Thursday, 30 December 2010

January 1, 2011

360 years ago
1651

Britannica

Charles II was crowned King of England at Scone.

60 years ago
1951


Football
U.S. university
Cotton Bowl @ Dallas
Tennessee 20 Texas 14

Rose Bowl @ Pasadena
Michigan 14 California 6

Orange Bowl @ Miami
Clemson 15 Miami (Florida) 14

Sugar Bowl @ New Orleans
Kentucky 13 Oklahoma 7

50 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K.: Poetry in Motion--Johnny Tillotson (3rd week at #1)

Football
AFL Championship
Los Angeles 16 @ Houston 24

George Blanda competed 16 of 31 passes for 301 yards and 3 touchdowns to lead the Oilers to the first American Football League championship over the Chargers before 32,183 fans at Jeppesen Stadium. Ben Agajanian kicked field goals of 38 and 22 yards to give the Chargers a 6-0 lead after the 1st quarter, but Mr. Blanda threw 17 yards to Dave Smith for the game’s 1st touchdown at 3:51 of the 2nd quarter. Mr. Blanda converted and added an 18-yard field goal almost 5 minutes later to give the Oilers a 10-6 lead. Mr. Agajanian kicked a 27-yard field goal with 5 seconds left to cut Houston’s lead at halftime to 10-9. Mr. Blanda connected with Bill Groman on a 7-yard touchdown pass, which Mr. Blanda converted, to give the Oilers a 17-9 lead. The Chargers struck back with a long drive culminating in a 2-yard touchdown rush by Paul Lowe, converted by Mr. Agajanian, to make the score 17-16 in favour of Houston after 3 quarters. The Oilers scored the only points of the 4th quarter on an 88-yard touchdown pass from Mr. Blanda to Billy Cannon, converted by Mr. Blanda. The deepest penetration after that by the Los Angeles offense was to the Houston 22-yard line, but the Chargers lost the ball on downs. Mr. Cannon rushed 18 times for 50 yards and led all receivers with 128 yards on 3 receptions. Mr. Lowe led all rushers with 21 carries for 165 yards. Los Angeles quarterback Jack Kemp completed 21 of 41 passes for just 171 yards and 2 interceptions. It was the Chargers’ last game representing Los Angeles; they moved to San Diego in the off-season.

40 years ago
1971


On television tonight
The Interns, on CBS
Tonight’s episode: Changes

Football
U.S. university
Cotton Bowl @ Dallas
Notre Dame 24 Texas 11

Rose Bowl @ Pasadena
Stanford 27 Ohio State 17

Orange Bowl @ Miami
Nebraska 17 Louisiana State 12

Sugar Bowl @ New Orleans
Tennessee 34 Air Force 13

30 years ago
1981


World events
The absence of Chinese Communist Party Chairman Hua Guofeng from a New Year’s reception stirred rumours that he had been forced to resign his post. Because the reception, given by the Central Committee, was unusual in that such affairs were usually sponsored by the government, it was believed that the celebration was held purposely without Chairman Hua as a signal to the Chinese people that he had been ousted.

Football
U.S. university
Cotton Bowl @ Dallas
Alabama 30 Baylor 2

Rose Bowl @ Pasadena
Michigan 23 Washington 6

Orange Bowl @ Miami
Oklahoma 18 Florida State 17

Sugar Bowl @ New Orleans
Georgia 17 Notre Dame 10

25 years ago
1986


Diplomacy
U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev exchanged New Year’s greetings in televised addresses. Mr. Reagan noted the "good beginning" toward better relations in the November 1985 summit, and he said that the American system was "founded on the belief in the sanctity of human life and the rights of the individual." Mr. Gorbachev said that the Soviet people cherished the idea of peace, having suffered so badly during World War II. He said that both nations had a "duty to all mankind" to create a climate conducive to the preservation of peace, and proposed that all nuclear weapons be banned by 2000.

Terrorism
Libyan leader Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi warned that any U.S. or Israeli attempt to retaliate for the December 27 raids on airports in Roe and Vienna would bring war to the Mediterranean Sea region.

Weather
It was a beautiful, sunny day in Vancouver, British Columbia.

Football
U.S. university
Cotton Bowl @ Dallas
Texas A&M 36 Auburn 16

Rose Bowl @ Pasadena
UCLA 45 Iowa 28

Orange Bowl @ Miami
Oklahoma 25 Pennsylvania State 10

Sugar Bowl @ New Orleans
Tennessee 35 Miami (Florida) 7

20 years ago
1991


Abominations
The 7% Goods and Services Tax went into effect in Canada.

Hockey
NHL-U.S.S.R. exhibition
Moscow Dynamo 4 @ Toronto 7

This was the first appearance of a Soviet team at Maple Leaf Gardens. Harold Ballard, who had died the previous spring, had always refused to permit any team from the Soviet Union to play there as long as he owned the Maple Leafs.

Football
U.S. university
Cotton Bowl @ Dallas
Miami (Florida) 46 Texas 3

Rose Bowl @ Pasadena
Washington 46 Iowa 34

Orange Bowl @ Miami
Colorado 10 Notre Dame 9

Sugar Bowl @ New Orleans
Tennessee 23 Virginia 22

10 years ago
2001


Diplomacy
The Palestinian National Authority expressed concerns about Middle East peace plan principles set forth by U.S. President Bill Clinton on December 23 and already accepted by Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak. The plan provided for Palestinian control over the Gaza Strip; Arab neighbourhoods in East Jerusalem; and 95% of the West Bank, with partial control of Jerusalem’s Temple Mount. The PNA feared these principles would not produce a viable state; objected to provisions allowing for annexation of Israeli settlements in the West Bank; and protested that the plan would forego the right of return for Palestinians who had become refugees following the formation of the nation of Israel in 1948 and subsequent wars.

Law
Despite a January 1 deadline, hundreds of thousands of Canadians didn’t register guns in their possession, and now possessed the weapons illegally, making it impossible to legally purchase ammunition.

December 31, 2010

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Mike Matson!

50 years ago
1960


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Are You Lonesome To-Night?--Elvis Presley (6th week at #1)
2 Wonderland By Night--Bert Kaempfert and his Orchestra
--Louis Prima
--Anita Bryant
3 Exodus--Ferrante and Teicher
--Mantovani and his Orchestra
4 Last Date--Floyd Cramer
5 Will You Love Me Tomorrow--The Shirelles
6 A Thousand Stars--Kathy Young with the Innocents
7 North to Alaska--Johnny Horton
8 Rubber Ball--Bobby Vee
9 You’re Sixteen--Johnny Burnette
10 Many Tears Ago--Connie Francis

Singles entering the chart included All in My Mind by Maxine Brown (#85); Stand By Me by Little Junior Parker (#93); There’s a Moon Out Tonight by the Capris (#94); Please Come Home for Christmas by Charles Brown (#96); Looking Back by Dinah Washington (#97); Is There Something on Your Mind by Jack Scott (#99); C’est Si Bon (It’s So Good) by Conway Twitty (#100); and How to Handle a Woman by Johnny Mathis (also #100).

On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Carleton Hobbs and Norman Shelley, on BBC Home Service
Tonight’s episode: The Valley of Fear

Died on this date
C.D. Howe, 74
. U.S.-born Canadian politician. A native of Waltham, Massachusetts, Mr. Howe moved to Halifax as a young man to become a professor at Dalhousie University. He then became wealthy as an engineer, and settled in Port Arthur, Ontario, where he was elected to the House of Commons as a member of the Liberal Party in 1935. Prime Minister Mackenzie King named him to the cabinet as Minister of Railways and Canals and Minister of Marine; eventually, Mr. Howe became Minister of Transport. Upon the beginning of World War II and the re-election of the Liberal government in 1940, Mr. King named Mr. Howe Minister of Munitions and Supply, with the job of mobilizing all Canadian resources toward the war effort. It was in this portfolio that Mr. Howe spearheaded the transformation of the basis of Canada’s economy from agriculture to industry; he’s been credited with paving the way for Canada to have one of the world’s highest standards of living. As the war moved toward its conclusion, Prime Minister King, afraid that Mr. Howe might decide to leave politics, named him Minister of Reconstruction and Supply. When the government, now led by Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent, decided in 1951 that Canada needed to rearm while participating in the Korean War, Mr. Howe was given a new portfolio, and became Minister of Defence Production. A bitter debate in Parliament in 1955 and 1956 over building a pipeline to transport natural gas from Alberta to the United States turned many people against the Liberals, and they were narrowly defeated in the federal election of 1957. Mr. Howe was among the defeated, losing his seat in Port Arthur to Co-operative Commonwealth Federation candidate Douglas Fisher.

World events
In a statement issued with President Dwight Eisenhower’s approval, the U.S. State Department warned that the United States "would take the most serious view of any intervention in Laos by the Chinese Communists or Viet Minh (North Vietnam) armed forces or others in support of the Communist Pathet Lao, who are in rebellion against the Royal Laotian government." The statement said that the U.S. was consulting its South East Asia Treaty Organization allies about the Laos situation.

