Wednesday, 20 January 2016

January 20, 2016

175 years ago

Died on this date
Minh Mạng, 49
. Emperor of Vietnam, 1820-1841. Minh Mang, born Nguyễn Phúc Đảm, succeeded his father Gia Long on the throne. Emperor Minh Mạng was known for his isolationist foreign policy, and opposition to Christian missionaries. He was succeeded as Emperor by his eldest son Thiệu Trị.

As a result of the first Opium War, China ceded Hong Kong to Great Britain.

125 years ago

Died on this date
Kalākaua, 54
. King of Hawaii, 1874-1891. Kalākaua was the last King of Hawaii. Hula and surfing were revived during his reign. King Kalākaua died after several years of ill health and was succeeded on the throne by his sister Liliʻuokalani.

80 years ago

Died on this date
George V, 70
. King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India, 1910-1936. The second son of the future King Edward VII, Prince George embarked upon a career as an officer in the Royal Navy, but became heir to the throne upon the death in January 1892 of his older brother Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence (known to the family as Prince Eddy). He succeeded to the throne upon the death of his father in May 1910. King George V was monarch during World War I, and in 1917 decreed that the Royal Family would henceforth bear the surname of Windsor, a change from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. George V, the first British sovereign to address his subjects by means of radio, was an effective constitutional monarch who sat on the throne through numerous changes of government during tough economic times in the 1920s and 1930s. On the evening of January 19, 1936 the British Broadcasting Corporation announced, "The King’s life is moving peacefully to its close." His physician, Lord Dawson, wrote in his diary that he hastened the king’s death by giving him a lethal injection of cocaine and morphine, both to spare the family further suffering, and to ensure that the death at 11:55 P.M. could be announced in the morning edition of The Times. George V was succeeded as king by his eldest son Prince Edward (called David by his family), who reigned as King Edward VIII.

75 years ago

A German officer was murdered in Bucharest, sparking a rebellion and pogrom by the Iron Guard, killing 125 Jews and 30 soldiers.

Politics and government
Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugurated for an unprecedented third term as the 32nd President of the United States of America.

A new German tax effective January 1 levied a 15% additional gross income tax on Jews to "compensate" for their "social inferiority."

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Pennsylvania's alien registration law was an illegal infringement on federal authority.

A U.S. federal grand jury investigating defense industries indicted three corporations, seven individuals, and four foreign companies on charges of creating a monopoly to control magnesite.

Selman Martin (5-11-2) won a split decision over Johnny Paychek (38-6-2) in a heavyweight bout at the Civic Center in Hammond, Indiana. Mr. Paychek announced his retirement the next day.

70 years ago

Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in Japan General Douglas MacArthur ordered 394 Japanese aircraft plants, arsenals, and war laboratories seized and kept intact for possible use in reparations payments.

A Pan American Constellation Clipper set a commercial record for the New York-Lisbon flight by covering the 3,425 miles in 9 hours 58 minutes.

Politics and government
The first free elections in Germany since 1933 were held in U.S.-occupied Hesse; the Social Democrats won with 1456,508 votes, followed by the Christian Social Union with 99,591 votes.

General Charles de Gaulle resigned as President of France for the third time in as many months, on this occasion over a Communist and Socialist demand that the Army budget be cut by 20%.

Belgian Prime Minister Achille van Acker rejected a request of exiled King Leopold III that a national plebiscite be held on the question of his return to Belgium.

U.S. President Harry Truman issued an executive order establishing the Control Intelligence Group, later known as the Central Intelligence Agency.

The U.S. Navy revealed development of an underwater sound system to locate survivors at sea as far as 2,000 miles from shore stations.

The U.S. Agriculture Department reported the development of a new weed killer--2, 4Di--which did not harm grass, hastened the ripening of fruit, and made apples cling to the tree longer for harvest.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Sixteen Tons--"Tennessee" Ernie Ford

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): Keep on Running--The Spencer Davis Group

40 years ago

Died on this date
Lloyd Nordstrom, 66
. U.S. businessman and football executive. Mr. Nordstrom was one of the brothers who were the third generation of the Nordstrom family to operate the Seattle-based Nordstrom department stores. Mr. Nordstrom was president of the Seattle Seahawks, who had been admitted to the National Football League in 1974 as an expansion franchise and were due to begin play in 1976. He died of a heart attack, and was succeeded as majority representative for the Seahawks by his brother Elmer.

