Sunday, 31 January 2016

January 31, 2016

170 years ago
1846


Americana
After the Milwaukee Bridge War, the towns of Juneautown and Kilbourntown united to become the City of Milwaukee.

120 years ago
1891


Protest
The first attempt at a Portuguese republican revolution broke out in the northern city of Porto.

80 years ago
1936


Canadiana
The government of British Columbia opened Mount Seymour Provincial Park, north of Vancouver. Tthe 274-hectare property was named after former B.C. Governor Frederick Seymour.

75 years ago
1941


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): The Woodpecker Song--Kate Smith; Glenn Miller and his Orchestra (3rd month at #1)

At the movies
Buck Privates, starring Bud Abbott and Lou Costello, opened in theatres.

War
Free French commander General Charles de Gaulle appealed to General Maxim Weygand's African army to help complete the conquest of Italian Libya.

Thai and French officials signed a Japanese-mediated armistice terminating Indochinese border disputes.

Defense
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt said that the federal government was prepared to take over any plant in the country considered necessary in the national defense.

Eight of ten Republican Party members of the U.S. House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee issued a dissenting report on Lend-Lease, urging a $2-billion loan to Britain instead.

Philippines President Manuel Quezon states that the defense of his country rested primarily with the United States.

Crime
Nine leaders of the German-American Bund were sentenced from 12-14 months in prison for violating New Jersey "race hatred" law.

Economics and finance
Four major New York banks disclosed a cooperative plan to speed up financing of defense contracts.

Literature
Richard Wright, author of the novel Native Son (1940), was awarded the U.S. National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples' Joel Springarn Medal for the highest achievement "in any honorable field of endeavor."

Boxing
Joe Louis (45-1) retained his world heavyweight title with a knockout of Red Burman (73-17-1) at 2:49 of the 5th round at Madison Square Garden in New York.

70 years ago
1946


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): My Dreams Are Getting Better All the Time--Les Browne and his Orchestra (1st month at #1)

War
At the hearings of the United States Senate committee on the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, Admiral P.N.L. Bellinger, naval air wing commander at Pearl Harbor in 1941, testified that he had not been ordered by Admiral Husband Kimmel to carry out reconnasissance to the north the week before the attack.

Law
Yugoslavia's new constitution came into effect, modelling that of the U.S.S.R., establishing six constituent republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Macedonia; Montenegro; Serbia; and Slovenia.

Diplomacy
U.S. President Harry Truman acknowledged at a press conference that the agreement giving southern Sakhalin Island and the Kurile Islands to the U.S.S.R. was a secret part of the 1945 Yalta agreement, and he promised that other secret Allied agreements would be disclosed "at the proper time."

U.S. Secretary of State James Byrnes instructed the U.S. embassy in Warsaw to ask the Polish government to take steps to ensure political rights and free elections.

Politics and government
At the final session of the Chinese Political Consultative Conference, Nationalists and Communists approved plans to set up a government; to draft a constitution; and to reorganize the National Assembly.

General Eurico Gaspar Dutra was inaugurated as President of Brazil.

Alfredo Duhalde was installed as acting President of Chile with a promise to form a new cabinet, prompting the Chilean Federation of Labour to end a 24-hour general strike.

Kuang Aphaiwong took office as Prime Minister of Siam, succeeding Seni Pramoj.

Defense
The U.S. War Department announced the creation of the First Experimental Guided Missile Group to perfect robot bombs and aerial guided missiles.

Arrangements for British troops to enter Japan were announced in London and Washington. The force was to be composed of men from the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and India.

Economics and finance
The Democratic Republic of Vietnam introduces the đồng to replace the French Indochinese piastre at par.

60 years ago
1956


Died on this date
A. A. Milne, 74
. U.K. author. Alan Alexander Milne wrote various works of poetry and prose, but is best known for his children's books Winnie-the-Pooh (1926) and The House at Pooh Corner (1928). He died 13 days after his 74th birthday, several years after suffering a stroke.

50 years ago
1966


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): La Canción Del Tamborilero (The Little Drummer Boy)--Raphael (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Lovely Leitrim--Larry Cunningham (2nd week at #1)

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Yesterday Man--Chris Andrews
2 You Didn't Have to Be So Nice--The Lovin' Spoonful
3 As Tears Go By--The Rolling Stones
4 The Hoochi Coochi Coo--Wes Dakus
5 She's Just My Style--Gary Lewis and the Playboys
6 Attack--The Toys
7 Under Your Spell Again--Johnny Rivers
8 Tell Me Why--Elvis Presley
9 My Love--Petula Clark
10 Walk Hand in Hand--Gerry and the Pacemakers

Singles entering the chart were California Dreamin' by the Mamas and the Papas (#31); Did You Ever Have to Make Up Your Mind by the Lovin' Spoonful (#32); Stop Me from Fallin' in Love by Beau Hannon (#33); Michelle by David & Jonathan (#35); When Liking Turns to Loving by Ronnie Dove (#36); Good Time Music by the Beau Brummels (#37); (You're Gonna) Hurt Yourself by Frankie Valli (#38); While I'm Away by Bobby Curtola (#39); and A Beginning from an End by Jan & Dean (#40).

Died on this date
Arthur Percival, 78
. U.K. military officer. Lieutenant General Percival was best known for his surrender of British forces to the Japanese in Malaya and Singapore in February 1942.

Space
The U.S.S.R. launched the unmanned Luna 9 probe to the Moon.

War
The U.S. resumed air raids on North Vietnam after a 37-day peace offensive.

40 years ago
1976


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): La tartaruga-- Bruno Lauzi (5th week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (Veronica Top 40): Willempie--André van Duin

#1 single in the U.K.: Mamma Mia--ABBA

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Love Rollercoaster--Ohio Players

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Convoy--C.W. McCall (3rd week at #1)
2 I Write the Songs--Barry Manilow
3 50 Ways to Leave Your Lover--Paul Simon
4 You Sexy Thing--Hot Chocolate
5 Love Rollercoaster--Ohio Players
6 Fly Away--John Denver
7 Love to Love You Baby--Donna Summer
8 Walk Away from Love--David Ruffin
9 Sing a Song--Earth, Wind & Fire
10 Breaking Up is Hard to Do--Neil Sedaka

Singles entering the chart were Take it Like a Man by Bachman-Turner Overdrive (#81); Tangerine by Salsoul Orchestra (#84); Close to You by B.T. Express (#92); What's the Name of This Funk (Spider Man) by Ramsey Lewis (#95); Hard Times by Peter Skellern (#96); Boogie Fever by the Sylvers (#97); Nursery Rhymes (Part 1) by People's Choice (#98); Growin' Up by Dan Hill (#99); and Bad Luck by Atlanta Disco Band (#100).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Convoy--C.W. McCall (2nd week at #1)
2 Fox on the Run--Sweet
3 I Write the Songs--Barry Manilow
4 Do You Know Where You're Going To--Diana Ross
5 Love Rollercoaster--Ohio Players
6 Saturday Night--Bay City Rollers
7 You Sexy Thing--Hot Chocolate
8 Evil Woman--Electric Light Orchestra
9 I Love Music (Part 1)--O'Jays
10 Let's Do it Again--The Staple Singers

Singles entering the chart were Grow Some Funk of Your Own by Elton John (#55); Sweeney Todd Folder by Sweeney Todd (#82); Having a Party by the Crescent Street Stompers (#88); Lazy Love by the New City Jam Band (#90); Yesterday's Hero by John Paul Young (#93); Lonely Night (Angel Face) by Captain and Tennille (#94); Take Me by Grand Funk (#95); Hold Back the Night by the Trammps (#96); Dream Weaver by Gary Wright (#97); If I Only Knew by the Ozark Mountain Daredevils (#98); Junk Food Junkie by Larry Groce (#99); and I Heard it Through the Grapevine by Creedence Clearwater Revival (#100).

Died on this date
Ernesto Miranda, 34
. U.S. criminal. Mr. Miranda was a career criminal frm Arizona who confessed to kidnapping and rape in 1963 after a police interrogation that neglected to inform Mr. Miranda of his rights. He was convicted and sentenced to prison, but his case was appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States, which ruled in 1966 by a 5-4 vote in Miranda v. Arizona that both inculpatory and exculpatory statements made in response to interrogation by a defendant in police custody will be admissible at trial only if the prosecution can show that the defendant was informed of the right to consult with an attorney before and during questioning and of the right against self-incrimination before police questioning, and that the defendant not only understood these rights, but voluntarily waived them. Mr. Miranda was retried without the confession being admitted as evidence, but he was convicted again, and was paroled in 1972. He was stabbed to death in a bar fight in Phoenix.