40 years ago
1970


Hit parade
Edmonton's top 10
1 My Sweet Lord/Isn’t it a Pity--George Harrison
2 Knock Three Times--Dawn
3 I Think I Love You--The Partridge Family
4 Sing High, Sing Low--Anne Murray
5 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
6 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
7 Most of All--B.J. Thomas
8 Domino--Van Morrison
9 For the Good Times--Ray Price
10 Black Magic Woman--Santana

World events
The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation reduced the death sentences of two Soviet Jews--who had been convicted of plotting to hijack a plane to escape to Israel--to 15 years in a labour camp. The court reduced the prison sentences of three of the other nine convicted conspirators.

Disasters
All 90 aboard were reported dead after a Soviet Aeroflot airliner crashed on takeoff from Leningrad.

A chartered French plane carrying 30 members of an Algerian soccer team to Mahon, Spain was lost after sending distress signals 65 miles off Algeria in the Mediterranean Sea.

30 years ago
1980


Died on this date
Marshall McLuhan, 69
. Canadian media scholar. Born in Edmonton, raised in Winnipeg, and resident in Toronto, Mr. McLuhan became famous for his phrase "The medium is the message," and variations thereof. He made a memorable cameo appearance as himself in the movie Annie Hall (1977).

Politics and government
Connecticut Lieutenant Governor William O’Neill was sworn in as the state’s Governor, replacing Ella Grasso, who had been the first woman elected governor of a state without having a politician-husband as predecessor. Ms. Grasso had decided to resign after being diagnosed with liver cancer.

25 years ago
1985


Died on this date
Rick Nelson, 45
. U.S. musician. The son of bandleader Ozzie Nelson and his wife Harriet Hilliard Nelson, Eric Hilliard Nelson began acting on his parents’ radio show at the age of 9 and remained with the program when it moved to television in 1952. He had his first hit record, the two-sided hit I’m Walkin’/A Teenager’s Romance in 1957. Poor Little Fool reached #1 on the Billboard Best Seller and Hot 100 charts in 1958, and Travelin’ Man (1961) hit #1 on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1961. From 1957-1964 Mr. Nelson had 26 top-40 hits on the Billboard pop chart, 17 of which reached the top 10. 11 of his singles were records that had both sides in the top 40. He also showed promise as an actor with fine performances in the movies Rio Bravo (1959) and The Wackiest Ship in the Army (1960). After the hits diminished, Mr. Nelson began writing and performing his own songs, and was a pioneer in the genre known as country-rock with albums such as Bright Lights and Country Music (1966). He returned to the top 40 singles chart in late 1969-early 1970 with She Belongs To Me, and had a major comeback hit with Garden Party, which reached #6 on the Billboard Hot 100 and #1 in the RPM 100 Singles chart in Canada in the fall of 1972. Mr. Nelson was on his way to a New Year’s Eve engagement in Dallas when a fire began in the cabin of the vintage DC-3 carrying him and his band, and the plane crashed while making a forced landing in DeKalb, Texas. Mr. Nelson, his fiancee, and five members of his band were killed.

Radio
Springbok Radio, South Africa’s first commercial radio station, went off the air for the last time, ending more than 35 years of broadcasting.

Economics and finance
The failure of a bank in Brooklyn, New York brought the number of bank failures for the year in the United States to 120.

The U.S. dollar ended 1985 well below the record levels set in March. The decline against other currencies had been slow during the summer and greater in the fall.

20 years ago
1990


Died on this date
George Allen, 72
. U.S. football coach. After years in the college ranks, Mr. Allen joined the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League as an assistant coach in 1957, moving on to the Chicago Bears in 1958 under head coach George Halas. Mr. Allen masterminded the defense that gave up an average of 10 points per game as the Bears won the NFL championship in 1963. He became head coach of the Los Angeles Rams in 1966; from 1966-1970 the Rams compiled a regular season record of 49-17-4, but were unable to get past the first round of the playoffs. Mr. Allen was fired after the 1970 season and was promptly hired to be the head coach of the Washington Redskins, where he served from 1971-1977. Mr. Allen’s teams in Washington were known as the "Over-the-Hill Gang" because of his habit of trading away draft choices for proven veterans. The Redskins’ best season under Mr. Allen was 1972, when they led the National Football Conference with a record of 11-3, and won the NFC championship, only to lose 14-7 to the undefeated Miami Dolphins in the 1973 Super Bowl. Mr. Allen rejoined the Rams as head coach in 1978, but was fired after just two pre-season games. He joined CBS as a commentator on football telecasts. Mr. Allen joined the Montreal Alouettes of the Canadian Football League as general manager after the 1981 season, but departed after just a few weeks in which he accomplished nothing except large long-distance telephone bills. In 1983 Mr. Allen was head coach of the Chicago Blitz in the first season of the United States Football League, where he compiled a 12-6 record before losing in the first round of the playoffs. In 1984 he became head coach of the Arizona Wranglers when the owners of the Wranglers and the Blitz swapped the two franchises almost completely. In 1984 the Wranglers were 10-8, and won two playoff games to become Western Conference champions before losing 23-3 to the Philadelphia Stars in the USFL championship game. Mr. Allen left coaching after that, but returned in 1990 as head coach at California State University, Long Beach. He led CSULB to its first winning record in many years, but died six weeks after the last game. CSULB won the game and the players awarded Mr. Allen a Gatorade shower, but he procrastinated in changing out of wet clothes, and his health declined until he died of ventricular fibrillation.

Economics and finance
The Dow Jones Industrial Average ended 1990 at 2,633.66, down 119.54 points, or 4.3%, for 1990.

Chess
Gary Kasparov of the U.S.S.R. retained his world championship against countryman and former world champion Anatoly Karpov. Mr. Kasparov won 4 games to Mr. Karpov’s 3, with 17 draws. The final score of the match was 12.5-11.5 for Mr. Kasparov. Mr. Kasparov’s victory earned him US$1.7 million and a diamond-studded sculpture valued at $1 million. Mr. Karpov took home $1.3 million.

December 30, 2010

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Michael Nesmith, Davy Jones, and and Gladys Lucy Pomazongo Levano!

70 years ago
1940


Transportation
California’s first freeway opened.

60 years ago
1950


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 The Tennessee Waltz--Patti Page
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Les Paul and Mary Ford
--Jo Stafford
2 Harbor Lights--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Ray Anthony and his Orchestra
--Bing Crosby
3 The Thing--Phil Harris
4 Thinking of You--Don Cherry
--Eddie Fisher
5 A Bushel and a Peck--Perry Como and Betty Hutton
--Margaret Whiting and Jimmy Wakely
6 All My Love (Bolero)--Patti Page
--Percy Faith and his Orchestra
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Bing Crosby
7 Nevertheless (I’m in Love with You)--Paul Weston and his Orchestra
--The Mills Brothers
--Ralph Flanagan and his Orchestra
--Ray Anthony and his Orchestra
8 Patricia--Perry Como
9 Orange Colored Sky--Nat King Cole and Stan Kenton
10 Oh, Babe!--Kay Starr
--Louis Prima and Keely Smith

Singles entering the chart that week were Roving Kind (#29), with versions by both Guy Mitchell and the Weavers; and Silver Bells by Margaret Whiting and Jimmy Wakely (#34).

50 years ago
1960


World events
The Laotian government of Premier Prince Boun Oum asked the United Nations for aid against a reported invasion of Laos by troops from the Communist countries of North Vietnam and China. Vientiane radio had broadcast a communiqué stating that several battalions of North Vietnamese troops had entered Laos.

40 years ago
1970


On television tonight
Rod Serling’s Night Gallery, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The House (starring Joanna Pettet); Certain Shadows on the Wall (starring Louis Hayward, Rachel Roberts, Agnes Moorehead, and Grayson Hall)

Died on this date
Sonny Liston, 38 (?)
. U.S. boxer; world heavyweight champion, 1962-1964. Mr. Liston, 24th of 25 children of an Arkansas sharecropper, was illiterate, became a criminal while a youth, and learned to box in the penitentiary at Jefferson City, Missouri. He was controlled by organized crime figures, but earned a title fight after an impressive string of victories. A fearsome presence and a devastating puncher, Mr. Liston won the title on September 25, 1962 by knocking out defending champion Floyd Patterson in just 2 minutes and 6 seconds of the 1st round. A rematch on July 22, 1963 lasted just 4 seconds longer. Mr. Liston lost the title on February 25, 1964 in his next defense, failing to come out of his corner to begin the 7th round against brash young Cassius Clay, who then promptly announced that he preferred to be known as Muhammad Ali. Mr. Liston’s reputation was further tarnished in the rematch on May 25, 1965, when he was knocked out at 1:42 of the 1st round in the rematch. He was widely accused of taking a dive, although films clearly showed Mr. Ali delivering a short punch directly to Mr. Liston’s chin. Mr. Liston attempted a comeback, running up a string of wins over unheralded opponents, until he was knocked out by former sparring partner Leotis Martin on December 6, 1969. Mr. Liston’s final fight was a 9-round technical knockout of Chuck Wepner in New Jersey on June 29, 1970. Mr. Liston, who spent his last years in Las Vegas, died while his wife Geraldine was away visiting relatives, and she discovered his body when she arrived home on January 5, 1971. The date of death was estimated in part from a stack of newspapers outside the front door. Mr. Liston died of an apparent drug overdose, although it was said that he wasn’t a drug user. He was reportedly working as an enforcer for unsavoury characters in Las Vegas. Whatever the truth, Sonny Liston took many secrets with him to the grave, as The Ring magazine stated in its April 1971 issue.

