Saturday, 9 January 2016

January 9, 2016

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Olga!

200 years ago
1816


Technology
Sir Humphry Davy tested his safety lamp for miners at Hebburn Colliery in northeastern England.

150 years ago
1866


Academia
Fisk School, forerunner of Fisk University, convened classes for the first time, in former Union Army barracks in Nashville, Tennessee.

100 years ago
1916


War
The Battle of Gallipoli concluded with an Ottoman Empire victory when the last Allied forces were evacuated from the peninsula.

80 years ago
1936

Died on this date
John "Jack" Gilbert, 40
. U.S. actor. Mr. Gilbert, born John Pringle, began appearing in movies in 1915 as an extra, but it wasn't until 1925 that he achieved genuine stardom with The Big Parade. He co-starred with Greta Garbo in several movies--Flesh and the Devil (1926); Love (1927); and A Woman of Affairs (1928). They were also lovers off-screen, but she failed to show up for their scheduled wedding, and when Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio boss Louis B. Mayer made an unflattering remark about Miss Garbo, Mr. Gilbert physically attacked him. Mr. Mayer then reportedly vowed to ruin his star, and he was successful, casting him in such films as His Glorious Night (1929)--his first starring role in a sound film--in which his proclamations of love for his leading lady provoked laughter from audiences. He had few movie roles after this, although he did return to co-star with Miss Garbo in Queen Christina (1933). Mr. Gilbert became romantically involved with Marlene Dietrich, but heavy drinking took its toll, and he died of a heart attack at his Hollywood home.

75 years ago
1941


War
French military authorities claimed destruction of at least 40 Thai war planes on the Indochina border, but acknowledged a general withdrawal of 5-10 miles from the frontier.

Defense
The Royal Air Force Avro Lancaster made its first flight. Ernest W. Gibson was elected chairman of the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies.

Diplomacy
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's personal representative Harry Hopkins arrived in London in the middle of a German bombing attack. The U.S. State Department reported American denial of a French request for aid in solving the problem of German Jewish refugees in France.

Politics and government
U.S. Representatives Edith Rogers (Republican--Massachusetts), John Taber (Republican--New York), Clare Hoffman (Republican--Michigan), and Noah Mason (Republican--Illinois) criticized U.S. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt for her January 7 remarks about their failure to applaud President Franklin D. Roosevelt's State of the Union address.

70 years ago
1946


Died on this date
Countee Cullen, 42
. U.S. poet. Mr. Cullen, born Countee Porter, was a leading figure in the Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s and '30s, writing 10 books of poetry, three books of prose, and one play. He died of high blood pressure and uremic poisoning.

War
Evidence introduced at the Nazi war crimes trial in Nuremberg revealed that German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop had told Japanese Ambassador to Germany Hiroshi Oshima that German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler had ordered "the entire German Navy to attack American ships" three days before Germany declared war on the United States. At the hearings of the United States Senate committee on the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, a letter dated December 5, 1941 from U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt to former Republican Party presidential candidate Wendell Willkie indicated that President Roosevelt expected a Japanese attack on "the Philippines, Dutch Indies, Malaya or Borneo," but not Hawaii.

Diplomacy
King George VI of the United Kingdom welcomed United Nations delegates at a state dinner in St. James's Palace in London, asking them to place the community of nations above selfish interests.

The Arab Higher Commission rejected a British proposal for interim Jewish immigration, and demanded that Palestine be given independence and the Grand Mufti be allowed back into Jerusalem.

Politics and government
The Japanese cabinet approved a reform plan for the Japanese House of Peers, reducing the membership from 418 to 300.

American Jewish Committee President Joseph Proskauer urged the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry on Palestine to recommend that the country be placed under United Nations trusteeship.

Defense
On a visit to Canada, Allied Supreme Commander in Europe General Dwight Eisenhower ordered all U.S. overseas commanders to send home "without delay" all soldiers "for whom there is no military need."

The United States Navy revealed its first fighter plane exclusively powered by jet engines--the FD-1 Phantom--with a range of 1,000 miles and a speed of more than 500 miles per hour.

Labour
7,704 telephone mechanics at Western Electric went on strike in 44 American states, demanding an hourly wage increase of 5-7c.

Weather
Drs. John van Neumann and Vladimir Zworykin submitted plans to the U.S. Army, Navy, and Weather Bureau for development of a new electric computer which may enable long-range forecasting.

60 years ago
1956


Boxing
James J. Parker (28-5-4) of Toronto won a 12-round decision over Johnny Arthur (30-6) of South Africa at Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto to win the vacant British Empire heavyweight title. On the undercard, Howie Turner (18-2-3) won a 6-round decision over Larry Watson (38-26-2) in a heavyweight bout; it was Mr. Watson's last professional fight.