Energy
The International Energy Agency adopted a long-term policy to reduce member nations' dependence on imported energy.

Hockey
NHL
New York Rangers 4 @ Toronto 6

30 years ago
1986


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Jeanny--Falco (4th week at #1)

At the movies
Down and Out in Beverly Hills, co-written, co-produced, and directed by Paul Mazursky, and starring Nick Nolte, Bette Midler, and Richard Dreyfuss, opened in theatres.

World events
Haitian dictator Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier imposed a state of siege after demonstrating and looting had spread to several cities. The violence had begun in reaction to the killing of three students in November 1985. U.S. White House spokesman Larry Speakes announced that Mr. Duvalier had fled Haiti, but he later admitted that the report was inaccurate, and blamed "bum information" from the U.S. State Department. Mr. Duvalier claimed that he was in power "firm as a monkey's tail."

Economics and finance
The Canadian dollar closed at a record low of 70.20c U.S. The drop came despite increased Canadian interest rates and attempts by the Bank of Canada to bolster the dollar’s value.

The Dow Jones industrial average finished at a new high of 1570.99.

25 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Do the Bartman--The Simpsons (2nd week at #1)

On the radio
Eddie Keen delivered his last editorial and departed as news director of CHED after nearly 20 years with the Edmonton station.

War
Allied forces recaptured the Saudi town of Al Khafji; 500 Iraqis were taken prisoner and 200 killed or wounded.

Israeli forces completed three days of strikes at a Palestinian refugee camp and other Palestinian targets.

Law
Canada’s proposed abortion law, which would have permitted an abortion if a physician felt a woman’s physical or psychological health was in danger, was defeated on a 43-43 tie vote in the Senate (in contrast to the American Senate, the Canadian Senate has no mechanism for breaking a tie, and a tie vote defeats a bill). The bill had narrowly passed the House of Commons in 1990. Politicians of both parties in the Senate were free to vote their consciences--if they had any--but most Progressive Conservatives voted for the bill while most Liberals voted against it. The bill had been opposed by pro-abortion advocates--who didn’t believe abortion should be covered under the Criminal Code--and by pro-life advocates, who didn’t think the bill was restrictive enough.

20 years ago
1996


Space
Comet Hyakutake was discovered by Japanese amateur astronomer Yuji Hyakutake.

Terrorism
An explosives-filled truck rammed into the gates of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka in Colombo, killing 91 people and injuring 1,400.

War
UNITAS militia members in Angola began to trickle in to United Nations assembly points.

Diplomacy
The United States announced the withdrawal of diplomatic staff from Sudan out of concern for their safety.

10 years ago
2006


Died on this date
Moira Shearer, 80
. U.K. ballerina and actress. Miss Shearer, born Moira Shearer-King, was best known as the star of the movie The Red Shoes (1948). She died two weeks after her 80th birthday.

Diplomacy
Canada signed the Afghanistan Compact, an agreement in London between the United Nations, the Government of Afghanistan and the international community. Canada committed to five years of support through the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

Law
Samuel Alito was confirmed by the United States Senate and sworn in as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

Economics and finance
The United States Senate approved Ben Bernanke as chairman of the Federal Reserve Board.

Saturday, 30 January 2016

January 30, 2016

210 years ago
1806


Transportation
The original Lower Trenton Bridge (also called the Trenton Makes the World Takes Bridge), spanning the Delaware River between Morrisville, Pennsylvania and Trenton, New Jersey, was opened.

200 years ago
1816


Born on this date
Nathaniel P. Banks
. U.S. politician. Mr. Banks was a member of several political parties during his career, and represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives from 1853-1857; 1865-1873; 1875-1879; and 1889-1891, serving as the Speaker of the House from 1856-1857. He was Governor of Massachusetts from 1858-1861. Mr. Banks became a Major General in the Union Army during the U.S. Civil War. He died on September 1, 1894 at the age of 78.

190 years ago
1826


Transportation
The Menai Suspension Bridge, considered the world's first modern suspension bridge--connecting the Isle of Anglesey to the north West coast of Wales--was opened.

175 years ago
1841


Disasters
A fire destroyed two-thirds of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

160 years ago
1856


Transportation
The first Grand Trunk Railway train arrived in Guelph from Toronto.

90 years ago
1926


Died on this date
Barbara La Marr, 29
. U.S. actress. Miss La Marr, born Reatha Dale Watson, was known as "The Girl Who is Too Beautiful." She starred in silent movies, including The Nut (1921); The Three Musketeers (1921); and The Prisoner of Zenda (1922). Miss La Marr was married five times, and became addicted to drugs and alcohol, which led to her death.

75 years ago
1941


War
British troops captured Derna, Libya. German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler warned that American ships carrying aid to the United Kingdom would be sunk.

Defense
The U.S. House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee voted 17-8 in favour of an amended Lend-Lease bill.

Economics and finance
Brazilian President Getulio Vargas signed a decree creating the National Steel Corporation.

Business
The U.S. War Department awarded a $10-million truck contract to a Chrysler affiliate despite a lower bid from Ford Motor Company, because Ford refused to comply with federal, state, and local labour laws.

A U.S. federal grand jury indicted sic companies and nine officials for operating an international magnesium trust since 1927. Two German firms were included.

Science
Radio Corporation of America officials described a new and simplified electron microscope that magnified objects up to 100,000 times.

70 years ago
1946


War
At the hearings of the United States Senate committee on the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, Captain A.H. McCollum testified that as head of U.S. Navy intelligence in 1941, he never saw a Japanese "winds code" message, signifying war against the United States.

Diplomacy
British authorities in Palestine announced that pending the Anglo-American Inquiry Committee's decisions, 1,500 Jewish immigrants per month would be permitted to enter Palestine.

The United Nations Security Council voted to return the Iranian dispute to Iran and the U.S.S.R. for settlement by direct negotiation, but "retains the right to request information on [their] progress."

Politics and government
The Iraqi cabinet of Prime Minister Hamdi el Paccechi resigned as a result of Regent Prince Abdul Illah's demand for social reforms.

Argentine presidential candidate Juan Peron said in Buenos Aires that he would not attempt a coup, and charged that the U.S. embassy was involvedin smuggling arms into Argentina.

U.S. Senator Harry Byrd (Democrat--Virginia) said that the United States should follow the Soviet example of control over the Kurile Islands and oppose any United Nations trusteeship of vital islands captured by the U.S.

Economics and finance
The U.K. House of Commons passed a bill nationalizing the coal industry and creating a nine-man board within the Fuel and Power Ministry to manage it.

U.S. President Harry Truman urged Congress to adopt a $4.4-billion credit to the United Kingdom for postwar economic adjustments.

60 years ago
1956


Terrorism
American Negro civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr.'s home in Montgomery, Alabama was bombed in retaliation for the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

50 years ago
1966


Economics and finance
The Canadian government of Prime Minister Lester Pearson announced that over 100,000 Canadians aged 69 were now eligible for the $75 Old Age Security pensions.

40 years ago
1976


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand: S O S--ABBA

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Moviestar--Harpo

#1 single in Switzerland: Dolannes-Melodie--Jean-Claude Borelly (16th week at #1)

30 years ago
1986


Hit parade
Edmonton's top 18 (CHED)
1 That's What Friends are For--Dionne and Friends (with Elton John, Gladys Knight & Stevie Wonder)
2 So Far Away--Dire Straits
3 Spies Like Us--Paul McCartney
4 Talk to Me--Stevie Nicks
5 Everything in My Heart--Corey Hart
6 It's Only Love--Bryan Adams and Tina Turner
7 Burning Heart--Survivor
8 Tarzan Boy--Baltimora
9 When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Going--Billy Ocean
10 My Hometown--Bruce Springsteen
11 I'm Your Man--Wham!
12 Live is Life--Opus
13 Conga--Miami Sound Machine
14 Rock Me Amadeus--Falco
15 Take Me Home--Phil Collins
16 Say You, Say Me--Lionel Richie
17 Cosmetics--Gowan
18 Go Home--Stevie Wonder

On television tonight
The Twilight Zone, on CITV
Tonight’s episode: The Elevator, starring Stephen Geoffreys and Robert Prescott; To See the Invisible Man, starring Cotter Smith; Tooth and Consequences, starring David Birney

Diplomacy
Jonas Savimbi, leader of the anti-Communist Angolan rebel group UNITA, met with U.S. President Ronald Reagan in Washington. The two men called for a negotiated settlement of the civil war in that country.