World events
Facing threats of violence by Basque separatists because of death sentences handed to 6 defendants in a court-martial, Spanish dictator Francisco Franco defused the situation by commuting the death sentences to 30-year prison sentences.

Disasters
A coal mine explosion in Hyden, Kentucky killed 38 miners.

25 years ago
1985


Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the index of leading economic indicators had increased 0.1% in November. The administration of President Ronald Reagan predicted that real growth in the U.S. economy would be 4% in 1986.

20 years ago
1990


Diplomacy
In response to demands and threats from Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, the Moldavian parliament said that it would review a law that made Moldavian the republic’s official language, and also agreed not to form a special defense force in Moldavia.

Tuesday, 28 December 2010

December 29, 2010

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Christine Gotaas!

840 years ago
1170

Died on this date
Thomas Becket, 52
. English clergyman; Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170. Mr. Becket, who had quarrelled with King Henry II over matters involving church and state, was murdered in his cathedral by four knights acting on orders of the king.

120 years ago
1890


War
Almost 200 Sioux Indian men, women, and children were shot by members of the U.S. 7th Cavalry in a massacre at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. It was the last major action in the various U.S. Indian wars.

80 years ago
1930


On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Richard Gordon and Leigh Lovell, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Reigate Puzzle

70 years ago
1940

On the radio

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Missing Three-Quarter

War
Germany began dropping incendiary bombs on London.

30 years ago
1980


Died on this date
Tim Hardin, 39
. U.S. singer/songwriter. Mr. Hardin was best known for writing the songs Reason to Believe and If I Were a Carpenter, both of which have been recorded by many artists. His only notable hit single as a performer came in the fall of 1969 with Simple Song of Freedom, a Bobby Darin composition (Mr. Darin’s version of If I Were a Carpenter had been a major hit in the fall of 1966). Mr. Hardin had a drug habit for many years and died of a heroin overdose.

World events
Testimony and arguments concluded in the trial of Jiang Qing, widow of Chairman Mao Zedong and one of China’s "Gang of Four." She was hauled from the courtroom shouting, "I am prepared to die." The chief prosecutor had demanded a death sentence.

Oil
Libya and Indonesia announced price increases of US$3-$4 per barrel. It was widely believed that Algeria would not only raise its price to $41 per barrel, but would also maintain its surcharge of $3 per barrel, making the total price $44 per barrel. Nigeria raised its price $3 per barrel, to $40 per barrel.

25 years ago
1985


Terrorism
Libya’s official press agency praised the December 27 terrorist attacks on airports in Rome and Vienna, which had resulted in the deaths of 20 civilians, as heroic.

20 years ago
1990

Hit parade

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Justify My Love--Madonna
2 Because I Love You (The Postman Song)--Stevie B
3 Impulsive--Wilson Phillips
4 Tom’s Diner--D.N.A. featuring Suzanne Vega
5 High Enough--Damn Yankees
6 Love Will Never Do (Without You)--Janet Jackson
7 Sensitivity--Ralph Tresvant
8 From a Distance--Bette Midler
9 I’m Your Baby Tonight--Whitney Houston
10 The First Time--Surface

Singles entering the chart included It Never Rains (In Southern California) by Tony! Toni! Tone! (#54) and Don’t Hold Back Your Love by Daryl Hall John Oates (#66).

Politics and government
A week after taking office as President of Poland, Lech Walesa named economist Jan Krzysztof Bielecki as Premier.

10 years ago
2000


Politics and government
U.S. President-elect George W. Bush named four more nominees for his cabinet: Tommy Thompson--Secretary of Health and Human Services; Gale Norton--Secretary of the Interior; Rod Paige--Secretary of Education; Anthony Principi; Secretary of Veterans’ Affairs. All appointees were subject to approval by the United States Senate.

Economics and finance
The technology-heavy NASDAQ composite index stood at 2,470.52, a 39% decline from a year earlier. The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 10,786.85, a 6.2% decline during 2000. The Standard & Poor’s 500-stock index declined 10.1% to 1,320.28.

The U.S. unemployment rate for November was reported as 4.0%; consumer prices had increased 0.2% in November, while producer prices were unchanged. The index of leading economic indicators had declined 0.6% in November, while the gross domestic product for the fourth quarter of 2000 was growing at an annual rate of 1.0%. For the entire year, consumer prices had risen 3.4% and producer prices had risen 3.6%. The GDP had grown 5.0% for the year.

Weather
A blanket of snow and temperatures as low as -13C. disrupted life in the United Kingdom.

December 28, 2010

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Heather Pick!

120 years ago
1890


War
A band of Sioux Indians led by Big Foot, who had fled to the badlands, were captured by the U.S. 7th Cavalry and brought to Wounded Knee creek in South Dakota.

40 years ago
1970


World events
The military tribunal in Spain trying 16 Basque nationalists handed down harsh verdicts, including death sentences for six of the accused. Three of the six were sentenced to death by firing squad twice (wouldn’t once be enough?). Sentences for the others ranged from 12 to 70 years, but one of the female defendants was acquitted. The verdicts and sentences provoked protests and pleas for mercy from around the world, and Basque guerrillas threatened retaliation if the death sentences were carried out.

Terrorism
Three suspects in the October 17 murder of Quebec Labour Minister Pierre Laporte--Paul Rose, 27; his brother Jacques, 23; and Francis Simard, 23--were captured in a Quebec farmhouse, having earlier eluded police in Montreal. The three were associated with the Front de Liberation du Quebec (FLQ).

War
U.S. Defense Secretary Melvin Laird, in a year-end review, revealed that U.S. combat deaths in Vietnam had dropped to a five-year low. Almost-complete figures for 1970 showed 4,180 combat deaths, more than 10,000 fewer than in 1968, and less than half the number killed in 1969. U.S. wounded for 1970 numbered 30,425--slightly more than in 1966, but much below the numbers from 1967-1969. Mr. Laird said that U.S. air attacks had declined 36% from 1969 and 48% from 1968.

Diplomacy
After almost four months of debate in the cabinet, Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir announced that Israel would return to the Middle East peace talks under the auspices of United Nations mediator Gunnar Jarring.

30 years ago
1980


War
The day after leftist guerrillas had begun an offensive against government troops in northern El Salvador, the commander of the Salvadoran army reported that he had the situation in hand.

Diplomacy
The government of Mexico announced its plans to cancel two fishing treaties between itself and the United States. The first was a 1976 agreement that gave the U.S. a quota for snapper and grouper caught in Mexican Gulf and Pacific waters, which would be terminated in one year. The second was a 1977 treaty that permitted Mexico a squid allocation of the eastern seaboard of the United States, which would be cancelled within six months of the delivery of the notice. This notice--which was delivered to the U.S. State Department on December 29--was seen as a blow to efforts to produce a treaty between the countries on the more important tuna fishing industry. Mexico and the U.S. had been engaged in a "tuna war" since a July embargo on tuna imports from Mexico was imposed by the U.S.A.

The U.S.S.R. delivered a formal protest to Iran asking for the Iranian government to make repairs to and to beef up security around the Soviet embassy in Tehran. The day before, Afghans living in Iran had broken into the embassy’s compound to protest on the first anniversary of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The formal protest message from the U.S.S.R. did not note that the protesters were Afghans.

Medicine
An announcement issued by a group of researchers at the University of Utah reported that they had kept a calf alive for 32 weeks with a man-made heart, and requested permission to implant a similar device in a human being. A university panel was set up to review the possibility of the human implant. The artificial heart, it was thought, could be used to keep a heart patient alive long enough for surgeons to locate another human heart to be used in a transplant operation.

Television
Britain’s Independent Broadcasting Authority announced that the contract for "breakfast television" had been awarded to the new company TV-am.

25 years ago
1985


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Say You, Say Me--Lionel Richie (2nd week at #1)
2 Party All the Time--Eddie Murphy
3 Alive and Kicking--Simple Minds
4 Broken Wings--Mr. Mister
5 That’s What Friends are For--Dionne and Friends
6 Small Town--John Cougar Mellencamp
7 Election Day--Arcadia
8 Separate Lives--Phil Collins and Marilyn Martin
9 Talk to Me--Stevie Nicks
10 Perfect Way--Scritti Politti

Defense
The United States tested an X-ray laser, a component of the Strategic Defense Initiative anti-missile defense system, by detonating a hydrogen bomb under the Nevada desert. An X-ray laser would convert the energy released by a nuclear explosion into a burst of X-rays.

Transportation
The SkyTrain light rail transit system began operating in the metro Vancouver area.

20 years ago
1990


Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department said that the index of leading economic indicators had declined 1.2% in November. The index had now dropped for five consecutive months, with a decline of three straight months generally regarded as indicating a recession.

10 years ago
2000


Terrorism
Passengers aboard a British Airways jumbo jet screamed in terror when a man burst into the cockpit and sent the plane into a steep dive during a night flight from London to Nairobi. Several passengers subdued and bound the 27-year-old Kenyan intruder as he attacked the pilot. The co-pilot regained control of the plane after a 3,000-foot descent.

