Eddie Fisher (Disc Jockey--7th week at #1; Jukebox--5th week at #1)

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Stranger in Paradise--Tony Bennett (2nd week at #1)
--The Four Aces
--Tony Martin
2 Oh, Mein Papa (Oh! My Pa-Pa)--Eddie Fisher
--Eddie Calvert
3 Secret Love--Doris Day
4 That's Amore--Dean Martin
5 From the Vine Came the Grape--The Gaylords
--The Hilltoppers
6 Changing Partners--Patti Page
7 Till Then--The Hilltoppers
8 Make Love to Me--Jo Stafford
9 The Gang that Sang "Heart of My Heart"--The Four Aces
-- Don Cornell, Alan Dale, and Johnny Desmond
10 Woman (Uh-Huh)--Jose Ferrer
--Johnny Desmond

Singles entering the chart were Wanted by Perry Como (#21); Two Purple Shadows by Jerry Vale (#26); Man, Man is for the Woman Made by the Ames Brothers (#35); Venus De Milo by Bob Manning (#38); Bella Bella Donna by Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra (#39); and Hold 'Em, Joe by Harry Belafonte (#41).

50 years ago
1964


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand: Glad All Over--The Dave Clark Five (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): Anyone Who Had a Heart--Cilla Black

Theatre
The musical What Makes Sammy Run?, based on the novel by Budd Schulberg and starring Steve Lawrence, Robert Alda, Mace Barrett, and Barry Newman, opened at the 54th Street Theatre on Broadway in New York.

Space
The U.S.S.R. launched the satellite Cosmos 25.

40 years ago
1974


Hit parade
#1 single in Switzerland: Kansas City--Les Humphries Singers (2nd week at #1)

30 years ago
1984


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Love Is a Battlefield--Pat Benatar (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Thriller--Michael Jackson (3rd week at #1)

War
Iraq said that it had begun to blockade Kharg Island, Iran's main oil export terminal, and that its forces had launched air attacks against oil tankers at Kharg. The United States said that it was unable to verify the air attacks.

25 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Australian Music Report): I'm Gonna Be (500 Miles)--The Proclaimers (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Real Gone Kid--Deacon Blue (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Konrad Lorenz, 85
. Austrian zoologist. Dr. Lorenz shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Karl von Frisch "for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns." He was one of the founders of ethology, the study of animal behaviour. Dr. Lorenz joined the Nazi party in 1938, and supported Nazi eugenics policies. After World War II, he spent years lying about his Nazi past.

Diplomacy
U.S. President George Bush met with South Korean opposition leaders and addressed the National Assembly in Seoul.

Protest
Riots spread across Venezuela in reaction against government-imposed increases in transportation fares and gasoline prices.

20 years ago
1994


Hit parade
#1 single in Austria (Ö3): All For Love--Bryan Adams, Rod Stewart, and Sting (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: All For Love--Bryan Adams, Rod Stewart, and Sting (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K.: Without You--Mariah Carey (3rd week at #1)

Olympics
The 17th Winter Olympic Games ended in Lillehammer, Norway. Peter Forsberg scored on the seventh shot of a shoot-out to give Sweden a 3-2 win over Canada in the men's hockey final.

10 years ago
2004


Abominations
The first version of a study by the John Jay College of Criminal Justice was released on the Internet and reported that 10,667 children in the United States had made allegations of sexual abuse by Roman Catholic priests between 1950 and 2002.

Terrorism
116 people were killed in the bombing of Superferry 14 in the Philippines by Abu Sayyaf.

Tuesday, 25 February 2014

February 26, 2014

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Fats Domino!

1,650 years ago
364


Politics and government
Valentinian I was proclaimed Roman Emperor, succeeding Jovian, who had died nine days earlier.

150 years ago
1864


Died on this date
Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine, 56
. Canadian politician. Mr. Lafontaine was Premier of Canada East from 1842-1843 and 1848-1851, serving in an equal capacity with Robert Baldwin, Premier of Canada West, in the United Province of Canada. He served as Chief Justice of Canada East from 1853-1864. Mr. Lafontaine, a moderate reformer, is regarded as a father of responsible government in Canada.

100 years ago
1914


Born on this date
Robert Alda. U.S. actor. Born Alphonso Giuseppe Giovanni Roberto D'Abruzzo, Mr. Alda was a successful stage actor, starring in the Broadway production of Guys and Dolls (1950), and winning a Tony Award for What Makes Sammy Run? (1964). He made an impressive movie debut playing George Gershwin in Rhapsody in Blue (1945), but his film career after that never fulfilled its apparent promise. Mr. Alda died on May 3, 1986 at the age of 72. He's best known today as the father of actor Alan Alda.

Transportation
HMHS Britannic, sister to RMS Titanic, was launched at Harland & Wolff shipyard in Belfast.

Baseball
The New York Giants and Chicago White Sox played the last game of their post-season exhibition tour, with the White Sox winning 5-4 in 11 innings at Chelsea Football Stadium on the Stamford Bridge Grounds in London. Estimates of the crowd ranged from 20,000-35,000, but one who was definitely in attendance was King George V, who met all the players and said that he "enjoyed the game enormously." The game was tied 2-2 after 9 innings, and each team scored twice in the 10th. The White Sox scored the winning run when rookie backup catcher Tom Daly hit a solo home run--the game's third homer--to the deepest part of the stadium. Jim Scott pitched the first 6 innings for the White Sox, and Joe Benz pitched the final 5 innings and was credited with the win. Red Faber, normally a starting pitcher with the White Sox, pitched a complete game for the Giants in taking the loss. For Mr. Daly, a native of Saint John, New Brunswick and thus the only royal subject on either team, hitting the game-winning home run in front of the king was probably the highlight of his career.

70 years ago
1944


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): My Heart Tells Me (Should I Believe My Heart)--Glen Gray and his Orchestra (5th week at #1)

War
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the WMC and Selective Service Commission to review the draft deferments of five million registrants.

Diplomacy
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill's son Randolph was reported to be in Yugoslavia meeting with Yugoslavian leader Marshal Tito in an attempt to further British efforts to effect closer cooperation between Marshal Tito and Yugoslavia's King Peter II in exile.

London diplomatic quarters reported that Spanish dictator Generalissimo Francisco Franco had assured Allied governments that Spain would follow a course of "honourable neutrality."

Labour
Congress of Industrial Oganizations-United Auto Workers President R.J. Thomas announced that local unions responsible for unatuthorized work stoppages would be disciplined.

Track and field
Gid Dodds won the mile in a time of 4:07.4 in the Amateur Athletic Union meet at Madison Square Garden in New York. The New York Athletic Club won the team title, with the University of Michigan finishing second and Dartmouth College third.

60 years ago
1954


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Oh, Mein Papa (Oh! My Pa-Pa)--Eddie Calvert (8th week at #1)

40 years ago
1974


Hit parade
#1 single in France: Titi à la neige--Tweety & Sylvester (4th week at #1)

30 years ago
1984


Hit parade
#1 single in France: Street Dance--Break Machine

#1 single in Switzerland: Jenseits von Eden--Nino de Angelo (5th week at #1)

War
The withdrawal of U.S. Marines from Beirut was completed, and the enemy bunkers were occupied by Lebanese units opposed to Lebanese President Amin Gemayel.

Scandal
Rev. Jesse Jackson, a candidate for the Democratic party nomination for President of the United States in the November 1984 election, apologized to Jewish voters for having referred earlier to Jews as "Hymies" and to New York City as "Hymietown."

25 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in Switzerland: First Time--Robin Beck (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Roy Eldridge, 78
. U.S. musician. Mr. Eldridge was a jazz trumpeter and occasional singer with a number of bands, including those led by Fletcher Henderson, Gene Krupa, and Artie Shaw. Dizzy Gillespie was one of the musicians who cited Mr. Eldridge as a musical influence.

