Sunday, 31 March 2019

April 1, 2019

230 years ago
1789


Politics and government
In New York City, the United States House of Representatives held its first quorum, and elected Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania as its first Speaker.

200 years ago
1819


Born on this date
Vikramatji Khimojiraj
. Indian ruler. RanaShri Vikramatji Khimojiraj Sahib succeeded his father Khimojiraj Haloji as Maharaja of Porbandar in 1831, and ruled the princely state until his death on April 21, 1900, 20 days after his 81st birthday. He was succeeded by his grandson Bhavsinhji Madhavsinhji.

180 years ago
1839


Died on this date
Benjamin Pierce, 81
. U.S. politician. Mr. Pierce, a member of the Democratic-Republican Party, was Governor of New Hampshire from 1827-1828 and 1829-1830.

130 years ago
1889


Academia
The University of Northern Colorado was established, as the Colorado State Normal School.

110 years ago
1909


Born on this date
Eddy Duchin
. U.S. musician. Mr. Duchin was a jazz pianist who performed with Leo Reisman's band before leading a band of his own, achieving commercial success in the 1930s and '40s as a "sweet" band. He served with the U.S. Navy during World War II, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Commander, but was unable to regain his musical popularity after the war. Mr. Duchin died of leukemia on February 9, 1951 at the age of 41.

Abner Biberman. U.S. actor and director. Mr. Biberman played small roles in movies such as Gunga Din (1939) and The Roaring Twenties (1939). He directed several films, but was more active in television, where his work included four episodes of The Twilight Zone (1962-1964). Mr. Biberman died on June 20, 1977 at the age of 68.

100 years ago
1919


Born on this date
Joseph Murray
. U.S. physician. Dr. Murray was a surgeon who specialized in organ transplants and plastic and reconstructive surgery. He performed the first successful kidney transplant in 1954, and shared the 1990 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with E. Donnall Thomas "for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease." Dr. Murray died on November 26, 2012 at the age of 93, after suffering a stroke.

80 years ago
1939


War
Generalíssimo Francisco Franco of the Spanish State announced the end of the Spanish Civil War, as the last of the Republican forces surrendered.

Transportation
Trans-Canada Airlines began scheduled transnational passenger service between Vancouver and Montréal, with stops in Ottawa, North Bay, Kapuskasing, Winnipeg, Regina and Lethbridge. The flight took 15 hours.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Semi-Finals
Boston 1 @ New York Rangers 3 (Best-of-seven series tied 3-3)
Detroit 4 @ Toronto 5 (OT) (Toronto won best-of-three series 2-1)

Gordie Drillon scored his second goal of the game at 5:42 of the 1st overtime period to give the Maple Leafs their win over the Red Wings at Maple Leaf Gardens.

75 years ago
1944


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Bésame Mucho (Kiss Me Much)--Jimmy Dorsey and his Orchestra with Bob Eberly and Kitty Kallen (Best Seller--5th week at #1); Mairzy Doats--The Merry Macs (Jukebox--3rd week at #1)

War
Soviet forces captured Kablevo, reaching a point 24 miles northeast of Odessa. The U.S. Army reported that 1,058,000 enlisted men had been discharged from December 1, 1941-January 31, 1944. Navigation errors led to the accidental American bombing of the Swiss city of Schaffhausen.

Politics and government
The day after U.S. Representative John Coffee (Democrat--Washington) had accused Connecticut industrialist Vivien Kellems of treason and seditious conduct for urging businessmen not to pay income taxes, Miss Kellems, speaking from Toronto, said that Rep. Coffee "is a coward," and dared him to make his charges "outside of the House so I can hale you into court and put you in prison where you belong."

U.S. Senator Robert Wagner (Democrat--New York) urged the Democratic Party to renominate President Franklin D. Roosevelt as the party's candidate in the November 1944 election because "the people do not want to turn the Presidency over to some untried novice in the critical days ahead."