Politics and government
U.S. President-elect George W. Bush named Donald Rumsfeld as his choice for Secretary of Defense. Mr. Rumsfeld had held the position in the administration of President Gerald Ford from 1975-1977.

Society
The United States Census Bureau put the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000 at 281,421,906, a 13.2% increase from 1990. On the basis of unadjusted state figures, as required by law, there would be eight states gaining seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, and 10 states losing seats. California, already the most populous state, had added 4,111,627 residents, more than any other state. Nevada had the highest rate of gain, 66.3%. North Dakota had the smallest total increase--3,400--and the lowest rate of increase--0.5%. The District of Columbia’s population declined 5.7%.

Business
U.S. retail chain Montgomery Ward & Co., a century-old company, announced that it would cease to operate, closing 250 stores and ending employment for 28,000 workers.

Sunday, 26 December 2010

December 27, 2010

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Marilyn Draper!

110 years ago
1900


Society
Prohibition activist Carrie Nation arrived in Wichita, Kansas, and used her hatchet to smash the bar at the Carey Hotel.

50 years ago
1960


On television tonight
Thriller, on NBC
Tonight's episode: The Cheaters, starring Mildred Dunnock, Harry Townes, Jack Weston, Paul Newlan, and Henry Daniell

World events
France completed its third test of a nuclear device, exploding a bomb at Reggan in southwestern Algeria.

Boxing
Cassius Clay improved his record as a professional to 2-0 with a 4-round technical knockout of Herb Siler (1-2) at the Miami Beach Auditorium. The bout had been scheduled for a maximum of 8 rounds.

40 years ago
1970


War
An Israeli airborne force attacked a major Palestinian commando base in the village of Yater, four miles inside Lebanon.

Disasters
25 were killed and 25 injured when two Brazilian trains collided and plunged into a ravine near Belo Horizonte.

Six crewmen were lost when the Finnish tanker Ragny split in half in the Atlantic Ocean, 600 miles off Cape May, New Jersey.

Football
NFL
NFC Conference playoff
San Francisco 17 @ Minnesota 14

AFC conference playoff
Miami 14 @ Oakland 21

San Francisco quarterback John Brodie completed a 24-yard touchdown pass to Dick Witcher in the 1st quarter and rushed 1 yard for a touchdown in the 4th quarter as the ‘49ers held off the Vikings for the first playoff win in their 25-year history. The Vikings scored first on a 22-yard fumble return by Paul Krause, and scored last on a 24-yard pass from Gary Cuozzo to Gene Washington, both converted by Fred Cox. Bruce Gossett converted both San Francisco touchdowns and added a 40-yard field goal in the 2nd quarter, which turned out to be the difference in the game. Ken Willard led the ‘49ers with 27 carries for 85 yards, and caught 1 pass for 18. Clint Jones led the Vikings with 15 carries for 60 yards, while teammate John Henderson led all receivers with 5 catches for 80 yards. Mr. Cuozzo completed just 9 of 27 passes for 146 yards and 2 interceptions. Attendance at Metropolitan Stadium in Bloomington was 45,103.

Daryle Lamonica completed touchdown passes of 22 yards to Fred Biletnikoff in the 2nd quarter and 82 yards to Rod Sherman in the 4th quarter, and defensive back Willie Brown returned an interception 50 yards for a touchdown in the 3rd quarter as the Raiders held off the Dolphins before 52,594 fans at Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum. George Blanda converted all 3 Oakland touchdowns. The Dolphins opened the scoring in the 2nd quarter on a 16-yard pass from Bob Griese to Paul Warfield and closed the scoring on a 7-yard pass from Mr. Griese to Willie Richardson, both converted by Garo Yepremian. Mr. Lamonica completed just 8 of 16 passes for 187 yards, while Mr. Griese was 13 for 27 for 155 yards and 2 interceptions. For the Dolphins, it was the first playoff game in their 4-year history, and concluded their first season under head coach Don Shula.

30 years ago
1980


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon
2 Lady--Kenny Rogers
3 More Than I Can Say--Leo Sayer
4 Master Blaster (Jammin’)--Stevie Wonder
5 Another One Bites the Dust--Queen
6 Love on the Rocks--Neil Diamond
7 Hit Me with Your Best Shot--Pat Benatar
8 Hungry Heart--Bruce Springsteen
9 Guilty--Barbra Streisand and Barry Gibb
10 The Tide is High--Blondie

Singles entering the chart included Seven Bridges Road by the Eagles (#58); United Together by Aretha Franklin (#88); and Theme from Ordinary People by Marvin Hamlisch (#96).

Winnipeg’s top 10 (CKY)
1 Wasn’t That a Party--The Rovers
2 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon
3 Love on the Rocks--Neil Diamond
4 Guilty--Barbra Streisand and Barry Gibb
5 The Tide is High--Blondie
6 Every Woman in the World--Air Supply
7 More Than I Can Say--Leo Sayer
8 Passion--Rod Stewart
9 Suddenly--Olivia Newton-John and Cliff Richard
10 Tell it Like it Is--Heart

(CFRW)
1 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon
2 Love on the Rocks--Neil Diamond
3 More Than I Can Say--Leo Sayer
4 Guilty--Barbra Steisand and Barry Gibb
5 Hungry Heart--Bruce Springsteen
6 The Tide is High--Blondie
7 De Do Do Do, De Da Da Da--The Police
8 Passion--Rod Stewart
9 Wasn’t That a Party--The Rovers
10 Lady--Kenny Rogers

Suddenly was from the movie Xanadu.

War
Leftist guerrillas in El Salvador mounted an offensive against government troops in the northern area of the country, and heavy fighting was under way. Estimates of the guerrilla strength ranged from 2,500-10,000 trained troops.

Protest
Afghans living in Iran stormed the Soviet embassy in Tehran, protesting the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan on the first anniversary of the event. The protesters broke into the compound, burned a Soviet flag, and were then dispersed by Iranian police.

Disasters
It was reported that floods in the Pacific Northwest of the United States had washed away more than a dozen homes in Washington and killed two people in Oregon.

25 years ago
1985


Terrorism
18 people were killed and 120 injured in simultaneous attacks at airports in Rome and Vienna.

20 years ago
1990


Politics and government
The fourth session of the Congress of People’s Deputies, the overall Soviet parliament, closed with only a partial victory for President Mikhail Gorbachev. Though the deputies approved his proposed reorganization of the central government’s executive branch and accepted in principle his union treaty, the Congress denied Mr. Gorbachev some new powers he had sought.

10 years ago
2000


Politics and government
John Agyekum Kufuor won a runoff election against John Atta-Mills to become the new President of Ghana, ending Jerry Rawlings’ 19 years in power. Mr. Rawlings, who had twice seized power and led a harsh military regime before turning to democracy, was constitutionally barred from running again.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 0 @ Pittsburgh 5

Playing his first game in more than 3½ years, Mario Lemieux scored a goal and 2 assists to lead the Penguins over the Maple Leafs before a capacity crowd of 17,148 at Mellon Arena.

December 26, 2010

70 years ago
1940


Theatre
My Sister Eileen, starring Effie Afton, Michael Ames, and Shirley Booth, opened at the Biltmore Theatre in New York. The play was written by Joseph A. Fields and Jerome Chodorov, based on stories by Ruth McKenney. Eileen McKenney, 26, the inspiration for her sister's stories, was to have been at the opening, but she and her husband, author Nathanael West, had been killed in a car accident in California on December 22.

60 years ago
1950


On television tonight
Suspense, on CBS
Tonight's episode: The Tip, starring Stanley Ridges and Felicia Montealegre

50 years ago
1960


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Are You Lonesome To-Night?--Elvis Presley (5th week at #1)

Diplomacy
Yugoslavian President Tito, addressing the Yugoslav parliament in Belgrade, said that Yugoslavia and the U.S.S.R. had identical views on "the most important issues of the day." He said that present world discord was the fault of "certain bellicose people, especially in the West, who still adhere to the position of power policy in the settlement of international problems and are therefore against the easing of international tension." Marshal Tito brushed aside the charges against Yugoslavia in the recent Moscow Communist manifesto as "a series of the harshest untruths," for which he blamed the Chinese Communists.

Football
NFL Championship
Green Bay 13 @ Philadelphia 17

67,325 fans at Franklin Field saw the Eagles win their third NFL title and their first in 11 years. Ted Dean rushed 5 yards for the winning touchdown, converted by Bobby Walston, at 5:21 of the 4th quarter to conclude a drive that had begun with his 58-yard return of a kickoff after the Packers had scored their only touchdown of the game on a 7-yard pass from Bart Starr to Max McGee. Paul Hornung gave the Packers a 6-0 lead on field goals of 20 yards in the 1st quarter and 23 yards in the 2nd. Philadelphia quarterback Norm Van Brocklin, playing his final game, connected with Tommy McDonald for a 35-yard touchdown at 8:08 of the 2nd quarter. Mr. Walston converted and added a 15-yard field goal at 11:48 to give the Eagles a 10-6 lead, which held up until the Packers scored their touchdown at 1:53 of the 4th quarter. Green Bay twice passed up chances for field goals--in the 1st and 3rd quarters--and was stopped on fourth-down gambles. The game ended with the Packers scrimmaging from the Eagles’ 22-yard line. Mr. Starr completed a pass to Jim Taylor, but he was stopped on the 9-yard line by Bobby Jackson and Chuck Bednarik. For winning head coach Buck Shaw, it was the final game and the only league championship of his 13-year career as a head coach in professional football. For losing head coach Vince Lombardi, it was the beginning of a string of 6 appearances in the NFL championship game in the next 8 years, and his only loss.