50 years ago
1966


Theatre
The Mad Show, loosely based on Mad magazine and starring Linda Lavin, Jo Anne Worley, Paul Sand, and Richard Libertini, opened at the New Theatre off-Broadway in New York City.

Died on this date
Hugh Sanders, 54
. U.S. actor. Mr. Sanders appeared in numerous television programs and in such movies as The Damned Don't Cry (1950); The Wild One (1953); and To Kill a Mockingbird (1962).

Football
NFL
Bert Bell Benefit Bowl (aka Playoff Bowl) @ Orange Bowl, Miami
Baltimore 35 Dallas 3

Tom Matte, playing his third straight game at quarterback as a substitute for starter Johnny Unitas and backup Gary Cuozzo--both out with injuries--threw 2 touchdown passes to lead the Colts over the Cowboys before 65,569 fans in the sixth annual game between the second-place teams from the Eastern and Western Conferences.

40 years ago
1976


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand:

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Dolannes-Melodie--Jean-Claude Borelly (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Dolannes-Melodie--Jean-Claude Borelly (13th week at #1)

#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Paloma Blanca--George Baker Selection (9th week at #1)

30 years ago
1986


Hit parade
Canada’s top 30
1 Say You, Say Me--Lionel Richie
2 Everything in My Heart--Corey Hart
3 Small Town--John Cougar Mellencamp
4 Girls are More Fun--Ray Parker, Jr.
5 Tonight She Comes--The Cars
6 Separate Lives--Phil Collins and Marilyn Martin
7 Sleeping Bag--ZZ Top
8 It’s Only Love--Bryan Adams and Tina Turner
9 That’s What Friends are For--Dionne and Friends (with Elton John, Gladys Knight & Stevie Wonder)
10 So Far Away--Dire Straits
11 Spies Like Us--Paul McCartney
12 Alive and Kicking--Simple Minds
13 Election Day--Arcadia
14 I Miss You--Klimaxx
15 Talk to Me--Stevie Nicks
16 Broken Wings--Mr. Mister
17 Wrap Her Up--Elton John
18 Situation Critical--Platinum Blonde
19 Burning Heart--Survivor
20 When the Going Gets Tough--Billy Ocean
21 Take Me Home--Phil Collins
22 Tarzan Boy--Baltimora
23 Go Home--Stevie Wonder
24 Who’s Zoomin’ Who--Aretha Franklin
25 Cosmetics--Gowan
26 I’m Your Man--Wham!
27 My Hometown--Bruce Springsteen
28 Love is the Seventh Wave--Sting
29 Face the Face--Pete Townshend
30 Live is Life--Opus

Politics and government
British Defense Secretary Michael Heseltine, who favoured a European consortium’s plan to rescue Westland Helicopters--Britain’s only helicopter manufacturer--resigned his post in a dispute with Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, who favoured the deal being proposed by the American Sikorsky firm and Fiat of Italy, which Westland had accepted in principle on December 13, 1985.

25 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Lassie--Ainbusk (4th week at #1)

On television tonight
The Wonder Years, on ABC
Tonight’s episode: The Candidate

Diplomacy
Representatives from the United States and Iraq met at the Geneva Peace Conference to try to find a peaceful resolution to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.

Protest
Three days of rioting in Haiti concluded with at least 70 deaths. The riots resulted from an attempted coup at the presidential palace in Port-au-Prince on January 6 that had been thwarted nine hours later by troops loyal to President Ertha Pascal Trouillot. Mobs directed their violence toward coup leader Roger Lafontant and the Tonton Macoutes, the private militia of the previous dictatorships of "Papa Doc" and "Baby Doc" Duvalier. Many were hacked to death with machetes or burned with gasoline "necklaces." President-elect Jean-Bertrand Aristide did not condemn the violence.

Society
Limited racial integration of schools in South Africa began as small numbers of black students were admitted to formerly all-white public schools. The limited integration was the result of a government plan announced in 1990 whereby white parents were given the choice of whether to open schools to children of other races. 205 of South Africa's approximately 2,000 white public schools volunteered to integrate.

Hockey
NHL
Detroit 5 Edmonton 3

20 years ago
1996


War
Chechen separatists launched a raid against the helicopter airfield and later a civilian hospital in the city of Kizlyar in the neighboring Dagestan, which turned into a large hostage crisis involving thousands of civilians.

Politics and government
U.S. President Bill Clinton vetoed legislation designed to overhaul welfare.

Disasters
The northeastern United States was hit by a heavy snowfall that was blamed for 59 deaths.

10 years ago
2006


Theatre
The Phantom of the Opera became the longest-running show in Broadway history, surpassing Cats, which ran for 7,485 performances.

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