Diplomacy
Iran's Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini told Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze that the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan cleared the way for closer Soviet-Iranian ties.

U.S. President George Bush met with Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in Beijing.

20 years ago
1994


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): Give it Up--Cut 'N' Move (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Denmark (Nielsen Music Control & IFPI): All For Love--Bryan Adams, Rod Stewart, and Sting (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): La solitudine--Laura Pausini (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Right in the Night--Jam & Spoon (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): The Power of Love--Celine Dion (3rd week at #1)

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box):
1 The Power of Love--Celine Dion
2 The Sign--Ace of Base
3 All for Love--Bryan Adams, Rod Stewart, and Sting
4 Without You--Mariah Carey
5 Shoop--Salt-N-Pepa
6 Breathe Again--Toni Braxton
7 Understanding--Xscape
8 Hero--Mariah Carey
9 Because the Night--10,000 Maniacs
10 Whatta Man--Salt-N-Pepa with En Vogue

Singles entering the chart were Without You; Rock and Roll Dreams Come Through by Meat Loaf (#17); Gin and Juice by Snoop Doggy Dogg (#23); Bump N' Grind by R. Kelly (#26); Mmm Mmm Mmm Mmm by Crash Test Dummies (#32); It's All Good by Hammer (#36); Everyday by Phil Collins (#41); I Swear by John Michael Montgomery (#43); Streets of Philadelphia by Bruce Springsteen (#51); Loser by Beck (#62); and God by Tori Amos (#77).

Crime
11 members of the Branch Davidian cult who had survived attacks on their Waco, Texas compound by U.S. federal agents in 1993 were acquitted of murder and conspiracy charges arising from the initial attack in February 1993 that had resulted in the deaths of four U.S. federal agents. Five of the 11 defendants found guilty of aiding and abetting the voluntary manslaughter of federal officials, and two were found guilty of weapons charges. The final attack on the compound had taken place on April 19, 1993, resulting in the deaths of about 80 members of the cult, including women and children, as well as cult leader David Koresh.

Olympics
Vreni Schneider of Switzerland won the women's slalom at the Winter Olympic Games in Lillehammer, Norway; with her two gold medals in 1988, she became the first woman to win three gold medals in alpine skiing.

10 years ago
2004


Died on this date
Boris Trajkovski, 47
. 2nd President of Macedonia, 1999-2004. Mr. Trajkovski, a member of the VMRO-DPMNE party, was elected President in November 1999, but didn't take office until a month later, replacing Kiro Gligorov, because of a dispute over the election results. He was killed in a plane crash in southern Herzegovina while en route to an economic conference in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Mr. Trajkovski was succeeded as President by Branko Crvenkovski.

February 25, 2014

110 years ago
1904


Hockey
Stanley Cup
Toronto Marlboroughs 2 @ Ottawa Silver Seven 11 (Ottawa won 2-game total goals series 17-5)

The Silver Seven were the champions and the Marlboroughs the challengers.

80 years ago
1934


Died on this date
John McGraw, 60
. U.S. baseball player and manager. Mr. McGraw was an infielder with the Baltimore Orioles of the American Association and National League (1891-1899); St. Louis Cardinals (1900); Baltimore Orioles of the American League (1901-1902); and New York Giants (1902-1906), batting .334 with 13 home runs and 462 runs batted in in 1,099 games. The Orioles of the 1890s became a legendary team, in no small part because of the dirty style of play of men such as Mr. McGraw. He managed the NL Orioles in 1899 and the AL Orioles in 1901-1902, before running afoul of AL President Ban Johnson. Mr. McGraw then moved to the Giants, managing them until his resignation 40 games into the 1932 season. Under Mr. McGraw, the Giants won 10 NL pennants and World Series in 1905, 1921, and 1922. Mr. McGraw finished his managerial career with a record of 2,763-1,948, a winning percentage of .586. His total of wins remains second to Connie Mack's total of 3,731. Mr. McGraw's still holds the National League record with 2,669 wins. He came out of retirement to manage the National League in the first All-Star Game in 1933, which the American League won 4-2. Mr. McGraw was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937.

70 years ago
1944


Died on this date
Charles McNary, 69
. U.S. politician. Mr. McNary, a Republican, represented Oregon in the United States Senate from 1917-1944 and was Senate Minority Leader from 1933-1944. He was the Republican Party's candidate for Vice-President of the United States in 1940, serving as Wendell Willkie's running mate. Mr. McNary died after unsuccessful surgery for a brain tumor, and the day after he had been re-elected Minority Leader.

James Reid Moir, 64. U.K. archaeologist. Mr. Moir established the existence of man in the Pliocene Epoch (approximately 5.332 million-2.588 million years before the present).

War
British troops captured the town of Kyauktaw in the Kaladan Valley of western Burma. U.S. Selective Service Commission Director Lewis Hershey told the U.S. Senate Agricultural Committee that the bottom of the mapower barrel had been reached. Tokyo radio reported a cabinet decision to restructure Japanese national life for the war effort, which meant a belt-tightening process.

Diplomacy
The Polish government-in-exile notified the U.K. that it would not accept the Curzon Line as a basis for border discussions with the U.S.S.R.

Journalism
The Soviet newspaper Pravda denounced "assistants of William Randolph Hearst" for "spilling poisoned ink to wreck the anti-Hitler coalition." Pravda referred to specific editorials in newspapers owned by the American magnate which outlined supposed Soviet plans to anex the Balkan countries.

Politics and government
General Edelmiro Farrell was named "Vice President in exercise of the executive power," assuming functions as acting President of Argentina, the day after the "resignation" of General Pedro Ramirez on grounds of "ill health."

60 years ago
1954


Politics and government
Gamal Abdel Nasser became Prime Minister of Egypt.

50 years ago
1964


On television tonight
The Fugitive, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Angels Travel on Lonely Roads: Part 1, with guest stars Eileen Heckart, Albert Salmi, Sandy Kenyon, and Percy Helton

When the title of this episode appears on screen, the word "Lonely" is misspelled as "Lonley."

Died on this date
Johnny Burke, 55
. U.S. songwriter. Mr. Burke wrote lyrics with several songwriting partners, most notably Jimmy Van Heusen. Mr. Burke wrote many of his songs for Bing Crosby to sing in movies, and shared the Academy Award with Mr. Van Heusen for Swinging on a Star from Going My Way (1944). Other Van Heusen-Burke songs recorded by Mr. Crosby included I've Got a Pocketful of Dreams; Moonlight Becomes You; and Pennies from Heaven.

Grace Metalious, 39. U.S. author. Mrs. Metalious was best known for her novel Peyton Place (1956), which delved into the secrets of a small New England town. The novel was a smash hit and was made into a popular movie in 1957, but Mrs. Metalious' later novels, including Return to Peyton Place (1959) were less successful, and she eventually drank herself to death.

Space
The United States Air Force launched a satellite employing a U.S. Air Force Atlas/Agena combination from Point Arguello (LC-2-3) in California and from Cape Kennedy in Florida.

Economics and finance
North Korean dictator Kim Il-sung called for the removal of feudalistic land ownership, in a move aimed at turning all cooperative farms into state-run farms.

Boxing
Cassius Clay (20-0) won the world heavyweight title when defending champion Sonny Liston (35-2) refused to come out of his corner to begin the 7th round before 8,297 fans at Convention Hall in Miami Beach, Florida, a facility whose seating capacity was 15,744. On the undercard, Mr. Clay's brother Rudy made his professional debut, winning a 4-round decision over Chip Johnson (4-3) in a heavyweight bout. Also on the undercard, future world light heavyweight champion Bob Foster (13-2) knocked out heavyweight Dave Bailey (14-11-3) in the 1st of a scheduled 6 rounds, and Leotis Martin (10-1) won a 6-round decision over Allan Harmon (26-10-4) in another heavyweight bout.