40 years ago
1970


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K.: I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds (5th week at #1)
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (2nd week at #1)
2 One Less Bell to Answer--The 5th Dimension
3 The Tears of a Clown--Smokey Robinson and the Miracles
4 Knock Three Times--Dawn
5 Black Magic Woman--Santana
6 Does Anybody Really Know What Time it Is?--Chicago
7 I Think I Love You--The Partridge Family
8 Stoned Love--The Supremes
9 No Matter What--Badfinger
10 Gypsy Woman--Brian Hyland

Singles entering the chart included Remember Me by Diana Ross (#53); I Really Don’t Want to Know (#57)/There Goes My Everything (#64) by Elvis Presley; If You Could Read My Mind by Gordon Lightfoot (#69); Feliz Navidad by Jose Feliciano (#71); Let Your Love Go by Bread (#76); Problem Child by Mark Lindsay (#83); Holly Holy by Jr. Walker and the All-Stars (#85); If You Were Mine by Ray Charles (#92); One Bad Apple by the Osmonds (#95); This Love is Real by Jackie Wilson (#97); and Fly Little White Dove, Fly by the Bells (#100).

Died on this date
Lillian Board, 22. U.K. athlete. Miss Board, who died of cancer, was a middle distance runner, twice winning a European Gold Medal, and winning a Silver Medal in the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City in the women’s 400-metre run.

Disasters
21 members of the Panamanian tanker Chryssi’s crew were missing after the sinking ship was abandoned in heavy seas off the U.S. south Atlantic coast.

Football
NFL
AFC Conference playoff
Cincinnati 0 @ Baltimore 17

NFC Conference playoff
Detroit 0 @ Dallas 5

Baltimore quarterback Johnny Unitas completed touchdown passes of 45 yards to Roy Jefferson in the 1st quarter and 53 yards to Eddie Hinton in the 4th quarter before 49,694 fans at Memorial Stadium. Jim O’Brien added 2 converts and a 44-yard field goal in the 2nd quarter. Mr. Unitas completed just 6 of 17 passes for 145 yards, but Norm Bulaich picked up the slack for the Colts by rushing 25 times for 116 yards. The Colts’ defense limited the Bengals to 7 first downs and 139 yards net offense. It was Cincinnati’s first playoff appearance, having finished first in the Central Division of the American Football Conference in just their third year of play.

Mike Clark kicked a 26-yard field goal in the 2nd quarter and George Andrie sacked Detroit quarterback Greg Landry for a safety touch in the 4th quarter as the Dallas defense limited the Lions to 7 first downs and 156 yards in net offense before 69,613 fans in the last NFL game played at the Cotton Bowl. The Cowboys managed just 231 yards in net offense themselves, but had a superior rushing attack on a muddy field, as Duane Thomas carried 30 times for 135 yards and Walt Garrison added 72 yards on 17 carries. Dallas quarterback Craig Morton, playing with a sore arm, completed just 4 of 18 passes for 38 yards, while Mr. Landry and Bill Munson combined to complete just 7 of 20 for 92 yards. The Detroit rushing attack totalled just 76 yards on 27 attempts.

30 years ago
1980


War
Iraq announced that her forces had invaded Iran’s northwestern province of Kurdistan, which extended the front of the war to the full length of the border between the countries.

A cease-fire was declared in the fighting in Lebanon between Syrian and Jordanian troops.

25 years ago
1985


Died on this date
Dian Fossey, 53
. U.S. zoologist. After many years of work among mountain gorillas in central Africa, she was found murdered, presumably by poachers, at her camp in Rwanda. Her book Gorillas in the Mist was published in 1983.

20 years ago
1990


Died on this date
Nancy Cruzan
. U.S. medical patient. Miss Cruzan had suffered permanent brain damage in a car accident in Missouri in 1983, and had been fed through a tube while being hospitalized in a "permanent vegetative state." On June 25, 1990, the U.S. Supreme Court, in Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, voted 5-4 to reject an appeal from her parents to remove the tube an allow her to die, but a probate court judge in Jasper County, Missouri ruled on December 14 that they had a right to remove the tube because three of Miss Cruzan's co-workers had testified in November that she had once said that she would never want to live under such circumstances. The tube was removed two hours after the court ruling, and it took Miss Cruzan 12 dies to die from court-ordered starvation.

World events
Iranian spiritual leader Ayatollah Ali Khamanei announced that the fatwa against author Salman Rushdie, who had angered Muslims two years earlier with his novel The Satanic Verses, would remain in place.

Americana
The United States Census Bureau released its final figures for the year and reported that the U.S. population in 1990 was 249,632,692--10% higher than the total for 1980. The west, up 22%, led the nation in growth since 1980. The south was up 13.5%, the northeast 3.4%, and the midwest up 1.3%. California would gain 7 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, while Florida would gain 4 seats and Texas 3. Among states losing seats, New York led with 3.

10 years ago
2000


Crime
Michael McDermott, 42, an employee of an Internet consulting firm in Malden, Massachusetts, went on a rampage, shooting and killing 7 co-workers with a semi-automatic rifle, a semi-automatic pistol, and a shotgun, before sitting in the lobby awaiting arrest.

Thursday, 23 December 2010

December 25, 2010

1,210 years ago
800

World events

Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III at St. Peter’s basilica in Rome.

875 years ago
1135

Britannica

Stephen was crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey in London.

180 years ago
1830

Transportation

The Best Friend of Charleston became the first regularly scheduled steam locomotive passenger train in the United States, making its initial run on the first six miles of track of the South Carolina Canal and Railroad Company.

50 years ago
1960


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K.: Poetry in Motion--Johnny Tillotson

40 years ago
1970


Terrorism
The Basque nationalist guerrillas who had kidnapped West German businessman and diplomat Eugen Biehl in San Sebastian on December 1 released him. They had kidnapped Mr. Biehl in protest against the court-martial of 16 fellow Basques.

25 years ago
1985


Crime
Thieves entered the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City on the night of December 24-25 and stole 140 pre-Columbian artifacts made of gold, jade, obsidian, and turquoise. The unique and priceless objects had been made by Mayas, Aztecs, Mixtecs, and Zapotecs before the arrival of the Spaniards.

20 years ago
1990


At the movies
The Godfather: Part III opened in theatres, 16 years after the opening of The Godfather: Part II. Violent incidents were reported outside several theatres showing the movie on opening night.

December 24, 2010

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Hilary Hahn!

60 years ago
1950


Football
NFL Championship
Los Angeles 28 @ Cleveland 30

Lou Groza’s 16-yard field goal with 20 seconds remaining in regulation time gave the Browns the championship in their first year in the National Football League after winning the All-America Football Conference title in all four years of that league’s existence. The Rams were making their first appearance in the championship game since winning the title in 1945 in their last game as the Cleveland Rams.

50 years ago
1960


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Are You Lonesome To-Night?--Elvis Presley (5th week at #1)
2 Wonderland By Night--Bert Kaempfert and his Orchestra
--Louis Prima
--Anita Bryant
3 Exodus--Ferrante and Teicher
--Mantovani and his Orchestra
4 Last Date--Floyd Cramer
5 A Thousand Stars--Kathy Young with the Innocents
6 North to Alaska--Johnny Horton
7 He Will Break Your Heart--Jerry Butler
8 Sailor (Your Home is the Sea)--Lolita
9 Many Tears Ago--Connie Francis
10 You’re Sixteen--Johnny Burnette

Singles entering the chart included Calcutta by Lawrence Welk and his Orchestra (#67); I Count the Tears by the Drifters (#73); Calendar Girl by Neil Sedaka (#74); Christmas Auld Lang Syne by Bobby Darin (#75); You are the Only One by Rick Nelson (#77); What Would I Do by Mickey and Sylvia (#82); My Last Date (With You) by Skeeter Davis (#88--an "answer" to Last Date); We Have Love by Dinah Washington (#89); Pepe (a version of the theme from the movie) by Duane Eddy and the Rebels (#90); Dance by the Light of the Moon by the Olympics (#91); Wings of a Dove by Ferlin Husky (#95); Psycho by Bobby Hendricks (#100); and First Taste of Love by Ben E. King (also #100--the B-side (or maybe the A-side) of Spanish Harlem, which had yet to make the chart).

40 years ago
1970


Hit parade
Edmonton's top 10
1 My Sweet Lord--George Harrison
2 Knock Three Times--Dawn
3 Most of All--B.J. Thomas
4 I Think I Love You--The Partridge Family
5 Gypsy Woman--Brian Hyland
6 Sing High, Sing Low--Anne Murray
7 He Ain't Heavy, He's My Brother--Neil Diamond
8 Domino--Van Morrison
9 For the Good Times--Ray Price
10 No Matter What--Badfinger

30 years ago
1980


World events
Jiang Qing, widow of Chairman Mao Zedong, and on trial as one of China’s "Gang of Four," reiterated her plea of innocence in the 1967 deaths by torture of two teachers, claiming that she had committed the alleged persecution of Communist Party officials during the Cultural Revolution on the orders of her husband. She then dared the court to sentence her to death in a public execution.