All-Star Game @ The Spectrum, Philadelphia
Prince of Wales Conference 7 Clarence S. Campbell Conference 5

Pete Mahovlich of the Montreal Canadiens scored a goal and 3 assists to earn the award as the game's most valuable player as the Prince of Wales Conference took a 7-1 lead after 2 periods and held on to defeat the Clarence S. Campbell Conference before 16,436 fans. Dennis Ververgaert of the Vancouver Canucks scored 2 goals in a 10-second span in the 3rd period to make the score 7-3.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): We Built This City--Starship

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Part-Time Lover--Stevie Wonder (11th week at #1)

Martin Luther King Day was officially observed in the United States for the first time.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Ice Ice Baby--Vanilla Ice (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Sadeness (Part I)--Enigma (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Sadeness (Part I)--Enigma (6th week at #1)

Iraq broadcast a videotape of seven captured Allied pilots--Three Americans, two Britons, one Italian, and one Kuwaiti--being paraded blindfolded through the streets of Baghdad. The American pilots appeared dazed and bruised. Several pilots made statements condemning the attacks on Iraq. U.S. General Norman Schwarzkopf said that the Allies had not yet achieved air superiority because Iraqi missiles were still being fired, and Iraq still had airplanes it could use. He said the Allies were attacking the elite Iraqi Republican Guard units in southern Iraq.

Soviet paramilitary troops stormed a government building in the Latvian capital of Riga, killing four Latvians.

100,000-300,000 people demonstrated in Moscow against the Soviet invasion and occupation of the Baltic republics.

Sudan's government imposed Islamic law nationwide, worsening the civil war between the country's Muslim north and Christian south.

AFC Championship
Los Angeles Raiders 3 @ Buffalo 51

NFC Championship
New York Giants 15 @ San Francisco 13

The Bills scored 21 points in the 1st quarter and 20 in the 2nd as they routed the Raiders before 80,325 fans at Rich Stadium in Orchard Park, New York.

Matt Bahr kicked 5 field goals, including one from 42 yards on the final play of regulation time, to lead the Giants over the 49ers before 65,750 fans at Candlestick Park.

20 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): Jesus to a Child--George Michael

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Knockin'--Double Vision (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Wallonia (Ultratop 40): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Spaceman--Babylon Zoo (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Chart Information Network): Jesus to a Child--George Michael

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): One Sweet Day--Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men (8th week at #1)

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 One Sweet Day--Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men (6th week at #1)
2 Exhale (Shoop Shoop)--Whitney Houston
3 Hey Lover--LL Cool J
4 Breakfast at Tiffany's--Deep Blue Something
5 Name--Goo Goo Dolls
6 Diggin' on You--TLC
7 Fantasy--Mariah Carey
8 Missing--Everything But the Girl
9 Before You Walk Out of My Life/Like This and Like That--Monica
10 Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V.

Singles entering the chart were Sittin' Up in My Room by Brandy (#29); Let's Play House by Tha Dogg Pound featuring Michel’le (#54); Visions of a Sunset by Shawn Stockman (#60); Just a Girl by No Doubt (#68); Glycerine by Bush (#71); and Fu-Gee-La by the Fugees (Refugee Camp) (#83).

Died on this date
Gerry Mulligan, 68
. U.S. musician. Mr. Mulligan was a jazz baritone saxophonist and pianist, and one of the major figures in the genre of cool jazz.

Politics and government
Palestinian elections endorsed Yasser Arafat as leader, as his party captured 55 of 88 seats on the council.

All-Star Game @ FleetCenter, Boston
East 5 West 4

Ray Bourque of the hometown Bruins scored with 38 seconds remaining in regulation time to give the East the win before 17,565 fans in an unusually good All-Star Game. The East led 3-0 and 4-1 before the West mounted a comeback, with Teemu Selanne of the Winnipeg Jets scoring with 3:29 remaining in the 3rd period to tie the game 4-4. Mr. Bourque was named the game's most valuable player.

10 years ago

At the movies
Karla, a controversial fictional film about the murders by Paul Bernardo and Karla Homolka of Canadian teens Leslie Mahaffy and Kristen French, opened theatrically in Toronto.

Witnesses reported seeing a bottlenose whale swimming in the River Thames, the first time the species had been seen in the Thames since records began in 1913.

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