40 years ago
1974


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Farewell Aunty Jack--Grahame Bond (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): La Estrella de David--Juan Bau

Scandal
There were a number of items in the news relating to the investigation of the June 1972 break-in at the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee and the subsequent cover-up. The U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary Committee ssent a request to the White House for 700 pages of documents and 17 tape recordings of conversations that it deemed necessary for its inquiry into the possible impeachment of President Richard Nixon. The request was for materials already provided to Watergate special prosecutor Leon Jaworski. The U.S. Senate Special Committee on Campaign Activities appealed a February 8 ruling by U.S. District Court Judge Gerhard Gesell dismissing a suit to obtain tapes of 5 White House conversations. Judge Gesell had ruled that the "blazing atmosphere" of the committee's hearings might be harmful to criminal prosecution. President Nixon addressed a news conference and stated that the House could not impeach him unless it presented evidence that he had violated criminal law. He disclosed that he had refused on constitutional grounds a request that he testify before the Watergate grand jury. He also cited constitutional grounds in refusing to appear as a witness at the California trial of former White House aide John Ehrlichman on charges of burglary and conspiracy. Mr. Nixon, who had been summoned at Mr. Ehrlichman's request, stated that the president "can not sacrifice the compelling and real 'interests' of over 200 million Americans to satisfy the possible interests of any one individual." Herbert Kalmbach, Mr. Nixon's personal lawyer and chief fundraiser, pled guilty to charges of running an illegal Congressional campaign committee in 1970 and had promised a contributor an ambassadorship in return for $100,000. In a letter filed with U.S. District Court Judge John Sirica, Watergate special prosecutor Leon Jaworski indicated that Mr. Kalmbach had been allowed to plead guilty to technical campaign violations in exchange for cooperation and full disclosures of "all relevant information and documents" in the Watergate investigation. All other potential charges against him were dropped.

30 years ago
1984


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (FIMI): La Donna Cannone--Francesco De Gregori (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (VRT Top 30): Love of the Common People--Paul Young (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Radio Ga Ga--Queen

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Girls Just Want to Have Fun--Cyndi Lauper (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K.: Relax--Frankie Goes to Hollywood (5th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Jump--Van Halen

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Jump--Van Halen
2 Karma Chameleon--Culture Club
3 Joanna--Kool & The Gang
4 Girls Just Want to Have Fun--Cyndi Lauper
5 Owner of a Lonely Heart--Yes
6 99 Luftballons--Nena
7 Nobody Told Me--John Lennon
8 Talking in Your Sleep--The Romantics
9 Thriller--Michael Jackson
10 Let the Music Play--Shannon

Singles entering the chart were They Don't Know by Tracey Ullman (#66); Against All Odds (Take A Look At Me Now) by Phil Collins (#70); Tonight by Kool & The Gang (#80); Make My Day by T.G. Sheppard with Clint Eastwood (#85); Holding Out for a Hero by Bonnie Tyler (#88); and One in a Million by the Romantics (#89). Against All Odds was the title song of the movie.

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Red Red Wine--UB40 (2nd week at #1)
2 Talking in Your Sleep--The Romantics
3 Karma Chameleon--Culture Club
4 Nobody Told Me--John Lennon
5 99 Red Balloons--Nena
6 Jump--Van Halen
7 Break My Stride--Matthew Wilder
8 Thriller--Michael Jackson
9 Owner of a Lonely Heart--Yes
10 Wrapped Around Your Finger--The Police

Singles entering the chart were Hold Me Now by Thompson Twins (#43); Footloose by Kenny Loggins (#44); Almost Over You by Sheena Easton (#47); All Right Now by the Santers (#48); and Don't Let Go by Wang Chung (#50).

Disasters
At least 508 people were killed in the explosion of an oil pipeline and the subsequent fire on the outskirts of Cubatao, Brazil.

25 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): I'm Gonna Be (500 Miles)--The Proclaimers (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France (SNEP): Pour toi Arménie--Charles Aznavour and various artists (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): 051/222525--Fabio Concato (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Buffalo Stance--Neneh Cherry

#1 single in the U.K.: Belfast Child--Simple Minds

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Straight Up--Paula Abdul (3rd week at #1)

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Lost in Your Eyes--Debbie Gibson
2 Straight Up--Paula Abdul
3 The Lover in Me--Sheena Easton
4 Born to Be My Baby--Bon Jovi
5 You Got It (The Right Stuff)--New Kids on the Block
6 She Wants to Dance with Me--Rick Astley
7 What I Am--Edie Brickell & New Bohemians
8 Wild Thing--Tone Loc
9 When I'm with You--Sheriff
10 Walking Away--Information Society

Singles entering the chart were Room to Move by Animotion (#65); Tribute (Right On) by the Pasadenas (#72); I Cry Myself to Sleep at Night by Romeo's Daughter (#75); Radio Romance by Tiffany (#80); Heaven Help Me by Deon Estus (with George Michael) (#82); Seventeen by Winger (#85); Halleluiah Man by Love and Money (#87); and One by Metallica (#89).

Diplomacy
U.S. President George Bush flew to Beijing.

Skiing
Rob Boyd won a World Cup downhill race in his home town of Whistler, British Columbia, becoming the first Canadian to win a FIS World Cup Ski race in Canada.

Football
NFL
Jerry Jones, the new owner of the Dallas Cowboys, fired head coach Tom Landry, who had been the team's only head coach through their first 29 seasons. Mr. Landry had led the Cowboys to Super Bowl championships in 1972 and 1978, and the classless manner of his dismissal outraged everyone with a sense of decency.

20 years ago
1994


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Without You--Mariah Carey (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Jersey Joe Walcott, 80
. U.S. boxer. Mr. Walcott, born Arnold Cream, made several attempts to win the world heavyweight championship before finally succeeding. On July 18, 1951, in his fifth fight for the title, Mr. Walcott knocked out Ezzard Charles in the 7th round at Forbes Field in Pittsburgh, becoming, at 37, the oldest man yet to win the title. After a successful defense against Mr. Charles, he lost the title when he was knocked out by Rocky Marciano on September 23, 1952. The two fought a rematch on May 15, 1953, and Mr. Walcott retired with a record of 51-18-2 after being knocked out in the 1st round.

Weather
It snowed in Vancouver, British Columbia.

Terrorism
U.S.-born Israeli physician Baruch Goldstein, 38, opened fire with an automatic rifle on Muslim worshippers at the Mosque of Abraham in Hebron, killing between 30 and 54 people before being beaten to death by iron bars.

Olympics
16-year-old Oksana Baiul of Ukraine won the gold medal in the women's figure skating competition at the Winter Olympic Games in Lillehammer, Norway. Four of the nine judges gave higher marks to Nancy Kerrigan of the United States, who won the silver medal. Tonya Harding, who had won the U.S. women's title after Miss Kerrigan had been forced to withdraw from the U.S. championship after being clubbed on the leg after a practice--as a result of a plot involving members of Ms. Harding's social circle and in which she had been implicated--finished eighth.

Baseball
Phil Rizzuto, the New York Yankees' shortstop from 1941-1942 and 1946-1956, was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committtee at age 76 after 28 years of waiting. Mr. Rizzuto, nicknamed "Scooter," batted .273 with 38 home runs and 563 runs batted in in 1,661 games, and had played with 7 World Series championship teams. He had long been regarded as a borderline candidate for the Hall of Fame.

10 years ago
2004


Died on this date
Donald Hings, 96
. U.K.-born Canadian inventor. Mr. Hings, a native of Leicester, England, invented the Walkie-Talkie in 1937. He held more than 55 patents in Canada and the United States.

Diplomacy
Six-party talks began in Beijing over North Korea's nuclear program. North Korea expressed its desire for aid and security guarantees before freezing its program.