Wednesday, 22 December 2010

December 23, 2010

60 years ago
1950


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Harbor Lights--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra (6th week at #1)
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Ray Anthony and his Orchestra
--Bing Crosby
2 The Thing--Phil Harris
3 The Tennessee Waltz--Patti Page
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Jo Stafford
4 Nevertheless (I’m in Love with You)--Paul Weston and his Orchestra
--The Mills Brothers
--Ralph Flanagan and his Orchestra
--Ray Anthony and his Orchestra
5 All My Love (Bolero)--Patti Page
--Percy Faith and his Orchestra
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Bing Crosby
6 Thinking of You--Don Cherry
--Eddie Fisher
7 A Bushel and a Peck--Perry Como and Betty Hutton
--Margaret Whiting and Jimmy Wakely
8 Rudolph, the Red-Nosed Reindeer--Gene Autry and the Pinafores
--Bing Crosby
--Spike Jones and his City Slickers
9 Oh, Babe!--Kay Starr
--Louis Prima and Keely Smith
10 Orange Colored Sky--Nat King Cole and Stan Kenton

Singles entering the chart that week were Lucky, Lucky, Lucky Me by Evelyn Knight (#28); Christmas in Killarney by Dennis Day (#33); and Let’s Do it Again by Frankie Carle and his Orchestra (#38).

50 years ago
1960


On television tonight
The Twilight Zone, on CBS
Tonight’s episode: Night of the Meek, starring Art Carney

This was the Christmas episode, in which Art Carney played Santa Claus.

Diplomacy
United Arab Republic President Gamal Nasser warned that any attempt by Israel to build an atomic bomb would mean war with the U.A.R.

40 years ago
1970


On television tonight
Rod Serling’s Night Gallery, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: Room with a View (starring Joseph Wiseman, Diane Keaton, and Angel Tompkins); The Little Black Bag (starring Burgess Meredith and Chill Wills); The Nature of the Enemy (starring Joseph Campanella)

Politics and government
Premier Jozef Cyrankiewicz replaced Marian Spychalski as President of Poland, while Pyotr Jaroszewicz succeeded Mr. Cyrankiewicz as Premier. Edward Gierek, who had become first secretary of the Communist party on December 20, announced a freeze on food prices for two years, and said that those prices that had already been increased would probably be kept at that level. Mr. Gierek also noted that a multi-million dollar fund had been set up to aid low-income families and others hurt by the recent dramatic rise in food prices, which had sparked riots in major cities. Premier Jaroszewicz promised to "strive for a full normalization with the [Roman Catholic] Church."

Disasters
Two vessels collided in the Java sea, killing 27 oil workers en route to Jakarta for Christmas.

30 years ago
1980


World events
Jiang Qing, widow of Mao Zedong and on trial as one of China’s "Gang of Four," was charged with contempt of court after she shouted at a panel of judges and prosecutors, calling them "fascists" and Chinese Nationalist agents.

Economics and finance
The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that consumer prices had risen 1% during November. According to the Labor Department, during November it took $25.62 to buy goods and services that could have been purchased for $10 in 1967.

Hockey
NHL
Colorado 4 @ Winnipeg 5

Willy Lindstrom scored with 1:50 remaining in the game at Winnipeg Arena to end the Jets’ 30-game winless streak, which remains the NHL record. The Jets jumped to a 3-0 lead, with the third goal coming shorthanded by Doug Smail, but allowed the Rockies to score 2 goals in the last 15 seconds of the 2nd period. This was the first National Hockey League game I ever went to, and the last puck used is on display in the Hockey Hall of Fame.

25 years ago
1985


Defense
U.S. President Ronald Reagan notified Congress of his intention to continue to observe the SALT-II arms limitation agreement, charging a "continuing pattern of Soviet non-compliance" with arms-control agreements. He cited the deployment of SS-25 missiles; the construction of a radar station; the temporary basing of long-range bombers in the Arctic; and the development of mobile anti-ballistic missile radars and rapid-fire ABM launchers.

Diplomacy
U.S. President Ronald Reagan wrote a letter to Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev in which he indicated an interest in implementing a plan for mutual on-site inspection of nuclear test facilities.

10 years ago
2000


Politics and government
The Democratic Opposition of Serbia, an 18-party coalition, won more than 2/3 of the seats in parliamentary elections. The same coalition had backed Vojislav Kostunica, the successful candidate for President of Yugoslavia, against incumbent Slobodan Milosevic in September.

Diplomacy
U.S. President Bill Clinton set forth principles for a Middle East peace plan that provided for Palestinian control over the Gaza Strip; Arab neighbourhoods in East Jerusalem; and 95% of the West Bank, with partial control of Jerusalem’s Temple Mount. The principles were accepted by Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, but not by the Palestinian Authority.

Crime
Thieves stole a Rembrandt self-portrait and two paintings by Renoir from the National Museum in Stockholm, later demanding US$1 million each for their return.

Tuesday, 21 December 2010

December 22, 2010

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Elena!

80 years ago
1930


On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Richard Gordon and Leigh Lovell, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Noble Bachelor

70 years ago
1940


On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Boscombe Valley Mystery

The final half of this broadcast still exists, if the reader cares to search for it.

Died on this date
Nathanael West, 37
. U.S. novelist and screenwriter. Mr. West’s novels--The Dream Life of Balso Snell (1931); Miss Lonelyhearts (1933); A Cool Million (1934); and The Day of the Locust (1939)--reflected a cynical view of America. Mr. West’s last novel was influenced by several years he spent in Hollywood as a screenwriter; his screenplays included those for the films Five Came Back (1939) and Stranger on the Third Floor (1940). Mr. West and his wife, Eileen McKenney, were driving back to Los Angeles from a hunting trip in Mexico to attend the funeral of F. Scott Fitzgerald, who had died the day before, when Mr. West ran a stop sign in El Centro, California, and the two were killed in the resulting accident.

Eileen McKenney, 26. U.S. literary figure. Miss McKenney was the sister of Ruth McKenney and was the inspiration for Ruth’s novel My Sister Eileen (1938). Eileen was married to Nathanael West, and the two were killed in a car accident in El Centro, California days before they were to fly to New York to attend the Broadway opening of the play My Sister Eileen.

50 years ago
1960


Diplomacy
A U.S. State Department spokesman said that U.S. aid to Laos was "to enable the Royal Lao Army to maintain the integrity and independence of the country." He said that Soviet aid, in contrast, was to help pro-Communist elements overthrow the established government and destroy Laos’ independence.

Economics and finance
The Supreme Soviet adopted unanimously in Moscow a fiscal 1961 budget providing for a decrease in defense spending but a 15% increase in allocations to science. Estimated in the new rubles to go into effect on January 1 at the rate of 10 new rubles for one old ruble, the budget planned for revenues of 78.993 billion rubles and expenditures of 77.589 billion rubles. Figured at the new Soviet official rate of one ruble for US$1.11, this would be equivalent to revenues of about $87.7 billion and expenditures of about $86.2 billion.

Disasters
A Philippine Air Lines plane crashed after takeoff from Manila, killing 28 of 37 aboard.

30 years ago
1980


War
Iraq claimed to have captured 1/3 of Iran’s oil-producing province of Khuzistan.

10 people had been killed and 21 wounded in clashes between Syrian troops and Christian militia forces in Zahle, Lebanon.

Politics and government
U.S. President-elect Ronald Reagan named five more nominees for his cabinet: James Watt--Secretary of the Interior; John Block--Secretary of Agriculture; Samuel Pierce, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; James Edwards--Secretary of Energy; and Jeane Kirkpatrick--U.S. Representative to the United Nations.

20 years ago
1990


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Because I Love You (The Postman Song)--Stevie B (2nd week at #1)
2 Justify My Love--Madonna
3 From a Distance--Bette Midler
4 Impulsive--Wilson Phillips
5 Tom’s Diner--D.N.A. featuring Suzanne Vega
6 I’m Your Baby Tonight--Whitney Houston
7 Freedom--George Michael
8 High Enough--Damn Yankees
9 Love Will Never Do (Without You)--Janet Jackson
10 Sensitivity--Ralph Tresvant

Politics and government
Lech Walesa, who had recently resigned as leader of the Solidarity trade union movement, was sworn in as President of Poland.

Diplomacy
Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev warned that "necessary measures" would be taken in Moldavia unless that republic met demands he had made.

10 years ago
2000


Politics and government
U.S. President-elect George W. Bush named U.S. Senator John Ashcroft (Republican--Missouri), who had just been defeated for re-election, as his choice for Attorney General.

December 21, 2010

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Juliette Richard!

390 years ago
1620

Americana

The Mayflower arrived at the site of what would become Plymouth in Massachusetts.