Baseball
A U.S. Coast Guard team led by former major league outfielder Dick Porter defeated the Boston Red Sox 23-16 in an exhibition game at Curtis Bay Navy Yard in Curtis Bay, Maryland. Mr. Porter had finished his 6-year major league career with the Red Sox in 1934.

70 years ago
1949


On television tonight
Your Show Time, hosted and narrated by Arthur Shields, on NBC
Tonight's episode: The Tenor, starring Julie Adams, Carol Brannon, Hugo Haas, and Lee Patrick

War
The Chinese Communist Party held unsuccessful peace talks with the Nationalist Party in Peking (Beijing), after three years of fighting in the Chinese Civil War.

Politics and government
Joey Smallwood, leader of the pro-Confederation movement, was sworn in as the first Premier of Newfoundland as a Canadian province, by Albert J. Walsh, Newfoundland's first Lieutenant Governor. In Ottawa, Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent gave a speech welcoming Newfoundland to Confederation, and introduced Gordon Bradley, the first federal cabinet minister from Newfoundland, who was sworn in to the Privy Council and became Secretary of State of Canada. Mr. Bradley and St. Laurent also cut the first ceremonial chisel strokes onto a blank stone in Parliament that featured the Newfoundland Coat of arms.

The U.S. Hoover Commission on Reorganization of the Executive Branch issued its final report, attacking inefficiency in the administration of government business enterprises and urging the elimination of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, the Farmers Home Administration, and other agencies.

Society
The Government of Canada repealed Japanese-Canadian internment after seven years.

Education
New York Governor Thomas Dewey signed a bill ordering the State Board of Regents to eliminate "subversive" employees from public schools.

Economics and finance
Argentina revoked its agreement to supply most of the United Kingdom's meat imports, demanding higher prices.

The U.S. Senate passed a House of Representatives-approved bill providing $45.6 million in loans to farmers and ranchers in storm-stricken Western states.

60 years ago
1959


Diplomacy
The Western foreign ministers meeting in Washington issued a final communique reiterating their refusal to accept the U.S.S.R.'s unilateral repudiation of its Berlin obligations or the substitution of East Germans for Soviet representatives in carrying out these obligations.

Defense
The Syrian Army partially mobilized and the Jordanian Army's general staff met in emergency session, following orders for a test mobilization of three Israeli Army reserve units.

U.S.S.R. authorities in East Berlin claimed that the 10,000-foot ceiling on Western flights to Berlin had the force of a "prescriptive right," warning that "there may be incidents if the Americans fly above the altitude again without negotiating."

Abominations
Dispatches from India reported that Communist Chinese troops had deported up to 15,000 Tibetans from Lhasa for forced labour.

Politics and government
Meade Alcorn resigned as U.S. Republican National Committee Chairman to return to his law practice in Connecticut.

Transportation
The St. Lawrence Seaway opened for business; it was officially dedicated on June 26 by Queen Elizabeth II and U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower.

Law
Charles Edward Rivett-Carnac was appointed Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police; he served until March 31, 1960.

50 years ago
1969


Hit parade
#1 single in Switzerland (Swiss Hitparade): Atlantis--Donovan (2nd week at #1)

Defense
The Hawker Siddeley Harrier, the first operational fighter aircraft with Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing capabilities, entered service with the U.K. Royal Air Force.

Politics and government
The Canadian government of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau created the Department of Regional Economic Expansion, with Jean Marchand as its first minister. The department was created in order to contribute to the revival of regions that were facing economic difficulties.

The ninth congress of the Chinese Communist Party opened in Peking, and immediately named party Chairman Mao Tse-Tung and defense Minister Lin Piao as leaders of the 176-member presidium that would direct its work. Premier Chou En-lai was elected secretary-general. Others elected to the presidium included Mao's wife, Chiang Ching; Lin's wife, Yeh Chun; Army chief of staff Huang Yung-sheng; foreign minister Chen Yi; and five army marshals, all of whom had been denounced at one time during the cultural revolution. The congress opened eight years later than scheduled.