World events
Turkmenistani Presidet Saparmurat Niyazov passed a decree baning car radios, smoking in the street, opera and ballet performances, and forbidding young men to wear long hair or beards.

Politics and government
At the inaugural meeting of the Council of the Federation, which had replaced the annual premiers' conference, Canada's provincial and territorial premiers warned that Canada's health care system could not survive without more federal funding and reforms. Alberta Premier Ralph Klein suggested that his province might opt out of the system.

Economics and finance
U.S. Federal Reserve Board chairman Alan Greenspan recommended cutting spending on Social Security and Medicare rather than increasing taxes to rein in deficits.

Monday, 24 February 2014

February 24, 2014

300 years ago
1714


Died on this date
Edmund Andros, 76
. English politician. Sir Edmund was Colonial Governor of New York (1674-1683); Governor of the Dominion of New England (1686-1689); Colonial Governor of Virginia (1692-1698); and Proprietary Governor of Marlyand (1693-1694). His authoritarian ways and pro-Anglican sympathies earned him the enmity of New Englanders; he was overthrown in the Boston Revolt on April 18, 1689, and the Dominion of New England was dissolved.

100 years ago
1914


Died on this date
Joshua Chamberlain, 85
. U.S. military officer and politician. Mr. Chamberlain was a college professor who became a brigadier general with the Union army in the U.S. Civil War. He won the Medal of Honor for his gallantry in the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863, and courageously commanded his troops despite suffering a near-fatal wound during the Siege of Petersburg in 1864. Gen. Chamberlain was given the honour of commanding the Union troops in the ceremony of the surrender of Confederate General Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Court House, Virginia in April 1865. Mr. Chamberlain, a Republican, served four consecutive one-year terms as Governor of Maine from 1867-1871. Mr. Chamberlain died from the lingering effects of his wound at Petersburg, and is regarded as the last Civil War veteran to die of wounds recieved in the war.

90 years ago
1924


Swimming
Johnny Weissmuller broke the world's record for 100 metres, covering the distance in a time of 57 2/5 seconds in a race in Miami Beach, Florida.

70 years ago
1944


War
The U.S. Army and Navy reported total U.S. casualties in World War II at 157,865 through February 7, including 36,005 killed, 54,867 wounded, 35,830 missing, and 31,163 captured. The U.S. force known as Merrill's Marauders began their 1,000-mile journey through Japanese-occupied Burma. The Allies announced that the western end of New Britain Island from Rottock Bay to Arawa was now completely in American hands. Allies cleared the Japanese from Ngakyedauk Pass on the Arakan front. In a three-day-old offensive, Soviet troops advanced 12-15 miles along a 30-mile front in White Russia and captured the large railway junction of Rogachev. In their second coordinated attack, U.S. planes taking off from Britain and Italy struck at targets in Germany. The government of Chile smashed a Nazi spy ring, arresting scores of alleged Nazi agents.

Politics and government
Argentine President General Pedro Ramirez resigned because of "ill health," but it was reported from Montevideo that he was toppled by an army coup.

The U.S. House of Representatives overrode President Franklin D. Roosevelt's veto of the tax bill. The U.S. Senate Democratic caucus re-elected Alben Barkley (Kentucky) as its leader after accepting his resignation.

Diplomacy
Representative John Coffee (Democrat--Washington) asked the United States Congress to sever diplomatic relations with the Spanish regime of Generalissimo Francisco Franco and give support to anti-Fascist forces there.

50 years ago
1964


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): If I Had a Hammer--Trini Lopez (4th week at #1)

On television tonight
The Outer Limits, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Specimen: Unknown, starring Stephen McNally, Richard Jaeckel, Russell Johnson, Dabney Coleman, and Gail Kobe

40 years ago
1974


Music
Susan Jacks performed at the Southern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium in Calgary.

Diplomacy
Pakistan officially recognized Bangladesh, which had been known as East Pakistan until declaring independence in 1971.

Crime
Police in Atlanta said that the February 20 kidnapping of Atlanta Constitution editorial page editor Reg Murphy by the "American Revolutionary Army" appeared to be the work of a single individual, William A.H. Williams, who had been arrested on February 23, the day after Mr. Murphy had been freed unharmed after the Constitution had paid a $700,000 ransom. Police had recovered most of the ransom money after the arrest of Mr. Williams, 33, a construction contractor, and his wife. Mr. Williams had earlier been involved in a $300,000 oil hoax in Miami.

30 years ago
1984


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Maggie--Foster and Allen (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Tyrone Mitchell, 28. U.S. criminal. Mr. Mitchell killed two children and injured 12 more in a shooting at the 49th Street Elementary School in Los Angeles before turning the gun on himself. He had suffered a nervous breakdown when his parents, four sisters, and a brother had died in the mass suicide of the People's Temple cult in Jonestown, Guyana on November 18, 1978.

Economics and finance
The United States Labor Department reported that the consumer price index had increased 0.6% in January, the largest increase since April 1983.

25 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Kiss--The Art of Noise featuring Tom Jones

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): First Time--Robin Beck (7th week at #1)

Died on this date
Sparky Adams, 94
. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Adams was an infielder with the Chicago Cubs (1922-1927); Pittsburgh Pirates (1928-1929); Pittsburgh Pirates (1930-1933); and Cincinnati Reds (1933-1934), batting .286 with 9 home runs and 394 runs batted in in 1,424 games. He hit .314 with the Cardinals when they won the National League pennant in 1930, and .293 with a league-leading 46 doubles as the Cardinals won the World Series in 1931. Mr. Adams was, at 5' 4 1/2", the shortest player in the major leagues during his career, and was the last surviving member of the Cardinals' 1931 World Series championship team.

World events
48 days after his death, Japan's Emperor Hirohito was buried in Tokyo in a daylong Shinto ceremony. 160 countries were represented, and 55 heads of state were in attendance, including U.S. President George Bush.

Iran's Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini offered a $3-million bounty for the death of British novelist Salman Rushdie, author of The Satanic Verses (1988), deemed to be disrespectful to the prophet Muhammad.

Protest
Indian police shot and killed 12 people and wounded 40 during a riot in Bombay against Salman Rushdie.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Federal Reserve Board increased its discount rate--the rate on loans paid by financial institutions--from 6.5% to 7.0%, the highest level in almost three years.

Disasters
United Airlines Flight 811, a Boeing 747-122 jet bound for Auckland from Honolulu, suffered a cargo door failure 16 minutes after takeoff, blowing 9 passengers out of the business-class section to their deaths.

20 years ago
1994


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Move on Baby--Cappella

Died on this date
Dinah Shore, 77
. U.S. singer. Miss Shore was the biggest-selling female solo vocalist of the 1940s, and continued her popularity as a recording artist into the early 1950s. When sales of her records started to slow down, she achieved popularity on television, hosting several variety and talk shows through the 1970s.

10 years ago
2004


Died on this date
John Randolph, 88
. U.S. actor. Born Emanuel Hirsch Cohen, Mr. Randolph was a stage and screen actor who was blacklisted in the 1950s as a result of alleged pro-Soviet sympathies and refusing to answer questions before the House of Representatives Un-American Activities Committee. He appeared in the original Broadway productions of Come Back, Little Sheba (1950); Paint Your Wagon (1951); and The Sound of Music (1959), and won a Tony Award for his starring performance in Broadway Bound (1986). Mr. Randolph made many appearances on television, and was the first actor to play Frank Costanza in the comedy series Seinfeld. He appeared in the movie Seconds (1966) as the main character whose facial features are altered in order to change his identity, after which the character was played by Rock Hudson.

Politics and government
Russian President Vladimir Putin fired Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov and his entire cabinet, two weeks before national elections.

Society
U.S. President George W. Bush endorsed a constitutional amendment banning sodomite marriage, saying that marriage between a man and a woman was "the most fundamental institution of civilization."