70 years ago
1940


Died on this date
F. Scott Fitzgerald, 44
. U.S. author. Mr. Fitzgerald’s novels, such as This Side of Paradise (1920), The Beautiful and Damned (1922), and The Great Gatsby (1925) are among the most famous works of fiction of the era known as "The Jazz Age." His other novels included Tender is the Night (1934) and the unfinished The Last Tycoon (published posthumously in 1941). In his later years, Mr. Fitzgerald went to Hollywood to attempt a career as a screenwriter, but the only screen credit he received was for Three Comrades (1938), and much of that was rewritten. His time in Hollywood inspired him to write a number of short stories, published from 1939-1941, featuring a screenwriter named Pat Hobby. Years of heavy drinking had weakened Mr. Fitzgerald's constitution, and he had two heart attacks in the later months of 1940, the second of which proved fatal.

50 years ago
1960


Baseball
Chicago Cubs’ owner Philip K. Wrigley announced that his team would no longer use a manager in 1961 but rather a college of coaches: Charlie Grimm, Lou Boudreau, Harry Craft, Bob Kennedy and Charlie Metro. The Cubs had finished in seventh place in the eight-team National League in 1960 with a record of 60-94, 35 games behind the pennant-winning Pittsburgh Pirates. In 1961 they finished seventh again with a 64-90 record, 29 games behind the first-place Cincinnati Reds.

40 years ago
1970


Scandal
A U.S. Coast Guard board of inquiry called for the court-martial of Rear Admiral William Ellis, First Coast Guard District commander and Captain Fletcher Brown, his chief of staff, for allowing Soviet sailors to board the Coast Guard cutter Vigilant and forcibly take Lithuanian sailor Simas Kudirka back to the Russian trawler Sovietskaya on November 23. The ships had been moored next to each other off Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts, and Mr. Kudirka had jumped aboard the Vigilant in a desperate bid for U.S. asylum. U.S. Transportation Secretary John Volpe, criticizing the "serious error in judgement," ruled instead that the two Coast Guard officers were to be reprimanded and retired immediately. An official reprimand was also ordered for Ralph Eustis, skipper of the Vigilant, who was relieved of his command.

Popular culture
Elvis Presley met with U.S. President Richard Nixon at the White House, where the President made the king of rock and roll a deputy in the war against drugs.

30 years ago
1980


Terrorism
All 68 people aboard a Colombian jetliner were killed when it crashed in a desert north of Bogota. The cause was reported to be an explosion in a rear washroom; an anonymous phone call shortly after the crash informed the airline that a bomb had been placed on board.

War
Syrian troops battled with Christian militia forces in Zahle, Lebanon. The Syrians’ demand that Lebanese gunmen responsible for killing five Syrian soldiers be turned over to them was ignored.

25 years ago
1985


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Say You, Say Me--Lionel Richie
2 Broken Wings--Mr. Mister
3 Party All the Time--Eddie Murphy
4 Alive and Kicking--Simple Minds
5 Separate Lives--Phil Collins and Marilyn Martin
6 We Built This City--Starship
7 Election Day--Arcadia
8 Small Town--John Cougar Mellencamp
9 Sleeping Bag--ZZ Top
10 That’s What Friends are For--Dionne and Friends

Dionne Warwick’s friends on this recording included Gladys Knight, Elton John, and Stevie Wonder.

20 years ago
1990


World events
The Croatian parliament adopted a new constitution for the republic that provided for a referendum on secession from Yugoslavia within 30 days of a 2/3 majority vote by parliament. The Yugoslav defense secretary, a Serb, warned that the military was prepared to counter the "highly aggressive anti-Yugoslav and anti-socialist forces" that were undermining national unity.

Politics and government
Quebec reached a five-year agreement with the government of Canada to give the province greater control over immigration. Under the agreement, to take effect on April 1, 1991, the federal government guaranteed that Quebec would receive at least 25% and possibly as much as 30% of all immigrants to Canada. Currently, only 16% of immigrants to Canada settled in Quebec. Under the agreement, Quebec would have exclusive responsibility for selecting immigrants and control over language training services for non-French-speaking immigrants, as well as cultural and economic integration services, which were normally provided by the federal government. As a result, the federal government would provide Quebec with $332 million over five years. Federal Immigration Minister Barbara McDougall said that other provinces were negotiating with the federal government on immigration, and that more agreements were forthcoming.

10 years ago
2000


Scandal
Canadian Alliance leader and former Alberta Treasurer Stockwell Day settled out of court with Red Deer lawyer Lorne Goddard over comments that Mr. Day had made about Mr. Goddard’s defense of a man accused of possession of child pornography. The settlement of the defamation suit came a day after the latest in a series of rulings against Mr. Day’s defense team. Most people are capable of understanding that a lawyer defending a client doesn’t necessarily agree with the views of the client, but Mr. Day didn’t understand that, and his poor judgement ended up costing the Alberta taxpayers $800,000.

Sunday, 19 December 2010

December 20, 2010

220 years ago
1790


Americana
The first cotton mill in the United States began operating in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.

150 years ago
1860


Americana
South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union.

50 years ago
1960


On television tonight
Thriller, on NBC
Tonight's episode: Man in the Middle, starring Mort Sahl, Sue Randall, and Werner Klemperer

Space
The United States launched Discoverer 19 into polar orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The satellite was designed to measure radiation, and unlike other Discoverer satellites, was not supposed to return a capsule to Earth.

Defense
Israeli Ambassador to the United States Avraham Harman called on U.S. Secretary of State Christian Herter to deny reports that Israel, with French aid, was developing the capacity to produce atomic bombs. Amb. Harman confirmed that a nuclear reactor was being built in the Negev Desert with French aid, but that it was "exclusively for peaceful purposes."

Diplomacy
The United Nations General Assembly voted 42-28 with 27 abstentions to defeat a resolution offered by India, Yugoslavia, and six Asian and African nations calling for the liberation of former Congolese Premier Patrice Lumumba and the neutralization of Colonel Joseph Mobutu’s armed forces. The Assembly voted 43-22 with 32 abstentions--one short of the required 2/3 majority--in favour of a U.S.-U.K. resolution recommending the convocation of the Congolese parliament through a conference of political leaders called by Congolese President Joseph Kasavubu and instructing UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold to continue his policies in the Congo. The Assembly agreed without opposition to maintain the Congo item on its agenda, and adjourned until March 7, 1961.

Economics and finance
Cuban dictator Fidel Castro announced in Havana that Communist countries would pay 4c per pound for Cuban sugar, well above world market price.

40 years ago
1970


World events
Riots in Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot, and other Polish cities that had begun a week earlier over food price hikes resulted in Communist party leader Wladyslaw Gomulka being toppled from power after a 14-year reign. He was succeeded as party first secretary by Edward Gierek, party leader in the province of Silesia. 300 were reported to have been killed in the riots.

Disasters
28 were killed and 27 injured in a hotel fire in Tucson, Arizona.

30 years ago
1980


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Lady--Kenny Rogers (6th week at #1)

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Lady--Kenny Rogers (4th week at #1)
2 Master Blaster (Jammin’)--Stevie Wonder
3 More Than I Can Say--Leo Sayer
4 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon
5 Another One Bites the Dust--Queen
6 The Wanderer--Donna Summer
7 Love on the Rocks--Neil Diamond
8 Hit Me with Your Best Shot--Pat Benatar
9 Hungry Heart--Bruce Springsteen
10 Guilty--Barbra Streisand and Barry Gibb

Entering the chart at #77 was Who’s Making Love by the Blues Brothers.

On television today
The New York Jets defeated the Miami Dolphins 24-17 at the Orange Bowl in Miami in a game that NBC televised without announcers. Executive producer Don Ohlmeyer tried the "experiment" in part to boost ratings on a lacklustre game. The consensus of viewers and critics was that announcers are necessary on a broadcast despite how annoying they may sound.

Hockey
NHL
Montreal 3 @ Edmonton 4

Dave Hunter scored the winning goal with 2 seconds remaining in the game in the national telecast of Hockey Night in Canada.

25 years ago
1985


Personal
This blogger was hired for a short-term job as archives assistant at the University of Alberta Archives to begin in January 1986.

Weather
The temperature reached 49 F. in Edmonton.

Hockey
NHL
New York Islanders 2 New York Rangers 2

On a goal by Mike Bossy of the Islanders, Denis Potvin picked up an assist for his 916th career point, breaking the NHL record for defensemen held by Bobby Orr.

20 years ago
1990


Politics and government
Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze astonished the 2,250-member Congress of People’s Deputies by announcing his resignation. He said he was tired of defending his policies against "conservative" Communist critics. Although Mr. Shevardnadze predicted that democracy and freedom were the way of the future, he said that dictatorship was on the horizon, but he added, "No one knows what this dictatorship will be like." President Mikhail Gorbachev, apparently taken by surprise, deplored the resignation as "unforgivable" at a time of crisis in the Soviet Union, and he denied that the country was on the brink of any form of dictatorship.

The new German Bundestag met in the old Reichstag in Berlin.

Diplomacy
The United States joined in a unanimous vote for a United Nations Security Council resolution that called the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip "occupied territories" and deplored Israel’s treatment of Arab civilians there. Under the resolution, the UN Secretary-General would monitor the safety of Palestinians in the territories. The resolution also opposed Israel’s plan to resume the deportation of Arabs from the territories. Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir and other Israeli leaders denounced the resolution.