Scandal
Canadian Deputy Prime Minister Erik Nielsen, who had been a Progressive Conservative (Yukon) member of the House of Commons since 1958, admitted that he had secretly listened in on Liberal Party caucus meetings during the 1960s.

25 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Sadeness (Part I)--Enigma (3rd week at #1)

On television tonight
The Wonder Years, on ABC
Tonight’s episode: Denial

Died on this date
John McIntire, 83
. U.S. actor. Mr. McIntire was a character actor who appeared in movies such as The Asphalt Jungle (1950); Winchester '73 (1950); and The Phenix City Story (1955), and had regular roles in the television series Naked City (1958-1959) and Wagon Train (1961-1965).

John Bardeen, 82. U.S. physicist. Dr. Bardeen is the only person to have won the Nobel Prize in Physics twice: in 1956 with Walter Brattain and William Shockley "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect;" and in 1972 with Leon Cooper and John Schrieffer "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory."

War
11 U.S. Marines were reported killed as troops from the U.S.A., Saudi Arabia, and Qatar retaliated against Iraq’s seizure of the Saudi town of Al Khafji the previous day. Seven of the U.S. deaths were from "friendly fire" from a U.S. warplane. U.S. General Norman Schwarzkopf said that the air campaign was on schedule, with two weeks of bombing forcing Iraq to abandon centralized control of its air defense. Canada began military operations in Operation Friction; a Canadian CF-18 Hornet attacked and caused irreparable damage to an Iraqi warship.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the index of leading economic indicators had edged upward 0.1% in December 199, ending a string of six monthly declines.

Business
The Hudson's Bay Company announced that it was selling its fur business due to declining sales and auction competition; the HBC was originally founded as a fur trading company in 1670.

20 years ago
1996


Scandal
The Colombian congress was called into an emergency session to review allegations that President Ernesto Samper Pizano had knowingly accepted campaign donations from the Cali drug cartel; Mr. Samper denied the charges despite the resignation of government officials and ambassadors in protest.

10 years ago
2006


Died on this date
Coretta Scott King, 78
. U.S. civil rights activist. Mrs. King was the wife of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., from 1953 until his assassination on April 4, 1968. She participated with him in his work and continued civil rights advocacy after his death.

Business
Fairmont Hotels and Resorts announced that a group of investors including Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal had agreed to buy the luxury hotel chain for about $3.3 billion in cash and some $600 million in assumed debt.

Friday, 29 January 2016

January 29, 2016

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Ken Dies!

220 years ago
1796


Torontonia
Upper Canada Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe officially opened Yonge Street, naming it after his friend Sir George Yonge, an expert on ancient Roman roads and British Secretary at War (1782–1783, 1783–1794).

160 years ago
1856


War
Queen Victoria issued a Warrant under the Royal sign-manual that established the Victoria Cross to recognize acts of valour by British military personnel during the Crimean War.

130 years ago
1886


Transportation
Karl Benz received a patent for the first successful gasoline-driven car. Mr. Benz, a German engineer, had driven the three-wheeled car in Mannheim in 1885. The car had an electric ignition and differential gears and was water-cooled.

125 years ago
1891


World events
Liliuokalani was proclaimed the last monarch and only queen regnant of the Kingdom of Hawaii.

110 years ago
1906


Died on this date
Christian IX, 87
. King of Denmark, 1863-1906. Christian IX succeeded King Frederick VII on the throne, and became the first monarch of the House of Glücksburg. King Christian IX was succeeded by his son Frederick VIII.

100 years ago
1916


War
Paris was first bombed by German zeppelins.

75 years ago
1941


Died on this date
Ioannas Metaxas, 69
. Prime Minister of Greece, 1936-1941. Lieutenant General Metaxas was a member of the Freethinkers' Party from 1922-1936; he governed constitutionally for the first four months of his tenure, but governed after that as the dictator of the 4th of August regime. He was succeded as Prime Minister by Alexandros Koryzis.

War
Japanese, French, and Thai representatives began armistice negotiations to stop border hostilities between Thailand and Indochina.

Diplomacy
Japanese Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka stated his hope that the appointment of Nobumasa Nomura as Japanese Ambassador to the United States would improve relations between the countries.

Defense
Secret U.S.-U.K. military staff talks began in Washington. The U.S. House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee adopted amendments to the Lend-Lease bill limiting the bill to June 30, 1943, and barring convoying by the U.S. Navy. The Senate passed the $909-million authorization for Navy expansion, and sent the bill to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Politics and government
The Vichy French government announced the creation of a 40-man national committee called Rassemblement National to replace the old political parties.

Law
Cuban President Fulgencio Batista signed a decree making totalitarian propaganda in Cuba illegal.

Labour
A third International Harvester Company plant working on U.S. defense orders was closed by the Congress of Industrial Organizations Farm Equipment Workers strike. U.S. Representative Carl Vinson (Democrat--Georgia) introduced a bill to bar strikes and closed shops on naval defense projects.

70 years ago
1946


Died on this date
Harry Hopkins, 55
. U.S. politician. Mr. Hopkins was United States Secretary of Commerce in the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt from 1938-1940, but was better known as one of Mr. Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was a key figure in the $50-billion Lend-Lease program of aid to the Allies before the entry of the United States into World War II, and served as President Roosevelt's personal envoy to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Mr. Hopkins died after a seven-year battle with stomach cancer.

War
At the trial in Nuremburg of accused Nazi war criminals, secret documents revealed that U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, U.K. Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and the Vatican knew in advance of the July 1944 assassination plot against German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler. At the hearings of the United States Senate committee on the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, evidence from U.S. Army General Douglas MacArthur's headquarters was introduced stating that no Japanese "witness" had confirmed that a "winds code" message had been sent prior to the attack to indicate war against the United States.

Defense
Retiring U.S. Army Ordnance Chief Lieutenant General Levin Campbell said that the Army now had a rocket that reached a height of 50 miles.

Diplomacy
Norwegian Foreign Minister Trygve Lie nominated by the United Nations Security Council to be the UN's first Secretary-General, after the U.S.S.R. threatened to veto the U.S. choice, Lester Pearson of Canada.

U.S. Secretary of State James Byrnes confirmed the Soviet claim that U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and U.K. Prime Minister Winston Churchill, at the Yalta Conference in 1945, had agreed to let the U.S.S.R. have the Kurile Islands, southern Sakhalin, and a small adjacent island.

Politics and government
French Prime Minister Félix Gouin received a vote of confidence from the Constituent Assembly after he outlined a severe austerity program to check inflation.

Chilean cabinet ministers Eduardo Frei and Enrique Arraigada resigned when President Admiral Vincente Merino Bielich ordered the arrest of all Federation of Labour leaders after the previous day's clash in Santiago between police and members of the Workers Federation.

Space
An Australian government scientist reported that noise waves generated by the Sun had been recorded with radar.

Economics and finance
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration Director Herbert Lehman reinstated General Morgan as German chief after several "long and searching" talks.

Labour
Justice Ivan Rand of the Supreme Court of Canada issued the Rand Formula, denying the United Auto Workers' demand for a union shop, and making the union liable to penalties payable from union dues in the event of an illegal strike, but providing for compulsory checkoff of union dues for all employees whether they were union members or not. On December 13, 1945, Justice Rand had persuaded the UAW and Ford Motor Company of Canada to agree to binding arbitration, ending their strike.

The U.S. House of Representatives voted to return the United States Employment Service to the states by June 30, 1946. Rep. Francis Case (Republican--North Dakota) introduced a new bill to set up mediation boards; enforce "cooling off" periods; outlaw boycotts and sympathy strikes; and authorize court injunctions.

Transportation
British Overseas Airways Corporation announced plans for worldwide service, with daily flights to New York.

Disasters
The Canadian racing schooner Bluenose, working as a banana freighter, sank the day after striking a reef off Haiti; the crew of eight all escape the sinking. The news reached Halifax on January 30, and was first reported in the newspapers on the morning of January 31.

60 years ago
1956


On television tonight
Alfred Hitchcock Presents, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Shopping for Death, starring Jo Van Fleet, Robert H. Harris, and John Qualen

Died on this date
H. L. Mencken, 75
. U.S. journalist and critic. Henry Louis Mencken, nicknamed the "Sage of Baltimore," was known for his multi-volume work The American Language (1919, 1945, 1948); The American Mercury magazine, which he co-founded in 1924 and edited until 1933; and his columns for the Baltimore Sun, which became syndicated nationally. Mr. Mencken mocked organized religion and opposed America's entry into both World Wars and President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal economic policies.