Sunday, 23 February 2014

February 23, 2014

550 years ago
1464


Died on this date
Zhu Qizhen, 36
. Zhengtong Emperor of China, 1435-1449; Tianshun Emperor of China, 1457-1464. Zhu Qizhen, an emperor of the Ming Dynasty, succeeded his father Xuande Emperor Zhu Zhanji on the throne at the age of 8, but was deposed by Mongols in 1449, and replaced as emperor by his brother Zhu Qiyu, the Jingtai Emperor. Zhu Qizhen deposed his brother in 1457, and reigned as the Tianshun Emperor of China until his death. He was succeeded by his son Zhu Jianshen, the Chenghua Emperor.

460 years ago
1554


War
In the Arauco War between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people in Chile, Mapuche forces, under the leadership of Toqui Lautaro, scored a victory over Spanish forces led by Francisco de Villagra at the Battle of Marihueñu.

275 years ago
1739


Crime
Richard Palmer was identified at York Castle, by his former schoolteacher, as the English highwayman Dick Turpin.

160 years ago
1854


World events
The official independence of the Orange Free State was declared.

125 years ago
1889


Born on this date
John Gilbert Winant
. U.S. politician and diplomat. Mr. Winant, a Republican, was Governor of New Hampshire from 1925-1927 and 1931-1935, and served as U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1941-1946. He committed suicide at the age of 58 on November 3, 1947, the day his book Letter from Grosvenor Square was published.

Victor Fleming. U.S. movie director. Mr. Fleming directed two of 1939's best movies, The Wizard of Oz and Gone with the Wind, winning the Academy Award for Best Director for the latter. He died of a heart attack on January 6, 1949 at the age of 59.

120 years ago
1894


Hockey
Stanley Cup
Ottawa's hockey club refused to go to Toronto to play in the second annual Stanley Cup game, so the Cup was awarded to the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association for the second time.

110 years ago
1904


Americana
The U.S.A. acquired control of Panama Canal Zone for $10 million.

Hockey
Stanley Cup
Toronto Marlboroughs 3 @ Ottawa Silver Seven 6 (First game of 2-game, total goals series)

The Silver Seven were the champions and the Marlboroughs the challengers.

100 years ago
1914


Disasters
The Fraser River rockslide in British Columbia nearly wiped out the area's salmon fishing industry.

80 years ago
1934


Died on this date
Edward Elgar, 76
. U.K. composer. Mr. Elgar was one of the most popular English composers of the first half of the 20th century. His best-known compositions include Enigma Variations and the Pomp and Circumstance Marches.

World events
Leopold III became King of the Belgians, succeeding his father Albert I, who had died in a moutaineering accident six days earlier.

70 years ago
1944


World events
Soviet dictator Josef Stalin dissolved the Republic of Chechnya, accusing the country of collaborating with Nazis. He forced one million Chechens into exile in Central Asia.

60 years ago
1954


On television tonight
Suspense, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Death on the Screen, starring Don Hanmer and Paul Langton

Medicine
The first mass inoculation of children against polio with the Salk vaccine began in Pittsburgh.

50 years ago
1964


On television tonight
The Ed Sullivan Show, on CBS

A performance by The Beatles that they had taped on February 9 but not shown was broadcast, marking the third straight Sunday night on which they had appeared on the program.

40 years ago
1974


Hit parade
#1 single in the Netherlands (Veronica Top 40): Dynamite--Mud

#1 single in the U.K.: Devil Gate Drive--Suzi Quatro

Australia's top 10 (Go-Set)
1 Sorrow--David Bowie
2 Photograph--Ringo Starr
3 Goodbye Yellow Brick Road--Elton John
4 The Most Beautiful Girl--Charlie Rich
5 Leave Me Alone (Ruby Red Dress)--Helen Reddy
6 48 Crash--Suzi Quatro
7 The Ballroom Blitz--The Sweet
8 My Coo Ca Choo--Alvin Stardust
9 Farewell Aunty Jack--Grahame Bond
10 I Love You Love Me Love--Gary Glitter

Singles entering the chart were Who's in the Strawberry Patch with Sally by Tony Orlando and Dawn (#29); Just You 'N' Me by Chicago (#31); The Joker by the Steve Miller Band (#32); Spiders & Snakes by Jim Stafford (#33); Skydiver by Daniel Boone (#34); Are You Lonesome Tonight? by Donny Osmond (#35); and We May Never Pass This Way Again by Seals and Crofts (#37).

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): The Way We Were--Barbra Streisand (3rd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Love's Theme--The Love Unlimited Orchestra
2 Seasons in the Sun--Terry Jacks
3 The Way We Were--Barbra Streisand
4 Boogie Down--Eddie Kendricks
5 Spiders & Snakes--Jim Stafford
6 Americans--Byron MacGregor
7 Until You Come Back to Me (That’s What I’m Gonna Do)--Aretha Franklin
8 Rock On--David Essex
9 Let Me Be There--Olivia Newton-John
10 Doo Doo Doo Doo Doo (Heartbreaker)--Rolling Stones

Singles entering the chart were On a Night Like This by Bob Dylan (#74); Watching the River Run by Loggins and Messina (#81); Your Cash Ain't Nothin' But Trash by the Steve Miller Band (#83); Unborn Child by Seals and Crofts (#85); Touch a Hand, Make a Friend by the Staple Singers (#87); Us and Them by Pink Floyd (88); Beyond the Blue Horizon by Lou Christie (#93); It's Been a Long Time by New Birth (#99); and Tubular Bells by Mike Oldfield (#100). Tubular Bells was featured in the movie The Exorcist (1973).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 The Way We Were--Barbra Streisand
2 Love's Theme--The Love Unlimited Orchestra
3 Seasons in the Sun--Terry Jacks
4 Spiders & Snakes--Jim Stafford
5 Let Me Be There--Olivia Newton-John
6 Love Song--Anne Murray
7 I Thought of You Again--Susan Jacks
8 Doo Doo Doo Doo Doo (Heartbreaker)--Rolling Stones
9 Until You Come Back to Me (That’s What I’m Gonna Do)--Aretha Franklin
10 Rock On--David Essex

Singles entering the chart were Sunshine on My Shoulders by John Denver (#66); The Lord's Prayer by Sister Janet Mead (#82); Bennie and the Jets by Elton John (#83); A Very Special Love Song by Charlie Rich (#90); Energy Crisis '74 by Dickie Goodman (#93); Can This Be Real by the Natural Four (#95); Honey Please, Can't Ya See by Barry White (#96); When I am So in Love by Peter Foldy (#97); Best Thing that Ever Happened to Me by Gladys Knight and the Pips (#98); Sexy Mama by the Moments (#99); and I Miss You by the Dells (#100).

#1 single in Calgary: The Way We Were--Barbra Streisand (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Harry Ruby, 89
. U.S. songwriter and screenwriter. Mr. Ruby and his partner Bert Kalmar wrote such songs as Who's Sorry Now; I Wanna Be Loved By You; Three Little Words; I'm Against It; and A Kiss to Build a Dream On. Mr. Ruby contributed to the screenplays of the Marx Brothers' movies Horse Feathers (1932) and Duck Soup (1933), in addition to co-writing the songs from those movies.

William F. Knowland, 65. U.S. politician. Mr. Knowland, a Republican, represented California in the United States Senate from 1945-1959 and was known as "Mr. Integrity," serving as Senate Majority Leader from 1953-1955 and Minority Leader from 1955-1959. He left federal politics to run for Governor of California in 1958, but was defeated by Democratic candidate Pat Brown. Mr. Knowland took over from his father as publisher of the Oakland Tribune in 1966. He began incurring heavy gambling debts, while divorcing his wife and marrying a woman who proved to be a public and private embarrassment to him. Two days after ceremonies marking the 100th anniversary of the first edition of the Tribune, Mr. Knowland committed suicide by shooting himself. The biography One Step from the White House (1998) by Gayle B. Montgomery and James W. Johnson is available here as an ebook.

