Saturday, 22 June 2019

June 22, 2019

180 years ago

Died on this date
Major Ridge, 67 or 68
; John Ridge, 36 or 37; Elias Boudinot, 37. Cherokee leaders. Major Ridge, his son John, and Mr. Boudinot were assassinated by other members of the Cherokee Nation for signing the Treaty of New Echota with the United States government in 1835. The treaty had been followed by the forced migration from Georgia to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahmoma) known as the Trail of Tears, resulting in the deaths of 4,000 Cherokee. The majority of the Cherokee Nation regarded the signing of the treaty as a treasonous cession of sacred land, and held Messrs. Ridge, Ridge, and Boudinot accountable.

150 years ago

The Canadian Parliament passed An Act for the Temporary Government of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territories when united with Canada 32-33 Victoria, c. 3 (Canada); Canada agreed to pay the Hudson's Bay Company £300,000 plus 1/20 of the fertile belt for Rupert's Land, which included much of the Prairies.

140 years ago

Born on this date
Thibaudeau Rinfret
. Canadian judge. Mr. Rinfret, a native of Montreal and the son of politician and judge Édouard Rinfret, was a member of the Quebec Superior Court (1922-1924); Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada (1924-1944); and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada (1944-1954). He died on July 25, 1962 at the age of 83.

130 years ago

In the American Association, the St. Louis Browns swept a doubleheader from the Louisville Colonels by scores of 7-6 and 3-2 in 10 innings at Eclipse Park in Louisville, running the Colonels’ losing streak to a major league record 26 games.

In the National League, the Boston Beaneaters improved their league-leading record to 35-10 with a doubleheader sweep of the Pittsburgh Alleghenys at Recreation Park in Pittsburgh by scores of 1-0 in 10 innings and 4-3. John Clarkson improved his record to 20-2 with a complete game shutout in the first game.

125 years ago

Married on this date
U.S. magician and escape artist Harry Houdini married vaudeville entertainer Wilhelmina Beatrice Rahner.

120 years ago

Born on this date
Richard Gurley Drew
. U.S. engineer. Mr. Drew worked with 3M in his native St. Paul, Minnesota, where he invented masking tape in 1925 and Scotch tape in 1930. He died on December 14, 1980 at the age of 81.

110 years ago

Born on this date
Mike Todd
. U.S. theatre and film producer. Mr. Todd, born Avrom Hirsch Goldbogen, produced 17 Broadway plays, but was better known for his work in films. He helped to pioneer the Cinerama widescreen process before developing the Todd-AO widescreen process. Mr. Todd won the Academy Award for Best Picture for Around the World in 80 Days (1956). He married actress Elizabeth Taylor on February 2, 1957--it was the third marriage for both. On March 22, 1958, he was flying to New York aboard his private plane when the overloaded plane suffered engine failure in icing conditions over New Mexico, and crashed, killing all four aboard. Besides Mr. Todd, 48, those killed were pilot Bill Vermeer, co-pilot Tom Barclay, and Art Cohn. Mr. Todd was the only one of Miss Taylor's seven husbands she didn't divorce--although that probably would have happened in time.

Katherine Dunham. U.S. dancer, choreographer, and anthropologist. Miss Dunham, the "matriarch and queen mother of black dance," was an anthropologist in the 1930s, studying Caribbean cultures, including their dance practices. She had formed her own dance company several years earlier, and revived it after deciding on a performing rather than an academic career. Miss Dunham performed nationally and internationally from the 1940s through the 1960s. She died on May 21, 2006 at the age of 96.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Gower Champion
. U.S. dancer, choreographer, and theatre director. Mr. Champion and his wife Marge danced as a team and appeared in seven movie musicals, including Show Boat (1951). Mr. Champion began choreographing and directing Broadway musicals in the late 1940s, and won eight Tony Awards. He died of a rare form of blood cancer at the age of 61 on August 25, 1980, ten hours before the premiere performance of a revival of the musical 42nd Street, which he had directed.