50 years ago
1966


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): We Can Work it Out/Day Tripper--The Beatles (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in France: La Bohème--Charles Aznavour (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Lei--Adamo

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Marmor, Stein und Eisen bricht--Drafi Deutscher (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): We Can Work it Out/Day Tripper--The Beatles (6th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Keep on Running--The Spencer Davis Group (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): We Can Work It Out--The Beatles (3rd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 The Sounds of Silence--Simon & Garfunkel
2 We Can Work It Out--The Beatles
3 Five O'Clock World--The Vogues
4 She's Just My Style--Gary Lewis and the Playboys
5 Barbara Ann--The Beach Boys
6 No Matter What Shape (Your Stomach's In)--The T-Bones
7 The Men in My Little Girl's Life--Mike Douglas
8 My Love--Petula Clark
9 As Tears Go By--The Rolling Stones
10 Day Tripper--The Beatles

Singles entering the chart were At the Scene by the Dave Clark Five (#58); Working My Way Back to You by the 4 Seasons (#64); My Baby Loves Me by Martha and the Vandellas (#71); These Boots are Made for Walkin' by Nancy Sinatra (#74); I Fought the Law by the Bobby Fuller Four (#84); Long Live Our Love by the Shangri-Las (#86); What Now My Love by Sonny & Cher (#87); My Ship is Comin' In by the Walker Brothers (#89); Giddyup Go by Red Sovine (#95); Hide and Seek by the Sheep (#97); Love Makes the World Go Round by Deon Jackson (#98); The Ballad of the Green Berets by SSgt Barry Sadler (#99); The Cheater by Bob Kuban and the In-Men (#100); and You Baby by the Turtles (also #100).

Died on this date
Pierre Mercure, 38
. Canadian composer. Mr. Mercure, a native of Montreal, composed works in various genres, but was best known for his 10 ballets. He was killed in an accident in France.

40 years ago
1976


Terrorism
The Irish Republican Army set off 12 small bombs in the West End of London during the night, but no fatalities, and only one injury, resulted.

30 years ago
1986


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Say You, Say Me--Lionel Richie (4th week at #1)

World events
Yoweri Museveni, leader of the National Resistance Army, was sworn in as President of Uganda, two days after his predecessor, General Tito Okello, had fled to Sudan. Mr. Museveni said that a fundamental change in Ugandan politics had taken place, and he promised to return the country to civilian rule.

Diplomacy
Jonas Savimbi, leader of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)--a rebel force opposing the Communist-supported government of Angola--met with U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz and Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger in Washington.

25 years ago
1991


War
Iraqi troops seized the Saudi Arabian town of Al Khafji. In his State of the Union speech, U.S. President George Bush emphasized that the liberation of Kuwait was the purpose of the Gulf War, not to being about "the destruction of Iraq, its culture, or its people." U.S. Secretary of State James Baker and Soviet Foreign Minister Aleksandr Bessmertnykh issued a statement in Washington which held out the possibility of a cease-fire if Iraq left Kuwait.

Politics and government
A Quebec Liberal party committee headed by Quebec City lawyer Jean Allaire issued its report, demanding that Quebec be given far-reaching powers and exclusive control over a wide range of areas, including communications, energy, the environment, agriculture, and regional development. The report also called for the abolition of Canada’s Senate and a new constitution with an amending formula that would include a veto for Quebec. Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa accepted the thrust of the report. Ontario Premier Bob Rae expressed concern that a call for such a transfer of federal powers represented a "dismantling of the country." Separatist leaders reacted negatively to the report, while Prime Minister Brian Mulroney was cautious in his reaction, calling the report a "working document." Mr. Bourassa had created the committee in February 1990 in anticipation of the rejection of the Meech Lake accord.

Diplomacy
African National Congress Deputy President Nelson Mandela and Inkatha Freedom Party President Mangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi met for the first time in 30 years in an attempt to end the violence between the South African anti-apartheid groups that had claimed 5,000 lives since they had split in 1979.

20 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Jesus to a Child--George Michael (3rd week at #1)

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 One Sweet Day--Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men (2nd week at #1)
2 Exhale (Shoop Shoop)--Whitney Houston
3 Beautiful Life--Ace of Base
4 Name--Goo Goo Dolls
5 You'll See--Madonna
6 When Love and Hate Collide--Def Leppard
7 Time--Hootie & the Blowfish
8 Free as a Bird--The Beatles
9 Hand in My Pocket--Alanis Morisette
10 Breakfast at Tiffany's--Deep Blue Something

Singles entering the chart were Rosealia by Better than Ezra (#86); Promise by Victor (#87); Oh Shelley by Barney Bentall (#88); Swing Street by Bruce Hornsby (#89); Times Change by Jay Semko (#90); Wonder by Natalie Merchant (#92); Sleepy Maggie by Ashley MacIsaac (#93); and Cover You in Oil by AC/DC (#98).

Music
Shania Twain was named best new country artist at the American Music Awards in Los Angeles.

Defense
In response to international protests, French President Jacques Chirac announced a "definitive end" to French nuclear weapons testing, cancelling the last two scheduled tests.

Politics and government
Lucien Bouchard took office as Premier of Québec, replacing Jacques Parizeau. Mr. Bouchard, who had resigned as leader of the federal Bloc Québecois to move into provincial politics, was replaced by Michel Gauthier as interim leader of the BQ.

The Ontario Provincial Parliament passed a bill giving the provincial government sweeping powers to overhaul fiscal policy and social services.

10 years ago
2006


Sport
India's Irfan Pathan became the first bowler to take a Test cricket hat-trick in the opening over of a match.

Thursday, 28 January 2016

January 28, 2016

175 years ago
1841


Born on this date
Henry Morton Stanley
. U.K. journalist and explorer. Mr. Stanley, born John Rowlands, was working as a journalist when he travelled to Africa in search of medical missionary David Livingstone, and found him in Tanganyika, reportedly greetinghim with the words, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Mr. Stanley led several other expeditions to Africa, and claimed the Congo on behalf of King Leopold II of Belgium. Mr. Stanley sat in the U.K. House of Commons as a member of the Liberal Unionist Party from 1895-1900, and died on May 10, 1904 at the age of 73.

170 years ago
1846


War
British East India Company forces commanded by Sir Harry Smith defeated Sikh forces led by Ranjodh Singh Majithia in the Battle of Aliwal in India.

120 years ago
1896


Crime
Walter Arnold of East Peckham, Kent, England became the first person to be convicted of speeding in an automobile. He was fined one shilling, plus costs, for speeding at 8 miles per hour (13 kilometres per hour), thereby exceeding the contemporary speed limit of 2 mph (3.2 kmh).

100 years ago
1916


Opera
Goyescas by Enrique Granados received its premiere performance at the Metropolitan Opera in New York, with the composer in attendance.

Society
The Manitoba Legislature passed the Temperance Act, which allowed the use of liquor at home but prohibited public bars.

Law
Louis D. Brandeis was appointed by President Woodrow Wilson as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, becoming its first Jewish member.

75 years ago
1941


War
U.S. Chief of Staff General George Marshall said that there were growing indications that Germany would attempt to invade Britain in the spring of 1941. The Japanese Finance Ministry reported that about $4.1 billion had been spent on the war against China.

Defense
U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau testified before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that Congress must pass the Lend-Lease bill if the Allies wwere to continue to fight.

Americana
The United States Census Bureau reported that the nation's population was growing older, with a median age of 28.9 years in 1940.

Transportation
Spanish dictator Generalissimo Francisco Franco nationalized the nation's transportation systems in order to ease the food situation.

Journalism
Panamanian President Arnulfo Arias ordered the deportation of Edward W. Scott, correspondent for Reuters and United Press, for reporting that Mr. Arias sympathized with the Axis.

Economics and finance
U.S. Congress of Industrial Organizations President Philip Murray revealed a plan to increase steel output by coordinating the steel industry as a single production unit.

Labour
A U.S. Chamber of Commerce committee announced its opposition to anti-strike laws as contrary to the fundamental rights of citizens.