Law
A United States Court in Boston declared unconstitutional a section of the Selective Service Act of 1967 under which religion was the only basis for conscientious objection. The court ruled that Congress discriminated against those who were atheists, agnostics, or had deep moral objections as the basis of their beliefs.

Society
Québec legalized civil marriages.

Hockey
CHL
Adams Cup
Quarter-Finals
Kansas City 0 @ Omaha 7 (Omaha won best-of-five series 3-1)

40 years ago
1979


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Tragedy--Bee Gees (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Heart of Glass--Blondie

Diplomacy
The Israeli cabinet formally ratified the peace treaty with Egypt.

Abominations
In the cruelest April Fool's joke ever played on the people of Iran, Ayatollah Khomeini declared Iran to be an Islamic republic, officially overthrowing the Shah, after a referendum resulted in a vote of 99% in favour of the move.

Scandal
Former Congressman Otto Passman was found not guilty by a jury in Monroe, Louisiana of accepting bribes from South Korean rice dealer Tongsun Park.

Environment
U.S. President Jimmy Carter visited the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania. Mr. Carter and his advisers stressed that the situation was stable, but evacuation remained a possibility.

Communications
The cost of mailing a letter in Canada increased from 14c to 17c.

Oil
The Canadian National Energy Board raised the export tax on light crude oil $1.00 per barrel to $8.00.

Labour
The trucking industry in the United States locked out 300,000 Teamsters as the union called for selective nationwide strikes after rejecting a tentative three-year contract.

Hockey
NHL
Montreal 3 @ Boston 3
Toronto 6 @ Buffalo 3

30 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Esatto--Francesco Salvi (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): I Only Wanna Be with You--Samantha Fox (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France (SNEP): Pour toi Arménie--Charles Aznavour and various artists (8th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Like a Prayer--Madonna (2nd week at #1)

Austria's top 10 (Ö3)
1 She Drives Me Crazy--Fine Young Cannibals (3rd week at #1)
2 Das Phantom der Oper--Alexander Goebel & Luzia Nistler
3 Something's Gotten Hold of My Heart--Marc Almond featuring Gene Pitney
4 Twist in My Sobriety--Tanita Tikaram
5 In the Air Tonight ('88 Remix)--Phil Collins
6 Listen to the Voices--Labi Siffre
7 Buffalo Stance--Neneh Cherry
8 You Got It--Roy Orbison
9 Like a Prayer--Madonna
10 First Time--Robin Beck

Singles entering the chart were Like a Prayer; Leave Me Alone by Michael Jackson (#24); and Ballad of the Streets by Simple Minds (#28).

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Alles Kan Een Mens Gelukkig Maken--René Froger & Het Goede Doel (2nd week at #1)
2 Like a Prayer--Madonna
3 Straight Up--Paula Abdul
4 Eternal Flame--Bangles
5 Belfast Child (EP track)--Simple Minds
6 Everybody Needs Somebody to Love--The Blues Brothers
7 This Time I Know it's for Real--Donna Summer
8 Wild Thing--Tone Lōc
9 Anything for You--Gloria Estefan and Miami Sound Machine
10 Mijn Naam is Jaap--André Van Duin presenteert: Jaap Aap en de Apen

Singles entering the chart were Have a Little Faith in Me by John Hiatt (#24); Je Bent Alles by Jan Ten Hoopen (#25); The Look by Roxette (#27); I Can Do This by Monie Love (#32); That's the Way Love Is by Ten City (#33); and Real Love by El DeBarge (#35).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Eternal Flame--Bangles
2 Girl You Know it's True--Milli Vanilli
3 The Look--Roxette
4 My Heart Can't Tell You No--Rod Stewart
5 The Living Years--Mike + the Mechanics
6 She Drives Me Crazy--Fine Young Cannibals
7 Walk the Dinosaur--Was (Not Was)
8 Stand--R.E.M.
9 Dreamin'--Vanessa Williams
10 Lost in Your Eyes--Debbie Gibson

Singles entering the chart were Electric Youth by Debbie Gibson (#62); I'll Be Loving You (Forever) by New Kids on the Block (#68); Buffalo Stance by Neneh Cherry (#83); When Love Comes to Town by U2 with B.B. King (#89); Come Out Fighting by Easterhouse (#91); Baby Baby by Eighth Wonder (#93); and Repetition by Information Society (#94).