Crime
The Symbionese Liberation Army demanded $4 million more to release newspaper heiress Patty Hearst, whom they had kidnapped from her Berkeley, California apartment on February 4.

Police in Atlanta recovered most of the $700,000 ransom paid the previous day for the release of Atlanta Constitution editorial page editor Reg Murphy, who had been kidnapped from his Atlanta home on February 20. The recovery of the money came after the arrest of William A.H. Williams, 33, a construction contractor and ex-convict, and his wife. Mr. Murphy's kidnappers had claimed to be the "American Revolutionary Army."

Diplomacy
A three-day conference of 24 Latin American and Caribbean foreign ministers and U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger concluded with a rejection of Mr. Kissinger's appeal for the creation of a new "Western Hemisphere Community." The members charted a "new relationship," setting up an informal framework for continuing high-level discussions, or, if necessary, negotiations on troublesome issues.

30 years ago
1984


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Relax--Frankie Goes to Hollywood

Died on this date
Jessamyn West, 81
. U.S. author. Miss West, a second cousin of U.S. President Richard Nixon, was best known for her novel The Friendly Persuasion (1945).

War
Saudi Arabia announced an agreement on a cease-fire that brought a brief lull in the fighting between Israeli and Syrian forces in Beirut.

Politics and government
Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov, chief of the Soviet general staff, reported that Konstantin Chernenko, who had recently replaced the late Yuri Andropov as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, had assumed the position of chairman of the Defense Council, another position that had been held by Mr. Andropov. The Defense Council was believed to be in charge of Soviet military policy.

25 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Belfast Child--Simple Minds (2nd week at #1)

Politics and government
The United States Senate Armed Services Committee voted 11-9 to reject former U.S. Senator John Tower (Republican--Texas), nominated by President George Bush, as U.S. Secretary of Defense. The voting took place strictly along party lines, with all the Democrats voting against Mr. Tower and all the Republicans in favour. Mr. Tower's opponents focused on reports of his history of drinking.

Representatives of seven Afghan rebel groups based in Pakistan elected an interim government-in-exile.

Scandal
Rep. Lee Hamilton (Democrat--Indiana) concluded two days of testimony as the first witness for the prosecution in the trial of former U.S. Marine Lieutenant Colonel and National Security Council member Oliver North on charges arising from the Iran-Contra arms-for-hostages scandal of the mid-1980s. Mr. Hamilton testified that officials in President Ronald Reagan's administration, including Mr. North, had told him in 1985 and 1986 that the Boland Amendment barring U.S. intelligence agencies from helping opposition Contras in Nicaragua had not been violated in any way. Adolfo Calero, a leader of the Contras, testified that Mr. North had given him $32 million in 1984 and 1985 while U.S. aid to the Contras was forbidden by law.

20 years ago
1994


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): All for Love--Bryan Adams, Rod Stewart, and Sting (10th week at #1)

War
Croats and Muslims in Bosnia signed a cease-fire, and the Croats agreed to pull back from Mostar, a Muslim city that they had brought under siege. Almost all Serb gun positions had been abandoned or been brought under control of United Nations monitors.

Politics and government
The lower house of the Russian Duma voted 253-67, with 28 abstentions, to grant amnesties to leaders of 1991 and 1993 plots against the government. President Boris Yeltsin had no authority to prevent the release of the plotters from prison. The amnesty was heavily supported by Communists and ultranationalists in parliament who opposed the President. One of the freed rebels, former Vice-President Aleksandr Rutskoi, said that he planned to run for President in 1996.

Business
Bell Atlantic Corporation and Tele-Communications Inc. abandoned their effort to complete one of the biggest corporate mergers in history, the purchase by Bell of TCI and Liberty Media Corporation. The proosed merger, announced in October 1993 and valued then at $33 billion, could have prompted a revolution in technologies related to home entertainment. Since October, however, the value of the stock of both Bell and TCI had declined sharply, and the U.S. government's rollback of cable television rates threatened the profitability of TCI.

Olympics
Bonnie Blair of the United States, who had already won the gold medal in the women's 500-metre speed skating competition, won the gold medal in the 1,500-metre final. The two gold medals gave her a career total of five, the greatest number for any U.S. female Olympic athlete ever.

10 years ago
2004


Died on this date
Carl Liscombe, 88
. Canadian hockey player. Mr. Liscombe played with the Detroit Red Wings from 1937-46, scoring 137 goals and 140 assists for 277 points in 383 games. He was a member of the 1942-43 Stanley Cup championship team, scoring 6 goals and 8 assists in 10 playoff games. Mr. Liscombe's best season was 1943-44, when he scored 36 goals and 37 assists. After World War II, Mr. Liscombe played in the minors, and helped the Providence Reds win the Calder Cup, emblematic of the American Hockey League championship, in 1948-49. He won the Les Cunningham Award as the AHL's most valuable player in 1947-48 and 1948-49 and he John B. Sollenberger Trophy as the league's leading scorer in 1947-48 when he amassed 118 points on 50 goals and 68 assists.

Don Cornell, 84. U.S. singer. Born Luigi Varlaro, Mr. Cornell was with the band of Sammy Kaye in the 1940s before embarking on a successful solo career. His hit solo singles included I'll Walk Alone (1950); I'm Yours (1950); I (1952); Hold My Hand (1954); and The Bible Tells Me So (1955).

Carl Anderson, 58. U.S. singer and actor. Mr. Anderson was best known for portraying Judas Iscariot in the stage and movie versions of Jesus Christ Superstar. He died of leukemia four days before his 59th birthday.

Education
U.S. Education Secretary Rod Paige compared the National Education Association to a terrorist organization. He later apologized for the remark.

Saturday, 22 February 2014

February 22, 2014

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Laura Pereverzoff Ong!

270 years ago
1744


War
A combined Franco-Spanish fleet fought off Britain's Mediterranean fleet and ended the British blockade off the Mediterranean coast of Toulon, France in the Battle of Toulon.

90 years ago
1924


On the radio
Calvin Coolidge became the first U.S. President to make a radio broadcast from the White House.

70 years ago
1944


War
American aircraft mistakenly bombed the the Dutch towns of Nijmegen, Arnhem, Enschede and Deventer, resulting in 800 dead in Nijmegen alone.

50 years ago
1964


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): I Saw Her Standing There/Love Me Do--The Beatles (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France: Et Pourtant--Charles Aznavour

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Quando vedrai la mia ragazza--Gene Pitney

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Das kannst du mir nicht verbieten--Bernd Spier (5th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Anyone Who Had a Heart--Cilla Black

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): I Want to Hold Your Hand--The Beatles (4th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 I Want to Hold Your Hand--The Beatles (5th week at #1)
2 She Loves You--The Beatles
3 You Don't Own Me--Lesley Gore
4 Dawn (Go Away)--The 4 Seasons
5 Java--Al Hirt
6 Um, Um, Um, Um, Um, Um--Major Lance
7 Hey Little Cobra--The Rip Chords
8 Out of Limits--The Marketts
9 For You--Rick Nelson
10 California Sun--The Rivieras

Singles entering the chart were Kissin' Cousins by Elvis Presley (#52); Hello, Dolly! by Louis Armstrong (#68) (with a version by the Pete King Chorale listed with Mr. Armstrong's version but not charted); Stardust by Nino Tempo & April Stevens (#70); Baby, Don't You Cry (The New Swingova Rhythm) (#74)/My Heart Cries for You (#80) by Ray Charles; He's a Good Guy (Yes He Is) by the Marvelettes (#78); I'll Make You Mine by Bobby Vee and the Eligibles (#90); Tell Me Baby by Garnet Mimms (#91); Why Do Fools Fall in Love by the Beach Boys (#94); I Can't Stand It by the Soul Sisters (#95); The Way You Do the Things You Do by the Temptations (#96); Going Back to Louisiana by Bruce Channel (#98); Tell Him by the Drew-Vels (#99); and Saginaw, Michigan by Lefty Frizzell (#100). Why Do Fools Fall in Love was the B-side of Fun, Fun, Fun, which charted at #39.