70 years ago
1946


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Symphony--Freddy Martin and his Orchestra (2nd week at #1)
--Bing Crosby
--Jo Stafford
--Benny Goodman and his Orchestra
2 I Can't Begin to Tell You--Bing Crosby with Carmen Cavallaro
--Andy Russell
--Harry James and his Orchestra
3 It Might as Well Be Spring--Paul Weston and his Orchestra with Margaret Whiting
--Dick Haymes
--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
4 Let it Snow! Let it Snow! Let it Snow!--Vaughn Monroe and his Orchestra
5 Dig You Later (A Hubba-Hubba-Hubba)--Perry Como and the Satisfyers
6 Chickery Chick--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
--Evelyn Knight and the Jesters
7 It's Been a Long Long Time--Harry James and his Orchestra
--Bing Crosby with Les Paul and his Trio
--Charlie Spivak and his Orchestra
--Stan Kenton and his Orchestra
8 Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief--Betty Hutton
9 Waitin' for the Train to Come In--Peggy Lee
--Harry James and his Orchestra
--Johnny Long and his Orchestra and Dick Robertson
10 That's for Me--Dick Haymes
--Jo Stafford

Singles entering the chart were You're Nobody 'Til Somebody Loves You by Russ Morgan and his Orchestra (#25) and Oh! What it Seemed to Be, with versions by Frankie Carle and his Orchestra and Frank Sinatra (#29).

On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on MBS
Tonight's episode: The Demon Barber

War
At the trial in Manila of accused Japanese war criminals, Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma's defense counsel John Skeen argued that the defendant had never ordered atrocities, and filed an appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court for a writ of certiorari.

Diplomacy
The United Nations Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee began debate on the refugee problem.

Iranian delegate to the United Nations Security Council Sayed Hassan Taquzadeh charged that the U.S.S.R. had been violating the 1942 Treaty of Alliance and the Teheran Declaration by aiding the rebels in Azerbaijan.

Former French Prime Minister Leon Blum was appointed France's special ambassador to foreign countries on the problems of finance, economics, and food.

Politics and government
Chinese Communist, Democratic League, and Youth Party representatives at the Political Consultative Conference rejected a Nationalist offer to share seven or eight seats in a proposed cabinet, with the Kuomintang holding 10-12 seats for itself.

Korean Communists refused to participate in the 35-man all-party unification committee being organized under U.S.-U.S.S.R. sponsorship.

Protest
A 60-day state of siege was declared in Chile as a result of a clash between police and members of the Workers Federation in Santiago.

Terrorism
U.K. High Commissioner Sir Alan Cunningham decreed the death penalty for terrorists attacking British military facilities in Palestine.

Economics and finance
The U.S. State Department invited 34 members of the International Monetary Fund and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development to a conference at Wilmington Island, Georgia on March 3, 1946.

Journalism
U.S. Assistant Secretary of State William Benton protested the refusal of Associated Press and United Press to supply the State Department with news releases, claiming it was the result of rivalries between the news services.

Labour
260,000 striking butchers and meat packers retured to work at 134 plants in the United States that had been seized by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Golf
Ben Hogan shot 68 in an 18-hole playoff to defeat Herman Keiser and win the Phoenix Open.

60 years ago
1956


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): The Yellow Rose of Texas--Mitch Miller, his Orchestra and Chorus (4th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Der Mond hält seine Wacht--Peter Alexander (10th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Mirror): Sixteen Tons--"Tennessee" Ernie Ford (3rd week at #1)

#1 singles in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Memories are Made of This--Dean Martin (Best Seller--3rd week at #1; Disc Jockey--4th week at #1; Jukebox--1st week at #1; Top 100--3rd week at #1)

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Memories are Made of This--Dean Martin (3rd week at #1)
--[Gale Storm]
2 The Great Pretender--The Platters
3 Sixteen Tons--"Tennessee" Ernie Ford
4 Rock and Roll Waltz--Kay Starr
5 Band of Gold--Don Cherry
6 Lisbon Antigua--Nelson Riddle and his Orchestra
7 Dungaree Doll--Eddie Fisher
8 See You Later, Alligator--Bill Haley and his Comets
9 It's Almost Tomorrow--The Dream Weavers
--Jo Stafford
10 Love and Marriage--Frank Sinatra

Singles entering the chart were Tutti Frutti, with versions by Little Richard and Pat Boone (#29); Seven Days, with versions by the Crew-Cuts, Dorothy Collins, and Clyde McPhatter (#33); When You Lose the One You Love by David Whitfield with Mantovani (#41); Such a Day, with versions by Rita Raines and Vera Lynn (#45); and These Hands by Len Dresslar (#50).

On television tonight
Stage Show, hosted by Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey, on CBS

Elvis Presley was the guest on this night's program, making his first television appearance. The program was produced by Jackie Gleason, and aired immediately prior to The Honeymooners.

The Honeymooners, on CBS
Tonight's episode: The $99,000 Answer



50 years ago
1966


Hit parade
Edmonton's top 10 (CJCA)
1 Day Tripper/We Can Work it Out--The Beatles (7th week at #1)
2 The Sounds of Silence--Simon & Garfunkel
3 My Love--Petula Clark
4 It's Good News Week--Hedgehoppers Anonymous
5 Tijuana Taxi/Zorba the Greek--Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass
6 A Must to Avoid--Herman's Hermits
7 As Tears Go By--The Rolling Stones
8 Lies--The Knickerbockers
9 Spanish Eyes--Al Martino
10 Breakin' Up is Breakin' My Heart--Roy Orbison
Pick hit of the week: It Won't Be Wrong--The Byrds
New this week: The Dedication Song--Freddy Cannon
Homeward Bound--Simon & Garfunkel
Ain't No Way--Glenn Yarbrough
Poor Baby--The Staccatos
This Golden Ring--The Fortunes

40 years ago
1976


Politics and government
Spanish Prime Minister Carlos Arias Navarro announced plans to reform parliament, modify the anti-terrorism law, and legalize some political groups.

The United States Congress overrode President Gerald Ford's veto of a bill sppropriatiing $45 billion for the Department of Labor and the Department of Health, Education and Welfare.

Economics and finance
The Saskatchewan government of Premier Allan Blakeney authorized the provincial takeover of potash mines.

30 years ago
1986


Disasters
The U.S. space shuttle Challenger blew up just 73 seconds after liftoff from Cape Canaveral, Florida, killing all 7 crew members. This blogger was in the shower at the time, with the radio tuned to Edmonton station CFRN. The song that was playing--which was interrupted with the announcement of the disaster--was I’m on Fire by Bruce Springsteen. The crew of mission STS-51-L were: Dick Scobee, 46, the mission commander; U.S. Navy Commander Michael Smith, 40, pilot; Judy Resnik, 36, engineer; Ronald McNair, 35, physicist; U.S. Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Ellison Onizuka, 39, engineer; Gregory Jarvis, 41, engineer; and Christa McAuliffe, 37, a teacher from Concord, New Hampshire, who had been selected as the winner of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s "Teacher in Space" competition. She was to give two lessons from space while her students watched on television.

25 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Raptori--Debi Gibson (4th week at #1)

War
Canadian CF-18 fighter planes faced anti-aircraft fire over Kuwait without damage. Iraqi fighter planes fled to Iran, where they were offered sanctuary.

Diplomacy
U.S. Secretary of State James Baker and Soviet Foreign Minister Aleksandr Bessmertnykh announced in Washington that a summit scheduled for February in Moscow between U.S. President George Bush and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev had been postponed indefinitely. The official explanation was that Mr. Bush needed to stay in Washington while the Gulf War was continuing. Problems with the strategic arms reduction treaty, which was to be signed in Moscow, were also cited. Unidentified sources in the White House said the postponement was also related to the Soviet invasion of Latvia and Lithuania.

20 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): How Bizarre--OMC

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (8th week at #1)

Burne Hogarth, 84. U.S. cartoonist. Mr. Hogarth drew a number of newspaper comic strips, most notably the Sunday edition of Tarzan (1937-1945, 1947-1950).

Jerry Siegel, 81. U.S. author. Mr. Siegel, with artist Joe Shuster, created Superman, first published in 1938.

Joseph Brodsky, 55. U.S.S.R.-born U.S. poet. Mr. Brodsky, who emigrated to the United States in 1972 after being expelled from the Soviet Union, was awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize in Literature "for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity." He was named United States Poet Laureate in 1991. Mr. Brodsky died of a heart attack after years of heart trouble.

Football
NFL
Super Bowl XXX @ Sun Devil Stadium, Tempe, Arizona
Dallas 27 Pittsburgh 17

Emmitt Smith rushed for 2 touchdowns and Larry Brown made 2 interceptions in critical situations to help the Cowboys defeat the Steelers before 76,347 fans. Mr. Brown was named the winner of the Pete Rozelle Trophy as the game's most valuable player.