Clifton McNeely. U.S. basketball player and coach. Mr. McNeely played at Texas Wesleyan University (1941-42, 1946-47), and became the first player ever drafted in what is now the National Basketball Association when he was selected by the Pittsburgh Ironmen of the Basketball Association of America in 1947. He declined to play professionally, and instead opted for a coaching career at Pampa High School in Pampa, Texas from 1947-60, compiling a record of 320-43 and leading the school to four state championships. Mr. McNeely died on December 26, 2003 at the age of 84.

75 years ago

Soviet forces began Operation Bagration, against the German Army Group Centre in a drive to clear German troops from Belorussia. More than 1,000 Allied planes in France bombarded Cherbourg's defenses for 80 minutes before American troops began an assault at 12:40 P.M. In making a stand against the Allies in central Italy, German forces recaptured Chiusi and counterattacked above Perugia. U.S. troops took Paganico on the Tyrrhenian coast, while British units on the Adriatic coast entered Fermo. British troops cleared Japanese forces from the Manipur Road in eastern India.

Politics and government
Guatemalan President Jorge Ubico suspended five constitutional provisions guaranteeing civil rights, including freedoms of press and assembly, because of "Neo-Fascist agitation."

The Texas Supreme Court ruled that only electors named by the regular convention opposed to President Franklin D. Roosevelt could appear on the ballot for that state's Democratic party primary in the contest for the nomination for President of the United States in the November 1944 election.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed into law the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944--commonly known as the G.I. Bill--intended to aid veterans in the transition from military to civilian life at war's end.

The U.S. House of Representatives passed and sent to the Senate a bill exempting insurance firms from the Sherman and Clayton antitrust acts.

Ron Northey hit his 9th home run of the season for the game's only run as the Philadelphia Blue Jays edged the Boston Braves 1-0 in 15 innings in the first game of a doubleheader before 2,556 fans at Braves Field in Boston. Charley Schanz allowed just 2 hits in 9 innings of relief to get the win. Bill Lee pitched the first 6 innings for Philadelphia. Al Javery allowed 11 hits in pitching the full 15 innings to take the loss. The game was over in 2 hours and 45 minutes. Jim Tobin pitched a no-hitter as the Braves won the second game 7-0 in a game that was called after 5 innings because of darkness. Tommy Holmes and Butch Nieman hit home runs for Boston. Dick Barrett started for Philadelphia and pitched 4 innings in taking the loss. Barney Mussill relieved Mr. Barrett to start the 5th inning and gave up 3 runs--all earned--before the game was called.

70 years ago

World events
The Dominican Republic foiled an attempted airborne invasion for the second time in three days, charging Cuba and Guatemala with harbouring the rebels.

U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson appeared before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee to urge ratification of the North Atlantic Treaty and approval of military assistance to Western Europe, claiming that the failure of the Paris Foreign Ministers Conference emphasized the "utmost importance" of the Atlantic alliance.

Politics and government
The 41st annual National Governors Conference ended in Colorado Springs after voting unanimous support for the United Nations, the Marshall Plan, and the North Atlantic Treaty.

U.S. atomic scientists Harold Urey, Herbert Anderson, and Harrison Brown denounced congressional investigations of the Atomic Energy Commission for "effectively strangling" nuclear research.

Two defense witnesses at the perjury trial in New York of former U.S. State Departmen official Alger Hiss testified that a Woodstock typewriter on which Mr. Hiss was alleged to have typed secret State Department documents during the late 1930s had been in their possession at the time.

Ezzard Charles (63-5-1) won a unanimous 15-round decision over Jersey Joe Walcott (43-16-1) at Comiskey Park in Chicago to win the vacant National Boxing Association world heavyweight title, replacing the retired Joe Louis.

The Chicago Cubs and Boston Braves combined to use 10 pitchers, who gave up 24 hits and 13 bases on balls, as the Cubs won 9-8 before 12,306 fans at Wrigley Field in Chicago.

The St. Louis Cardinals moved to within ½ game of the National League-leading Brooklyn Dodgers as they overcame an 8-1 deficit after 5½ innings to defeat the New York Giants 11-8 before 15,275 fans at Sportsman’s Park in St. Louis. Stan Musial of the Cardinals hit his 14th home run of the season, while St. Louis first baseman Nippy Jones hit a single, double, and triple, scoring a run and driving in 2, and right fielder Ron Northey batted 3 for 4 with a double, a base on balls, a run, and 4 runs batted in.