Hockey
NHL
The Toronto Maple Leafs traded a veteran and three young prospects for two veterans in an effort to win the Stanley Cup for the third straight season. The Maple Leafs traded veteran forward Dick Duff and young defensemen Arnie Brown and Rod Seiling and forward Bill Collins to the New York Rangers for veteran forwards Andy Bathgate and Don McKenney. Toronto general manager and coach Punch Imlach didn't think his third-place team was good enough to repeat as Stanley Cup champions as it stood before the trade, and believed that Mr. Bathgate could make the difference in enabling the Maple Leafs to retain their championship.

40 years ago
1974


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand: You're Sixteen--Ringo Starr

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Teenage Rampage--Sweet (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Samuel Byck, 44
. U.S. criminal. Mr. Byck attempted to hijack a Delta Air Lines DC-9 jet at Baltimore-Washington International Airport, and fatally shot Maryland Aviation Administration Police Officer George Neal Ramsburg and the plane's co-pilot, Fred Jones, before being wounded by police and then shooting himself. Mr. Byck intended to assassinate U.S. President Richard Nixon by crashing the plane into the White House. It was the first hijacking attempt in the United States in 13 months, following the government-ordered installation of electronic metal detectors in airports.

Crime
Atlanta Constitution editorial page editor Reg Murphy was released unharmed, two days after being kidnapped by the "American Revolutionary Army." The newspaper paid a ransom of $700,000.

The Hearst Foundation offered $4 million for the release of heiress Patty Hearst, who had been kidnapped from her Berkeley, California apartment by the Symbionese Liberation Army on February 4. In Los Angeles and Oakland, near-rioting accompanied the first deliveries to the poor of $2 million worth of food from Miss Hearst's father Randolph, who was attempting to comply with the SLA's demands.

Diplomacy
The Organisation of the Islamic Conference summit began in Lahore, Pakistan, with 37 countries attending and 22 heads of state and government participating. The summit recognized the existence of Bangladesh.

Labour
The U.K. Pay Board disclosed that due to an error in official calculations of wages, coal miners were actually earning 8%-10% less thanaverage industrial labourers, rather than 2%-3% less, as the government of Prime Minister Edward Heath had suggested. Miners had been on strike since February 10.

30 years ago
1984


Died on this date
David Vetter, 12
. U.S, medical patient. David, whose last name was withheld until 10 years after his death to protect his family's privacy, was born with severe combined immune deficiency syndrome (SCID) and had been placed in an enclosed sterile crib within seconds of his birth. He spent almost his entire life in a plastic bubble, never experiencing the touch of another person; even a common cold could have proved fatal. After he developed fever, diarrhea, vomiting, and severe intestinal bleeding early in 1984, Dr. William Shearer, head of the Baylor University College of Medicine's pediatrics department in Houston, Texas, took David out of the bubble on February 7. David was able to kiss his mother for the first time and appeared to be responding well, but he developed fluid in his lungs and around his heart, and died from Burkitt's lymphoma.

Diplomacy
Jordan severed diplomatic relations with Libya, four days after the Jordanian embassy in Tripoli had been burned by protesters. The official Libyan news agency said that the protesters objected to the meeting in Washington on February 13-14 of U.S. President Ronald Reagan, King Hussein of Jordan, and Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak because it might lead to the undermining of the Paelstinian cause.

War
Iraq claimed that it had crushed another Iranian offensive launched the previous day, and that Iran had sent many young boys into the battle.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Congressional Budget Office made higher deficit projections than those of the administration of President Ronald Reagan. Although the estimates for 1985 were close, the CBO said that by fiscal 1989, the deficit could be $248 billion, twice the estimate of the administration.

25 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Bring Me Edelweiss--Edelweiss

#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Did I Tell You--Jerry Williams

Economics and finance
The United States Labor Department reported that consumer prices had risen 0.6% in January, the largest monthly increase since January 1987.

20 years ago
1994


Died on this date
Papa John Creach, 76
. U.S. musician. Mr. Creach was a blues violinist who played on recording sessions with the rock groups Jefferson Airplane and its successor, Jefferson Starship in the 1970s, while also being a member of the band Hot Tuna.

Scandal
Aldrich Ames, a longtime counterintelligence officer with the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, and his wife Maria del Rosario Casas Ames were arraigned on charges of selling information to the U.S.S.R. and Russia. Mr. Ames' field of specialty had been counterintelligence against the Soviet Union and eastern Europe, and U.S. authorities believed that at least 10 Soviet citizens working for U.S. intelligence had been executed by the U.S.S.R. after Mr. Ames had identified them.

Economics and finance
Paul Martin tabled his first budget as Canada's Finance Minister. He wanted to cut the deficit from $45 billion to 39 billion, cutting tobacco taxes to curb smuggling, and announcing that four military bases were to close, including Royal Roads in British Columbia and Collège Militaire St-Jean in Quebec.

10 years ago
2004


Died on this date
Andy Seminick, 83
. Mr. Seminick was a catcher with the Philadelphia Blue Jays/Phillies (1943-1951, 1955-1957) and Cincinnati Reds/Redlegs (1952-1955), batting .243 with 164 home runs and 556 runs batted in in 1,304 games. His best season was probably 1950, when he hit .288 with 24 homers and 68 RBIs in 130 RBIs, playing a key role with the "Whiz Kids" team that won the National League pennant.

War
Rebels in Haiti took control of Cap Haitien, the country's second-largest city.

The Lord's Resistance Army rebel group, which had been attempting for 18 years to overthrow the government of Uganda, killed at least 200 unarmed civilians in northern Uganda.

Politics and government
Consumer advocate Ralph Nader announced that he would run as an independent candidate for President of the United States in the November 2004 election.

Friday, 21 February 2014

February 21, 2014

210 years ago
1804


Transportation
The first self-propelling steam locomotive, driven by Richard Trevithick, made its outing at the Pen-y-Darren Ironworks in Wales.

190 years ago
1824


Abominations
An 18-year old Saint John, New Brunswick youth was hanged for stealing 25 cents.

140 years ago
1874


Journalism
The Oakland Daily Tribune, founded by Benet A. Dewes and George B. Staniford to represent Republican Party views in Oakland, California, published its first edition.

100 years ago
1914


Born on this date
Zachary Scott
. U.S. actor. Mr. Scott, who usually played heels, apppeared in movies such as The Mask of Dimitrios (1944); The Southerner (1945); Mildred Pierce (1945); The Unfaithful (1947); Cass Timberlane (1947); Ruthless (1948); and Flamingo Road (1949). He died of a brain tumor on October 3, 1965 at the age of 51.

Baseball
The New York Giants and Chicago White Sox continued their post-season exhibition tour, but their game scheduled to be played in Paris was rained out for the fourth straight day.

80 years ago
1934


Died on this date
Augusto César Sandino, 38
. Nicaraguan rebel leader. Mr. Sandino led a guerrilla rebellion from 1927-1933 against U.S. military occupation of Nicaragua. He was assassinated by National Guard forces of General Anastasio Somoza García, who seized power in a coup two years later. The Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), which deposed Gen. Somoza in 1979 and ruled Nicaragua until 1990, was named in honour of Mr. Sandino.