10 years ago
2006


Disasters
The roof of one of the buildings at the Katowice International Fair in Chorzów/Katowice, Poland, collapsed due to the weight of snow, killing 65 and injuring more than 170 others.

Tuesday, 26 January 2016

January 27, 2016

190 years ago
1826


Religion
The Roman Catholic Church made Upper Canada a separate diocese, with Kingston the bishop's seat.

75 years ago
1941


War
Japanese Prime Minister Prince Fuminaro Konoye told the Diet that there was no sign of a solution to the conflict in China.

Politics and government
Vichy French Prime Minister Marshal Philippe Petain proumulgated a new law requiring all Vichy ministers and high officials to personally swear allegiance to him in his presence.

A communique from Rome reported that Italian Foreign Minister Count Galeazzo Ciano had returned to active military service.

The United States Senate confirmed the appointment of Frank Walker as Postmaster General.

Diplomacy
Wendell Willkie, 1940 Republican Party candidate for President of the United States, visited British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in London.

A regional conference on the River Plate opened in Montevideo.

Defense
The United States Senate passed without dissent a House of Representatives-approved $300-million appropriation to modernize Navy ships against air attack.

Business
U.S. Attorney General William F. Smith filed a civil antitrust action in Trenton, New Jersey against General Electric, Westinghouse Electric, and 10 other concerns on charges of monopolizing the electric light bulb industry.

Science
Dr. Alex Hardlisha of the Smithsonian Institution claimed that larger and broader skulls, lower cheekbones, and dark hair were the physical characteristics that distinguished the nation's "best minds."

70 years ago
1946


War
At the trial in Nuremberg of accused Nazi war criminals, General George Thomas of the German General Staff charged that Reinhard Heydrich had staged the 1939 Munich beer cellar explosion to break up a peace movement in the army.

Politics and government
King Farouk of Egypt intervened to prevent a dissolution of the cabinet after Prime Minister Mahmoud Fahmy Nokrashy Pasha threatened to resign over a dispute on the right to appeal to the United Nations against the United Kingdom.

Transjordanian Emir Abdullah Ibn Hussein hailed the British independence plan as putting an end to a Zionist plot to take over the country.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Office of Price Administration gave the Federal Housing Administration power to set rent ceilings on housing built with priority aid under the veterans' preference system and on FHA-insured homes.

Labour
Radio Corporation of America signed with the Congress of Industrial Organizations United Electrical Radio and Machine Workers for a 17 1/2c hourly wage increase for 8,000 workers in Camden, New Jersey.

Religion
The World Conference of Churches Provisional Committee announced that it would meet in Geneva from February 20-24 to draft plans for a world assembly of Protestant church representatives.

Science
The U.S.S.R.'s Stalin Prize went to Sergei Vasilov, Igor Tamm, Pavel Cherenkov, and Alya Frank for their work with radiation electrons; and to Konstantin Petrozhak and Georgi Floryov for bringing about the spontaneous fission of uranium in 1943.

60 years ago
1956


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Sixteen Tons--"Tennessee" Ernie Ford (2nd week at #1)

Music
The single Heartbreak Hotel/I Was the One by Elvis Presley was released on RCA Victor Records.

50 years ago
1966


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): Michelle--The Overlanders

Canadiana
Princess Margaret returned Portland Island to British Columbia for use as provincial park; the island had been British Columbia's gift to Princess Margaret in 1958.

40 years ago
1976


On television tonight
The first episode of Laverne & Shirley, a spinoff from the comedy series Happy Days, was broadcast on ABC.

Politics and government
George H.W. Bush was confirmed by the United States Senate as director of the Central Intelligence Agency.

Diplomacy
Anne Armstrong was confirmed as the United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom.

30 years ago
1986


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): We Built This City--Starship (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Part-Time Lover--Stevie Wonder (12th week at #1)

Died on this date
Lilli Palmer, 71
. German-born U.S. actress. Miss Palmer, born Lilli Peiser, fled Germany when the Nazis took power in 1933, and settled in England, acting in movies there for a decade before moving to the United States, while also returning to Germany to act. She won the Deutscher Filmpreis (Silver) for Best Actress for Teufel in Seide (1956) and Anastasia, die letzte Zarentochter (Anastasia: The Czar's Last Daughter) (1957). Miss Palmer was married to British actor Rex Harrison from 1943-1956.

War
The day after capturing the Ugandan capital of Kampala, the National Resistance Army captured Jinja, the nation’s second largest city, in their civil war aganst government troops. General Tito Okello, who had unseated Milton Obote as President in August 1985, fled to Sudan.

25 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Do the Bartman--The Simpsons

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Sadeness (Part I)--Enigma (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Sadeness (Part I)--Enigma (7th week at #1)

Died on this date
Dale Long, 64
. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Long was a first baseman with the Pittsburgh Pirates (1951, 1955-1957); St. Louis Browns (1951); Chicago Cubs (1957-1959); San Francisco Giants (1960); New York Yankees (1960, 1962-1963); and Washington Senators (1961-1962), batting .267 with 132 home runs and 467 runs batted in in 1,013 games. His best season was 1956, when he hit .263 with 27 homers and 91 RBIs. From May 19-28, 1956, Mr. Long homered in 8 straight games, setting a major league record, tied by Don Mattingly of the New York Yankees in 1987 and Ken Griffey, Jr. of the Seattle Mariners in 1993. Mr. Long was with the Yankees when they won the World Series in 1962.

War
In an attempt to stop the flow of oil in to the Persian Gulf, the United States bombed installations that controlled the flow of oil from storage facilities.

Football
NFL
Super Bowl XXV @ Tampa Stadium
New York Giants 20 Buffalo 19

Buffalo’s Scott Norwood missed a 47-yard field goal attempt with 4 seconds remaining in regulation time before 73,813 fans that would have given the Bills their first Super Bowl win. Matt Bahr's 21-yard field goal had given the Giants the lead earlier in the 4th quarter. New York running back Ottis Anderson rushed 21 times for 102 yards and a touchdown and caught 1 pass for 7 yards, and was named the winner of the Pete Rozelle Trophy as the game's most valuable player.

20 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): Jesus to a Child--George Michael (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Knockin'--Double Vision (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Wallonia (Ultratop 40): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (9th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Spaceman--Babylon Zoo (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Chart Information Network): Spaceman--Babylon Zoo

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): One Sweet Day--Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men (9th week at #1)

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 One Sweet Day--Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men (7th week at #1)
2 Exhale (Shoop Shoop)--Whitney Houston
3 Breakfast at Tiffany's--Deep Blue Something
4 Hey Lover--LL Cool J
5 Name--Goo Goo Dolls
6 Missing--Everything But the Girl
7 One of Us--Joan Osborne
8 Diggin' on You--TLC
9 Before You Walk Out of My Life/Like This and Like That--Monica
10 Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V.

Singles entering the chart were Not Gon' Cry by Mary J. Blige (#45); Cumbersome by Seven Mary Three (#63); Wonderwall by Oasis (#68); Energy by Devone (#73); 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins (#74); and Stayin' Alive by N-Trance (#85).

Died on this date
Ralph Yarborough, 92
. U.S. politician. Mr. Yarborough, a Democrat, represented Texas in the United States Senate from 1957-1971, and consistently supported liberal policies. He was riding with U.S. Vice President Lyndon Johnson in the motorcade two cars behind the car carrying President John F. Kennedy and Texas Governor John Connally in Dallas when Mr. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963.

World events
Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara led a military coup that deposed the first democratically elected president of Niger, Mahamane Ousmane.

Germanica
Germany first observed International Holocaust Remembrance Day.

Defense
France conducted its sixth test of a nuclear device, continuing to defy international opinion.

Tennis
Monica Seles won her first Grand Slam title since being stabbed in the back during a 1993 tournament, defeating Anke Huber of Germany in the women's singles final at the Australian Open. It was Miss Seles's fourth Australian title, the third having come three months before the attack.

10 years ago
2006


Died on this date
Johannes Rau, 75
. 8th President of Germany, 1999-2004. Mr. Rau, a member of the Social Democratic Party, held various positions before assuming the presidency, including Minister-President of North Rhine-Westphalia from 1978-1998. He died 11 days after his 75th birthday.

Gene McFadden, 56. U.S. singer-songwriter. Mr. McFadden and John Whitehead recorded as McFadden & Whitehead, and reached #1 on the Billboard Rhythm and Blues singles chart with the song Ain't No Stoppin' Us Now in 1979. They also wrote songs for artist on the Philadelphia International label; their best known composition was probably Backstabbers, a major hit for the O'Jays in 1972. Mr. McFadden died of liver and lung cancer the day before his 57th birthday.