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Eternal Flame--Bangles
2 Girl You Know it's True--Milli Vanilli
3 The Look--Roxette
4 My Heart Can't Tell You No--Rod Stewart
5 She Drives Me Crazy--Fine Young Cannibals
6 The Living Years--Mike + the Mechanics
7 Walk the Dinosaur--Was (Not Was)
8 Paradise City--Guns 'N' Roses
9 You're Not Alone--Chicago
10 Dreamin'--Vanessa Williams

Singles entering the chart were Electric Youth by Debbie Gibson (#60); I'll Be Loving You (Forever) by New Kids on the Block (#65); Downtown by One 2 Many (#74); Walking Through Walls by Escape Club (#80); The Different Story (World Of Lust And Crime) by Peter Schilling (#82); Come Out Fighting by Easterhouse (#85); When Love Comes to Town by U2 with B.B. King (#87); and Every Little Step by Bobby Brown (#89).

Economics and finance
The British government of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher introduced a new local government tax, the Community Charge (commonly known as the "poll tax"), in Scotland.

Hockey
NHL
Philadelphia 2 @ Montreal 2

25 years ago
1994


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Sleeping in My Car--Roxette (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Streets of Philadelphia--Bruce Springsteen (2nd week at #1)

Economics and finance
The United States Labor Department reported that the unemployment rate held steady in March at 6.5%.

20 years ago
1999


Died on this date
Jesse Stone, 97
. U.S. musician. Mr. Stone was a rhythm and blues pianist, songwriter, producer, and arranger, who was active from the late 1920s through the 1950s, and has been credited with helping to create the sound of rock and roll. He wrote songs such as Shake, Rattle and Roll, Flip, Flop and Fly, and Don't Let Go under his own name or using the pseudonym Charles Calhoun.

Abominations
Nunavut, formerly part of the Northwest Territories, came into existence as a separate Canadian territory. Prime Minister Jean Chretien was among those on hand to observe the event in the territorial capital of Iqaluit. The territory, whose population of 25,000 (spread throughout 820,000 square miles) was mostly Inuit, was created ostensibly for the purpose of granting the Inuit more autonomy in exchange for the Inuit dropping land claims against the federal government. In reality, the creation of Nunavut just added another layer of bureaucracy, and the social problems that existed before were, and are, still around. Nunavut has been a disaster, which is exactly what knowledgeable people, including this blogger, predicted. The late Justice Jack Sissons criticized the first attempt at the creation of a third territory in the early 1960s as a move by the "bright boys" in Ottawa to increase their power.

Politics and government
Paul Okalik was sworn in as the first Premier of Nunavut.

War
The Serbian news agency reported that three captured American soldiers would be tried by a military court. Another report concluded that the Serbs had killed 800 ethnic Albanians in the past week.

Crime
New Jersey resident David L. Smith was arrested and charged with originating the "Melissa" email virus, which infected more than a million computers worldwide.

Business
The merger of British Petroleum PLC and the Amoco Corporation was announced, to be known as BP Amoco PLC, with annual revenues expected to approach $100 billion. The new company said that it now planned to acquire the American firm Atlantic Richfield Company. The merger was expected to cost 2,000 employees, most of them Americans, their jobs. The new company would rank first in oil and gas production in Great Britain and the United States.

Labour
A legally-binding minimum wage was introduced in Britain for the first time. Effective immediately, all adults were to be paid at least £3.60 per hour, and workers under the age of 22 were to get no less than £3 per hour.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 5 Edmonton 1

10 years ago
2009


Politics and government
Benjamin Netanyahu took office as Israel's Prime Minister for a second time.

Economics and finance
Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper obtained an agreement at the G20 summit to extend for 12 months a pledge not to raise trade barriers.

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