With 2 out and nobody on base in the bottom of the 11th inning, Peanuts Lowrey singled, advanced to second base on a single by Grady Hatton, and scored on a single by Walker Cooper to give the Cincinnati Reds a 4-3 win over the Brooklyn Dodgers before 9,539 fans at Crosley Field in Cincinnati. Don Newcombe allowed 9 hits and 4 earned runs in pitching a complete game, taking his first loss of the season after 4 wins.

Dale Mitchell hit a bases-loaded triple with none out in the top of the 14th inning, and Ray Boone followed with a single to score Mr. Mitchell as the Cleveland Indians broke a 3-3 tie and defeated the Philadelphia Athletics 7-3 before 17,632 fans at Shibe Park in Philadelphia. Bob Lemon pitched 7 innings of 4-hit relief, allowing 1 run--earned--to get the win, and batted 2 for 2 with a base on balls and a run.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Diana--Paul Anka (7th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 The Battle of New Orleans--Johnny Horton (4th week at #1)
2 Personality--Lloyd Price
3 Dream Lover--Bobby Darin
4 Lonely Boy--Paul Anka
5 Kansas City--Wilbert Harrison
6 Quiet Village--Martin Denny
7 Tallahassee Lassie--Freddy Cannon
8 A Teenager in Love--Dion and the Belmonts
9 Along Came Jones--The Coasters
10 Lipstick on Your Collar--Connie Francis

Singles entering the chart were Back in the U.S.A. by Chuck Berry (#56); Lavender-Blue by Sammy Turner (#60); I'll Be Satisfiedby Jackie Wilson (#63); Remember When by the Platters (#68); Gotta New Girl by Bobby Day (#82); Like Young by Andre Previn with David Rose (#83); I Love an Angel by Little Bill and the Bluenotes (#84); Ciao, Ciao Bambina by Jacky Noguez and his Musette Orchestra (#97); It was I by Skip and Flip (#98); and Oh, What a Fool by the Impalas (#100).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKWX)
1 The Battle of New Orleans--Johnny Horton (6th week at #1)
2 Personality--Lloyd Price
3 Kansas City--Wilbert Harrison
4 Frankie/Lipstick on Your Collar--Connie Francis
5 A Teenager in Love--Dion and the Belmonts
6 Tallahassee Lassie--Freddy Cannon
7 Dream Lover--Bobby Darin
8 Bongo Rock--Preston Epps
9 Crossfire--Johnny and the Hurricanes
10 I'm Ready/Margie--Fats Domino

Singles entering the chart were The Quiet Three by Duane Eddy and the Rebels (#28, charting with its A-side, Forty Miles of Bad Road); Only Sixteen by Sam Cooke (#37); Wonderful You by Jimmie Rodgers (#39, charting with its other side, Ring-a-Ling-a-Lario); I'll Be Satisfied by Jackie Wilson (#43); Sweet Chile by Sheb Wooley (#45); Forty Days by Ronnie Hawkins (#48); Mona Lisa by Carl Mann (#51); Like Young by Andre Previn with David Rose (#54); It Could've Been Worse by Jesse Belvin (#58); Cap and Gown by Marty Robbins (#59); The Whistling Organ by Dave "Baby" Cortez (#60); and Till There was You by Anita Bryant (also #60).

Died on this date
Hermann Brill, 64
. German politician. Mr. Brill, a Social Democrat, opposed the Nazis before and after they came to power in the 1930s, and was interned in concentration camps from 1938-1945. He was appointed Minister-President of Thuringia in June 1945, but was forced out of office a month later when the area became part of the Soviet occupation zone of Germany. Mr. Brill became a university professor in later years, and was largely responsible for introducing political science as a field of study in Germany.

Hal Bubser, 63. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Bubser was a first baseman who played 3 games as a pinch hitter with the Chicago White Sox in 1922, batting 0 for 3. He played in at least 644 games in the minor leagues from 1921-1925, batting .278 with 15 home runs.

The United States launched Vanguard SLV-6 from Cape Canaveral, Florida, with the mission of putting two satellites into orbit: the Vanguard 3b satellite--a magnetometer to map the earth's magnetic field--and a 30-inch round inflatable sphere for optical tracking. Shortly after launch, a malfunction in the second stage caused the third stage to separate and ignite, driving itself and the satellite into the Atlantic Ocean 300 miles downrange.