Communications
Western Union discontinued its Telegram and Commercial Messaging services.

Monday, 25 January 2016

January 26, 2016

350 years ago
1666


War
In the Second Anglo-Dutch War between England and the United Provinces of the Netherlands, King Louis XIV of France declared war on England.

175 years ago
1841


Britannica
Captain James Bremer took formal possession of Hong Kong Island at what is now Possession Point, establishing British Hong Kong.

160 years ago
1856


War
U.S. Marines from the USS Decatur drove off American Indian attackers after an all-day battle with white settlers in the First Battle of Seattle.

125 years ago
1891


Born on this date
August Froehlich
. German clergyman. Rev. Froehlich was a Roman Catholic priest who spoke out publicly against treatment by the Nazi regime of Polish forced labourers. Rev. Froehlich was arrested in July 1941 and served time in three concentration camps before dying on June 22, 1942 at the age of 51.

Frank Costello. Italian-born U.S. gangster. Mr. Costello, known as the "Prime Minister of the Underworld," headed the Luciano crime family, one of the biggest in the United States. Mr. Costello became a celebrity in 1951 when he testified before the U.S. Senate hearings on organized crime headed by Senator Estes Kefauver. Mr. Costello agreed to testify, while his face not be shown on television. The camera showed close-ups of Mr. Costello's hands as he gave his testimony. He died on February 18, 1973 at the age of 82.

Wilder Penfield. U.S.-born Canadian physician. Dr. Penfield, a native of Spokane, Washington, trained in the United States before moving to Montreal, where he became the city's first neurosurgeon. He was a pioneer in brain surgery, including mapping functions of various regions of the brain. Dr. Penfield died on April 5, 1976 at the age of 85.

110 years ago
1906


Transportation
The Canadian Pacific Steamship RMS Empress of Ireland was launched at Goven, Scotland to carry passengers and mail between Québec and Liverpool, along with her sister ship RMS Empress of Britain.

80 years ago
1936


Politics and government
The Liberal Party captured 126 of 300 seats in the Greek parliamentary election. The People's Party was next with 72 seats, followed by the General Popular Radical Union with 60 seats.

75 years ago
1941


On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Hound of the Baskervilles, Part 3

Diplomacy
Japanese Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka accused U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull of distorting the truth about the "Manchurian Affair," which he blamed on "Anglo-Saxon interference in the Far East."

Politics and government
The India League, meeting in London, delcared that British rule had "ruined" India.

Protest
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples sponsored meetings in 23 American states to protest employment discrimination against Negroes in defense plants.

70 years ago
1946


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Symphony--Freddy Martin and his Orchestra (4th week at #1)

Aviation
U.S. Army Colonel William Councill shattered the transcontinental record by flying an Army Lockheed P-80 jet-propelled "Shooting Star" from Long Beach, California to La Guardia Airport in New York City in 4 hours 13 minutes 26 seconds.

Politics and government
Socialist Félix Gouin took office as President of the French provisional government, forming a cabinet of six Socialists; six Communists; six Popular Republican Movement members; and one independent.

The Iranian Majlis elected Ahmad Ghavam Saltaneh to a fourth term as Prime Minister. The vote was 52-51 in his favour.

Diplomacy
The U.S.S.R. claimed that secret clauses of the 1945 Yalta agreement promised the Soviet Union permanent possession of the Kurile Islands, southern Sakhalin, and adjacent islands.

Science
The important cosmic ray component meson was artificially isolated for the first time at the General Electric laboratories in Schenectady, New York.

Labour
Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Corporation settled with United Auto Workers for an hourly wage increase of 18 1/2c.

The Congress of Industrial Organizations Packinghouse Workers voted to resume work in government-operated plants pending rulings by fact-finding boards.

Disasters
Switzerland was hit by its third earthquake in 24 hours, causing damage in St. Moritz and and that Canton of Valais.

Horse racing
Honeymoon, owned by movie mogul Louis B. Mayer, won the $28,705 Santa Maria Stakes in California.

60 years ago
1956


Hit parade
#1 single in France (IFOP): L'Homme et l'Enfant--Eddie & Tania Constantine (8th week at #1)

Defense
The U.S.S.R. returned the naval base on the Porkkala peninsula to Finland. The base had been administered by the Soviet Union as a result of the armistice ending the Contiutation War in 1944.

Olympics
Opening ceremonies for the 7th Winter Olympic games took place at Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy.

50 years ago
1966


Politics and government
Former federal treasurer Harold Holt took office as Prime Minister of Australia, replacing the retiring Sir Robert Menzies as leader of the Liberal government.

Disappeared on this date
Jane Beaumont, 10; Arnna Beaumont, 7; Grant Beaumont, 4. Australian children. The Beaumont children disappeared from Glenelg Beach near Adelaide, South Australia, where they had been celebrating Australia Day. They had reportedly been in the presence of a tall, blond young man, but were never seen again, and the mystery has never been conclusively solved.

40 years ago
1976


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Jump in My Car--Ted Mulry Gang (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Oyoge! Taiyaki-kun--Masato Shimon (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Amor, amor--Lolita (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): I'm on Fire--5000 Volts (2nd week at #1)

Diplomacy
The United States vetoed a United Nations Security Council resolution calling for total Israeli withdrawal from all Arab territories occupied in the 1967 Six-Day War, and affirming an independent state in Palestine.

Football
NFL
Pro Bowl @ Louisiana Superdome, New Orleans
NFC 23 AFC 20

Mike Boryla of the Philadelphia Eagles threw touchdown passes to Terry Metcalf and Mel Gray of the St. Louis Cardinals in the last 5 minutes of the game to give the National Football Conference their win over the American Football Conference before 32,108 fans in the first Pro Bowl to be played indoors. The AFC appeared to have clinched victory earlier in the 4th quarter on a 90-yard punt return for a touchdown by Billy Johnson of the Houston Oilers, who amassed 233 yards in kick returns and was voted the game's most valuable player.

30 years ago
1986


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand: Nikita--Elton John

#1 single in Switzerland: Jeanny--Falco (2nd week at #1)

World events
The 10,000-man National Resistance Army, a force led by Yoweri Museveni and originally based in southwestern Uganda, captured the capital city of Kampala in heavy fighting against government troops and overthrew the government of President General Tito Okello.

Football
NFL
Super Bowl XX @ Louisiana Superdome, New Orleans
Chicago 46 New England 10

The Bears forced 6 turnovers and turned them into 24 points in routing the Patriots before 73,818 fans to win their first NFL title in 22 years.

25 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): Ice Ice Baby--Vanilla Ice (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Aihakatsu--KAN (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Attenti al Lupo--Lucio Dalla (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Sadeness (Part 1)--Enigma

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Ice Ice Baby--Vanilla Ice

#1 single in France (SNEP): Il faut laisser le temps au temps--Félix Gray & Didier Barbelivien (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Ice Ice Baby--Vanilla Ice (6th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Chart Information Network): Innuendo--Queen

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): The First Time--Surface

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Love Will Never Do (Without You)--Janet Jackson
2 High Enough--Damn Yankees
3 The First Time--Surface
4 Sensitivity--Ralph Tresvant
5 Justify My Love--Madonna
6 Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)--C + C Music Factory featuring Freedom Williams
7 I’m Not in Love--Will to Power
8 After the Rain--Nelson
9 Play That Funky Music--Vanilla Ice
10 Tom’s Diner--D.N.A. featuring Suzanne Vega

Singles entering the chart were Coming Out of the Dark by Gloria Estefan (#49); Secret by Heart (#70) and Who Said I Would by Phil Collins (#87).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 You Gotta Love Someone--Elton John
2 Justify My Love--Madonna
3 Love Will Never Do (Without You)--Janet Jackson
4 Freedom--George Michael
5 Til I Am Myself Again--Blue Rodeo
6 Disappear--INXS
7 Because I Love You (The Postman Song)--Stevie B
8 One and Only Man--Steve Winwood
9 Hang in Long Enough--Phil Collins
10 After the Rain--Nelson

Singles entering the chart were I'll Be the One by Zappacosta (#71); Chasin' the Wind by Chicago (#74); A Lil' Ain't Enough by David Lee Roth (#77); Get Here by Oleta Adams (#78); Crazy in Love by Kenny Rogers (#81); Let Me Love You Too by Tommy Conwell and the Young Rumblers (#82); Angel from Montgomery by the Leslie Spit Treeo (#88); Waiting for That Day by George Michael (#89); Swear to Your Heart by Russell Hitchcock (#90); If You Need Somebody by Bad Company (#95); and Coming Out of the Dark by Gloria Estefan (#96).