10 years ago
2000


Politics and government
U.S. President-elect George W. Bush named several of his choices for cabinet positions: Secretary of the Treasury--Paul O’Neill; Secretary of Housing and Urban Development--Melquiades Martinez; Secretary of Agriculture--Ann Veneman; Secretary of Commerce--Donald Evans.

Crime
The Chilean Supreme Court, in appeal, dismissed charges against former dictator General Augusto Pinochet in kidnapping and murder of political opponents, but ordered that Gen. Pinochet be interrogated, leaving the door open for another indictment.

December 19, 2010

60 years ago
1950


On television tonight
Suspense, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Dancing Dan's Christmas, starring Wally Cox

50 years ago
1960


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Are You Lonesome To-Night?--Elvis Presley (4th week at #1)

Space
Mercury-Redstone 1A, an unmanned Mercury spacecraft atop a Redstone rocket, was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The suborbital mission lasted 15 minutes and 45 seconds and was a complete success.

Politics and government
The United States Electoral College, meeting in the 50 state capitals, elected U.S. Senator and Democratic party candidate John F. Kennedy President of the United States and Lyndon Johnson Vice-President. Mr. Kennedy and Mr. Johnson received 300 electoral votes, 30 more than the number required for the majority needed to win. Vice-President and Republican party candidate Richard Nixon and vice-presidential candidate Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. received 219 electoral votes. 14 unpledged Democratic electors (8 from Mississippi and 6 from Alabama) voted for U.S. Senator Harry Byrd (Democrat--Virginia) for president and for Senator Strom Thurmond (Democrat--South Carolina) for vice-president. Henry Irwin, a Republican elector from Oklahoma, refused to vote for the Republican ticket and cast a 15th ballot for Mr. Byrd for president while voting for Senator Barry Goldwater (Republican--Arizona) for vice-president. Because of a dispute as to whether Mr. Kennedy or Mr. Nixon had won in Hawaii, that state’s three votes were cast for both candidates, and in effect counted for neither, pending a final count of the votes in that state.

Diplomacy
Cuban National Bank director Ernesto "Che" Guevara and Soviet First Deputy Premier Anastas Mikoyan, meeting in Moscow, signed an agreement calling for a substantial expansion of Cuban-Soviet trade in 1961. The U.S.S.R. agreed to help Cuba build an iron and steel mill, an oil refinery, electric power stations and other industrial projects; to buy more than the agreed amount of Cuban sugar in 1961 if the United States shut off purchases of Cuban sugar; and to supply Cuba’s nationalized refineries with oil. Mr. Guevara signed a document pledging Cuban support for Soviet foreign policy, including support of "national revolutionary movements" in Latin America.

The United Nations General Assembly voted 63-8 with 27 abstentions to approve an amended Asian-African resolution recognizing UN responsibility to help promote Algerian independence. However, the Assembly had earlier rejected a section of the original proposal providing for a UN-conducted referendum to decide Algeria’s future. The U.S.A. and U.K. opposed the referendum provision and abstained from the final vote on the resolution. France boycotted the two-week debate and did not vote.

Disasters
Three days after a United Air Lines DC-8 jetliner and a Trans World Airline Super-Constellation had collided over Staten Island, New York with the loss of 134 lives, U.S. Federal Aviation Agency head Elwood Quesada reported to President Dwight Eisenhower that the United jet was 11 miles off course when the collision occurred, while the TWA plane was exactly where it should have been. However, he said he could not attempt to fix responsibility for the crash pending an investigation by the Civil Aeronautics Board. Mr. Quesada’s report was criticized by United Air Lines president W.A. Patterson, who suggested that the radio equipment at Preston, New Jersey, where the DC-8 had been told to continue in a holding pattern, might not have been working properly, or that the Federal Aviation Administration radar surveillance procedure might have been at fault.

40 years ago
1970


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K.: I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds (4th week at #1)
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): The Tears of a Clown--Smokey Robinson and the Miracles (2nd week at #1)

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 My Sweet Lord--George Harrison
2 The Tears of a Clown--Smokey Robinson and the Miracles
3 One Less Bell to Answer--The 5th Dimension
4 I Think I Love You--The Partridge Family
5 Gypsy Woman--Brian Hyland
6 No Matter What--Badfinger
7 Does Anybody Really Know What Time it Is?--Chicago
8 Black Magic Woman--Santana
9 Stoned Love--The Supremes
10 Knock Three Times--Dawn

Singles entering the chart included Santa Claus is Comin’ to Town by the Jackson 5 (#65); I Hear You Knocking by Dave Edmunds (#68); Flesh and Blood by Johnny Cash (#71); Temptation Eyes by the Grass Roots (#76); They Can’t Take Away Our Music by Eric Burdon and War (#77); Bridget the Midget by Ray Stevens (#78); Amazing Grace by Judy Collins (#80); Shoes by Brook Benton with the Dixie Flyers (#85); Watching Scotty Grow by Bobby Goldsboro (#88); 1900 Yesterday by Liz Damon’s Orient Express (#92); and I’m So Proud by the Main Ingredient (#100).

Calgary’s top 10
1 Burning Bridges--The Mike Curb Congregation
2 Gypsy Woman--Brian Hyland
3 I Think I Love You--The Partridge Family
4 My Sweet Lord--George Harrison
5 Share the Land--The Guess Who
6 So Close--Jake Holmes
7 See Me, Feel Me--The Who
8 Sacroiliac Boop--Happy Feeling
9 Sing High, Sing Low--Anne Murray
10 No Matter What--Badfinger
Pick hit of the week: One Man Band--Three Dog Night

Burning Bridges was from the movie Kelly’s Heroes.

30 years ago
1980


Diplomacy
The first phase of the 35-nation European security conference in Madrid ended with a warning from the U.S.A. to the U.S.S.R. that an invasion of Poland was not acceptable.

Economics and finance
The U.S.A.’s largest banks raised their prime lending rate to 21½%.

Oil
Iran halted all pumping from its northern oil fields as a result of its war with Iraq.

Disasters
Two earthquakes in Iran killed 26 people and damaged Shiite Muslim shrines in Qum.

25 years ago
1985


On television tonight
The Twilight Zone, on CITV
Tonight’s episode: Night of the Meek (starring Richard Mulligan); But Can She Type? (starring Pam Dawber); The Star (starring Donald Moffat and Fritz Weaver)

Diplomacy
The White House made public a December 5 letter from Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to U.S. President Ronald Reagan in which Mr. Gorbachev offered to allow the United States to inspect some Soviet nuclear test facilities. The offer was conditioned on a long-term joint superpower moratorium on nuclear testing. White House spokesman Larry Speakes said that the moratorium would be rejected because the Soviet Union could not be relied on to adhere to a ban.

Defense
U.S. President Ronald Reagan signed into law an omnibus bill providing 7.4% less in defense outlays than he had requested. The restraint reflected strong year-long resistance, especially in the House of Representatives, to the continuation of defense buildup at the rate seen during Mr. Reagan’s first term. Resumption of the stockpiling of chemical weapons was approved after a 16-year moratorium, but space tests of anti-satellite missiles were banned for fiscal 1986.

Politics and government
U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz appeared to be at odds with other leaders in the administration of President Ronald Reagan when he said he would resign if required to take a polygraph test. A directive signed by Mr. Reagan on November 1 appeared to make thousands of State Department and Defense Department employees and defense contractors subject to such a test. The administration had been concerned about spying and leaking of information to the press. Mr. Shultz also expressed doubts about the reliability of the tests. Central Intelligence Agency Director William Casey said there was a need for branches of government receiving sensitive information to make "selective, careful use" of the polygraph. Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger had already said that he would take the test if asked.

U.S. Senator Ted Kennedy (Democrat--Massachusetts) announced that he would not seek his party’s nomination for President of the United States in 1988, and that he believed he could better advance his values by remaining in the Senate. In order to stay in the Senate, he would have to be re-elected in 1988.

20 years ago
1990


Politics and government
Soviet Premier Nikolai Ryzhkov, addressing the 2,250-member Congress of People’s Deputies, said that perestroika (restructuring) had failed and that he assumed personal failure for failure of the economy.

Society
The U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse released a survey showing a decline in the use of drugs by Americans since 1988. The report said that an estimated 27 million Americans had used some illegal drug during the past year. According to the results, those who used cocaine at least once per month declined in number by 45%, to about 1.6 million. The number using marijuana once per month or more often declined by 12% to about 10.2 million. The number who smoked cigarettes or drank alcohol had also declined. President George Bush called the findings "very encouraging news."

10 years ago
2000


Diplomacy
Russian President Vladimir Putin concluded a two-day visit to Canada, during which he had met Prime Minister Jean Chretien.

The United Nations Security Council voted 19-0, with China and Malaysia abstaining, to impose sanction on the Taliban regime that controlled most of Afghanistan. The resolution demanded that the militant Islamic regime give up Osama bin Laden, charged in the bombing of two U.S. embassies in Africa in 1998. The sanctions forced the closure of Taliban diplomatic offices around the world and barred aircraft from other countries from landing in Afghanistan. The UN also imposed an arms embargo on the regime.

Politics and government
The Israeli Knesset voted 69-49 not to hold a general election, but just to hold an election for the position of Prime Minister. The vote cleared the way for Ariel Sharon, leader of the opposition Likud Party, to challenge incumbent Ehud Barak as Prime Minister.