U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R. nuclear scientists began a week-long technical study in Geneva of detection of nuclear explosions in space.

John Howard Morrow took office as U.S. Ambassador to Guinea.

Politics and government
Argentine President Arturo Frondizi's cabinet resigned amidst growing conflict over widespread political unrest, strikes, and the spiralling cost of living.

West German Economics Minister Ludwig Erhard rejected a note of apology from Chancellor Konrad Adenauer as insufficient, and threatened to challenge Mr. Adenauer within the Christian Democratic Union.

Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru arrived in Trivandrum, capital of the state of Kerala, to investigate the mass disobedience campaign against the state's Communist government.

Southern Rhodesia's 420-foot Kariba Dam was completed.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Senate passed and sent to President Dwight D. Eisenhower the House of Representatives version of a wheat price support bill.

The New York Yankees moved to within 3 games of the American League-leading Cleveland Indians with an 11-6 win over the Kansas City Athletics before 21,451 fans at Municipal Stadium in Kansas City. Mickey Mantle led the Yankees with 2 home runs, a triple, and 6 runs batted in, and Bill Skowron added to the attack with his fourth home run in 4 games.

All the scoring took place in the 7th inning as the San Francisco Giants defeated the Pittsburgh Pirates 4-1 before 11,002 fans at Seals Stadium in San Francisco. Eddie Fisher started on the mound for the Giants, allowing 3 hits and 1 earned run in 7 innings, walking 1 batter and striking out 3, to get the win in his first major league game.

Sandy Koufax set a major league record for a night game with 16 strikeouts as he pitched the Los Angeles Dodgers over the Philadelphia Phillies 6-2 before 10,290 fans at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum.

50 years ago

Died on this date
Judy Garland, 47
. U.S. singer and actress. Miss Garland, born Frances Gumm, was known for her performances in musical films such as Babes in Arms (1939); The Wizard of Oz (1939); Meet Me in St. Louis (1944); Easter Parade (1948); and Summer Stock (1950). Drink and drugs ruined her appearance and her career; A Star is Born (1954) marked a major comeback for her, although she was just 32 (and looked much older). A television variety series in the 1963-64 season attracted talented guest stars (such as Barbra Streisand), but not high ratings. Among her husbands was film director Vincente Minnelli; the marriage produced Liza Minnelli, who, like her mother, has displayed star power while experiencing substance abuse problems. Miss Garland died in London of a barbiturate overdose.

The two-day Toronto Pop Festival concluded at Varsity Stadium, attracting 50,000 people; headliners at Canada's first pop festival included The Band; Blood, Sweat & Tears; Chuck Berry; and Procul Harum.

Politics and government
The Supreme General Command of the National Liberation Front of South Yemen denounced President Qahtan Muhammad al-Shaabi for dictatorial rule, forced his resignation, and replaced him with a five-member Presidential Council.

French President Georges Pompidou announced his cabinet. Michel Debre, regarded as a hard-line Gaullist, was replaced as foreign minister by European-minded internationalist Maurice Schumann.

The Cuyahoga River caught fire in Cleveland, Ohio, drawing national attention to water pollution, and spurring the passing of the Clean Water Act and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.

At least 12 firemen and railroad workers were killed when a railroad car loaded with ammunition exploded near Hanover, West Germany.

Tornadoes in Missouri killed 6 people and injured 30.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Hallelujah--Milk & Honey (8th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Pop Muzik--M (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Born to Be Alive--Patrick Hernandez (13th week at #1)

The Sandanista rebels in Nicaragua rejected American intervention to force the ouster of Nicaraguan President Anastasio Somoza. The U.S. proposals failed to gained backing at a meeting of the Organization of American States.

Former British Liberal party leader Jeremy Thorpe and three co-defendants were acquitted of conspiring to murder former model Norman Scott, who claimed to have been Mr. Thorpe’s lover. The prosecution attempted to prove that Mr. Thorpe and others conspired to murder Mr. Scott because he was afraid that Mr. Scott would publicly reveal their relationship and ruin Mr. Thorpe’s career. Mr. Thorpe, who lost his seat in the general election just five days before the beginning of the trial, denied any sexual aspect to his relationship with Mr. Scott.