War
The Pentagon said that two dozen Iraqi aircraft had flown to Iran. Many more soon joined them, and Iran, which had declared its neutrality in the Gulf War, said the planes would be impounded until the end of the war.

Protest
A protest rally against the Gulf War was held at Sir Winston Churchill Square in downtown Edmonton. Federal New Democrat MP Svend Robinson addressed the rally as did local environmental activist Tooker Gomberg. For Mr. Gomberg, dislike of the United States apparently took precedence over care for the environment, since it was Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein who had recently dumped oil into the Persian Gulf. This blogger participated in a pro-war rally, climaxed by a march to the statue of Mr. Churchill.

Hockey
NHL
Chicago 5 @ Toronto 1

20 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Spaceman--Babylon Zoo

Died on this date
Dave Schultz, 36
. U.S. wrestler. Mr. Schultz won a gold medal in the freestyle (under 74 kilograms) competition at the 1984 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles, and numerous medals in other international competitions. While training for the 1996 Olympics, he was shot and killed by John Eleuthère du Pont, the owner of the facility in Pennsylvania where Mr. Schultz was training. Mr. du Pont had reportedly been exhibiting bizarre behaviour for some time before the killing, and he was convicted as guilty and mentally ill.

Politics and government
Brian Tobin sworn in as Premier of Newfoundland, replacing the retiring Clyde Wells.

Lucien Bouchard became the fourth President of the Parti Québecois.

10 years ago
2006


Died on this date
Len Carlson, 68
. Canadian actor. Mr. Carlson, a native of Edmonton, provided voices for characters in numerous cartoon television series. He died of a heart attack in Keswick, Ontario.

Scandal
Confronted by Oprah Winfrey on her syndicated television talk show, author James Frey acknowledged lies in his addiction memoir A Million Little Pieces. The admission came 18 days after the allegations had first been published on the website The Smoking Gun.

January 25, 2016

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Zlata Antunovic!

1,975 years ago
41


Politics and government
After a night of negotiation, Claudius was accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate, the day after the death of Caligula.

225 years ago
1791


Canadiana
The British Parliament passed the Constitutional Act of 1791 and split the old Province of Quebec into Upper Canada and Lower Canada.

75 years ago
1941


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Frenesi--Artie Shaw and His Orchestra (6th week at #1)

Diplomacy
Cuban Secretary of State Jose Manuel Cortina repudiated U.S. Senator George Smather's (Democrat--Florida) resolution that Cuba be admitted as a state of the union.

Defense
Former U.S. Ambassador to France William C. Bullitt told the House of Representatives that he supported the Lend-Lease bill, and warned the committee of German invasion through Latin America if Britain failed.

Religion
Pope Pius XII elevated the Apostolic Vicariate of the Hawaiian Islands to the dignity of a diocese; it became the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu.

70 years ago
1946


Diplomacy
Sir Archibald Clark Kerr was appointed U.K. Ambassador to the United States to succeed Lord Halifax, whose resignation was effective May 1, 1946.

U.S.S.R. delegate to the United Nations Andrei Vishinsky told the Security Council that the Soviet Union opposed any UN inquiry into Iranian accusations of Soveit interference in Iran's affairs.

The Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry began hearings in London on the Palestine issue.

Protest
Rioting in Bombay by followers of the late Subhas Chandra Bose, leader of the pro-Japanese Indian National Army during World War II, continued for the third day, with casualties mounting to 22 dead and over 600 wounded.

Labour
The American Federation of Labor voted to readmit the United Mine Workers, and elected UMW President John L. Lewis as Vice President of the AFL.

50 years ago
1966


On television tonight
The Fugitive, starring David Janssen, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Echo of a Nightmare, with guest stars Shirley Knight and Arch Johnson

Boxing
Henry Cooper (32-11-1) scored a technical knockout over Hubert Hilton (13-3-2) in the 2nd round of a scheduled 10-round heavyweight bout at the Olympia in London. On the undercard, Hector Eduardo Corletti (12-2-5) scored an upset with a 10-round decision over George Chuvalo (34-11-2) in a heavyweight bout.

Stan Harrington (60-16-2) won a unanimous 10-round decision ove Rubin "Hurricane" Carter (26-11) in a middleweight bout at International Center Arena in Honolulu.

Luis Rodriguez (70-4) knocked down Jose Limas (24-18-4) 3 times in the 4th round to score a technical knockout in a super welterweight bout at Civic Auditorium in Albuquerque.

40 years ago
1976


Politics and government
Stuart Smith was elected leader of the Ontario Liberal Party, succeeding Robert Nixon.

30 years ago
1986


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Take on Me--A-Ha (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Nikita--Elton John (6th week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Nikita--Elton John (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Walk of Life--Dire Straits

#1 single in the U.K.: The Sun Always Shines on T.V.--A-Ha

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): That’s What Friends are For--Dionne and Friends (with Elton John, Gladys Knight & Stevie Wonder) (2nd week at #1)

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 That’s What Friends are For--Dionne and Friends (with Elton John, Gladys Knight & Stevie Wonder)
2 Say You, Say Me--Lionel Richie
3 Alive and Kicking--Simple Minds
4 Party All the Time--Eddie Murphy
5 Talk to Me--Stevie Nicks
6 Burning Heart--Survivor
7 Broken Wings--Mr. Mister
8 I’m Your Man--Wham!
9 My Hometown--Bruce Springsteen
10 Tonight She Comes--The Cars

Singles entering the chart were Sanctify Yourself by Simple Minds (#58); No Easy Way Out by Robert Tepper (#77); Manic Monday by the Bangles (#87) and Pleasure and Pain by Divinyls (#90).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 That's What Friends are For--Dionne and Friends (with Elton John, Gladys Knight & Stevie Wonder)
2 Say You, Say Me--Lionel Richie
3 Rock Me, Amadeus--Falco
4 Party All the Time--Eddie Murphy
5 Everything in My Heart--Corey Hart
6 Tarzan Boy--Baltimora
7 I Miss You--Klymaxx
8 When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Going--Billy Ocean
9 I'm Your Man--Wham!
10 Sun City--Artists United Against Apartheid

Singles entering the chart were People See Through You by Bruce Cockburn (#70); These Dreams by Heart (#74); Stages by ZZ Top (#78); Sanctify Yourself by Simple Minds (#86); Nikita by Elton John (#90); This Could Be the Night by Loverboy (#93); and Heart of the City by the Arrows (#95).

25 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Beinhart--Torfrock

War
Allied officials accused Iraq of environmental terrorism for dumping millions of litres of crude oil from a Kuwaiti supertanker into the Persian Gulf. It was the largest oil slick on record, covering about 900 square kilometres, and containing as much as 11 million barrels of oil by January 30. The oil posed a serious danger to the area’s ecosystem as well as to the operation of Allied ships.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the gross national product had declined at an annual rate of 2.1% for the fourth quarter of 1990; for all of 1990, the growth rate was 0.9%, the lowest since the 2.5% decline in 1982.

20 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Jesus to a Child--George Michael (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Denmark (Nielsen Music Control & IFPI): Missing--Everything But the Girl

Died on this date
Billy Bailey, 49
. U.S. criminal. Mr. Bailey was hanged at Delaware Correctional Center at Smyrna for the 1979 murders of Gilbert Lambertson, 80, and his wife Clara, 73. Mr. Bailey remainis the most recent person to be hanged in the U.S.A.

Europeana
Russia became a member state of the Council of Europe.

Politics and government
Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien launched a major cabinet shuffle, adding Pierre Pettigrew as Minister of Human Resources Development and Stéphane Dion as Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs.

Law
Leilani Muir was awarded $750,000 by an Alberta judge; she had been wrongly diagnosed as mentally disabled and sterilized by the province's Eugenics Board in 1959.

Labour
A general strike was held in Bolivia to protest attempts by the government of President Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada Bustamente to balance the budget by raising fuel prices and holding wage increases to 8%.

10 years ago
2006


Space
Three independent observing campaigns announced the discovery of OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb through gravitational microlensing, the first cool rocky/icy extrasolar planet around a main-sequence star.

Crime
Mexican professional wrestler Juana Barraza was arrested in connection with the serial killing of at least 11 elderly women.

Politics and government
The Islamic terrorist group Hamas won a large majority of seats in Palestinian parliamentary elections.