70 years ago
1944


On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on MBS
Tonight's episode: Doctor Moore Agar

50 years ago
1964


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Needles and Pins--The Searchers (2nd week at #1)

Edmonton's top 10 (CJCA)
1 She Loves You--The Beatles
2 I Want to Hold Your Hand--The Beatles
3 Roll Over Beethoven--The Beatles
4 Kissin' Cousins--Elvis Presley
5 Navy Blue--Diane Renay
6 Don't Talk to Him--Cliff Richard and the Shadows
7 Puppy Love--Barbara Lewis
8 Abigail Beecher--Freddy Cannon
9 Little Girl Blue--Bobby Curtola
10 Please Please Me--The Beatles
Pick hit of the week: Kissin' Cousins--Elvis Presley
New this week: My Heart Belongs to Only You--Bobby Vinton
Always in My Heart--Los Indios Tabajaras
Yutta-Tutta--Vicky Baker
My Boyfriend Got a Beatle Haircut--Donna Lynn
Doesn't Anybody Know My Name--Hank Williams, Jr.
Tell it on the Mountain--Peter, Paul and Mary

On television tonight
Twilight Zone, hosted by Rod Serling, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Spur of the Moment, starring Diana Hyland, Robert J. Hogan, Philip Ober, and Marsha Hunt

The Alfred Hitchcock Hour, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Final Escape, starring Stephen McNally, Robert Keith, and Edd Byrnes

40 years ago
1974


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Teenage Rampage--Sweet (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Tim Horton, 44
. Canadian hockey player. Mr. Horton, born Myles Gilbert Horton, was a defenseman with the Toronto Maple Leafs (1949-50; 1951-70); New York Rangers (1970-71); Pittsburgh Penguins (1971-72); and Buffalo Sabres (1972-74), scoring 115 goals and 403 assists in 1,446 regular season games and 11 goals and 39 assists in 126 playoff games. He was a first-team NHL All-Star in 1963-64, 1967-68, and 1968-69, and a second team All-Star in 1953-54, 1962-63, and 1966-67. Mr. Horton was a key member of Toronto teams that won four Stanley Cups (1962, 1963, 1964, 1967), and was the team's highest-paid player ($86,000 per season) at the time of his trade to the Rangers in March 1970. In 1964 he opened the first Tim Horton Donuts shop in Hamilton, Ontario; it grew into one of Canada's most famous brand names, but Mr. Horton didn't live to see its greatest success. After earning recognition as the third star in a game against the Maple Leafs at Maple Leaf Gardens, he had a lengthy meeting with his business partner, where some drinks were consumed. A painkiller Mr. Horton had taken after being hit in the jaw by a puck several days earlier was wearing off, and these factors, plus a lack of sleep, probably impaired his judgment. He decided to drive his Pantera sports car back to Buffalo in the middle of the night, and was estimated to be driving at 100 miles per hour on the highway at about 4:00 A.M. when he crashed the car and was killed. Mr. Horton was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1977.

War
The last Israeli soldiers left the west bank of the Suez Canal pursuant to their truce with Egypt.

Diplomacy
U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger opened a three-day conference with the foreign ministers of 24 Latin American and Caribbean nations with a call for the creation of a new "Western Hemisphere community."

Scandal
In testimony before the United States Senate Armed Services Committee, U.S. Navy Admiral Robert Welander, a former liaison officer between the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the National Security Council, denied having ever "ordered or directed" Yeoman First Class Charles Radford to pilfer highly classified NSC documents. The documents had ended up on the desk of Admiral Thomas Moorer, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and Adm. Moorer had given secret testimony to the Senate Armed Services Committee saying that he had twice recommended that Yeoman Radford be court martialed for leaking the documents to the press in 1971, but that his recommendations had been overruled by civilian authorities. The day before Adm. Welander gave his testimony, Yeoman Radford had testified to the contrary, and stated that he "assumed" and "believed" that Adm. Moorer had received the documents.

Crime
The "American Revolutionary Army," who had kidnapped Atlanta Constitution editorial page editor Reg Murphy from his home the previous day, demanded a ransom of $700,000 and called for the resignation of the nation's top elected officials followed by new elections.

Donald DeFreeze, aka "General Field Marshal Cinque Mtume," leader of the Symbionese Liberation Army, who had kidnapped newspaper heiress Patty Hearst from her Berkeley, California apartment on February 4 and later demanded that $230 million worth of free food be given to the poor in exchange for her release, called the offer of $2 million of food from her father, San Francisco Examiner president and editor Randolph Hearst, insufficient, and demanded $4 million more, and threatened to cut off communications if his demands weren't met within 24 hours.

Journalism
California Governor Ronald Reagan was the keynote speaker at a luncheon in Goodman Hall in Jack London Square in downtown Oakland to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the publication of the first edition of the Oakland Tribune. Former U.S. Senator William F. Knowland, the Tribune's publisher since inheriting the paper from his father in 1966, spoke briefly, but those close to him said that Mr. Knowland seemed oblivious to his surroundings. Two days later, he committed suicide by shooting himself.

Hockey
WHL
During a game in Seattle between the Seattle Totems and the Denver Spurs, Connie Forey of the Spurs attacked referee Malcolm Ashford and broke Mr. Ashford's nose.

Football
CFL
Calgary was awarded the 1975 Grey Cup, the first to be played on the prairies.

WFL
Canadian Minister of Health and Welfare Marc Lalonde, speaking in Regina, said that the government of Canada would do what it had to do to protect the Canadian Football League from any threat posed by a World Football League franchise in Toronto.

The Toronto Northmen named John McVay as the team's first head coach.

30 years ago
1984


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): My Oh My--Slade (5th week at #1)

Music
The single Head Over Heels by the Go-Go's was released on I.R.S. Records. The B-side was Good for Gone.

Died on this date
Mikhail Sholokhov, 78
. Russian author. Mr. Sholokhov, a Soviet Communist, was awarded the 1965 Nobel Prize in Literature. He was best known for his four-volume novel And Quiet Flows the Don (1928-1940).

Politics and government
The Sandanista regime of Nicaragua announced that its national election would be moved up to November 4, 1984.

25 years ago
1989


World events
U.S. President George Bush denounced the fatwa--a legal judment--issued by Iran's Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini against British author Salman Rushdie, whose novel The Satanic Verses (1988) was considered disrespectful to the prophet Mohammed. Mr. Bush said that "inciting murder and offering rewards for its perpetration are deeply offensive to the norms of civilized behavior."

Politics and government
Soltan Ali Keshtmand took office as Prime Minister of Afghanistan, replacing Mohammed Hassam Sharq, who had resigned the previous day.

20 years ago
1994


Hit parade
Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 The Power of Love--Celine Dion
2 All for Love--Bryan Adams, Rod Stewart, and Sting
3 Found Out About You--Gin Blossoms
4 Linger--The Cranberries
5 Streets of Philadelphia--Bruce Springsteen
6 Distant Sun--Crowded House
7 Mr. Jones--Counting Crows
8 Everyday--Phil Collins
9 Will You Be There (In the Morning)--Heart
10 Amazing--Aerosmith

Singles entering the chart were What a Man by Salt-N-Pepa (#67); Junior by John Mellencamp (#80); The Sky is Falling by Junkhouse (#84); Hasn't Hit Me Yet by Blue Rodeo (#86); Hold On by Sarah McLachlan (#87); The Ones You Love by Rick Astley (#88); Everybody Needs a Love by Sheree Jeacocke (#91); Lullaby (Goodnight, My Angel) by Billy Joel (#92); Good Again by the Boomers (#93); and Please (You Got That...) by INXS (#94).

Scandal
Aldrich Ames, a longtime counterintelligence officer with the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, and his wife Maria del Rosario Casas Ames were arrested and charged with selling information to the U.S.S.R. and Russia.

Economics and finance
The government of Ontario joined those of Canada, Quebec, and New Brunswick in announcing cuts to taxes on tobacco in an effort to curb cigarette smuggling.