As part of an effort to end a nationwide strike by independent truckers, U.S. President Jimmy Carter cancelled a recent regulation that had reserved diesel fuel for farmers.

The World Hockey Association officially ceased operations; four WHA teams - the Edmonton Oilers, Winnipeg Jets, Québec Nordiques and Hartford Whalers - joined the National Hockey League.

George McGowan announced his retirement from the Edmonton Eskimos because of a chronic knee condition. From 1971 to 1978 Mr. McGowan caught 424 passes for 42 touchdowns. In 1973 he led the Canadian Football League with 81 receptions, and won the Schenley award as the league’s Most Outstanding Player. In 1975 he set what was then a CFL single season record with 98 receptions. He was a Western Conference and CFL All-Star in 1973, ‘75, and ‘76, and played for the Eskimos' Grey Cup championship teams of 1975 and 1978. In 2003, George McGowan was elected to the Canadian Football Hall of Fame.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Finnish Singles Chart): Minä olen muistanut--Kim Lönnholm (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): All I Want is You--U2

An end to 14 years of civil war in Angola appeared to be in sight when Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos and rebel leader Jonas Savimbi agreed to a cease-fire effective June 24. The agreement occurred during a summit of African leaders in Zaire. Zaire, Congo, and Gabon were to be represented on a national reconciliation commission for Angola. Mr. Savimbi’s forces had been supported by the United States and South Africa, while the regime of Mr. dos Santos had the support of Soviet and Cuban troops. American officials praised the accord.

Politics and government
The United States Senate voted 97-3 to express its "profound disappointment" in the previous day's ruling by the Supreme Court that burning the American flag was a permitted form of political expression.

The annual Canadian Library Association conference began in Edmonton, and this blogger attended a party for alumni of the University of Western Ontario School of Library and Information Science at the Westin.

25 years ago

U.S. President Bill Clinton and the government of South Korea accepted the peace plan of former U.S. President Jimmy Carter, who had recently visited North Korea. The plan included resumption of high-level talks between the two Koreas. North Korea also agreed to essentially close the disputed nuclear complex at Yongbyon during the duration of the talks.

Russia joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Partnership for Peace program, under which they and 20 other countries, including former Communist countries, could participate in limited joint military exercises and peacekeeping missions. Full members of NATO were not oblige to come to the defense of these partners if they were attacked.

World Cup
In a major upset, the U.S.A. defeated Colombia 2-1. The first U.S. goal was scored on an own-goal by Colombian defender Andres Escobar.

New York 84 @ Houston 90 (Houston won best-of-seven series 4-3)

Hakeem Olajuwon scored 25 points and added 10 rebounds and 7 assists as the Rockets defeated the Knickerbockers before 16,611 fans at the Summit to win the first NBA championship in their 27-year history. Derek Harper led New York with 23 points and 5 assists. New York guard John Starks was a notable goat, making just 2 of 18 field goal attempts. Mr. Olajuwon was named the Finals' Most Valuable Player.

Toronto (1-0) 29 @ Hamilton (0-1) 24
Saskatchewan (0-1) 22 @ Edmonton (1-0) 38

20 years ago

U.S. President Bill Clinton visited Macedonia, where he met with refugees of the war in Yugoslavia.

Politics and government
U.S. Senator Orrin Hatch (Utah) announced that he would seek the Republican Party presidential nomination for 2000. He was known for cutting deals with the Democrats.

The Chicago Cubs and Colorado Rockies combined for 9 home runs and the Cubs overcame a 9-1 deficit after 3 innings to defeat the Rockies 13-12 before 48,081 fans at Coors Field in Denver.

With 2 out and nobody on base in the bottom of the 14th inning, Joe McEwing singled, advanced to second base on a single by Placido Polanco, and scored on a single by Mark McGwire to give the St. Louis Cardinals a 4-3 win over the Houston Astros before 36,481 fans at Busch Memorial Stadium in St. Louis. Jeff McCurry took the mound for the Astros to begin the 14th inning and allowed 3 hits and an earned run in 2/3 inning to take the loss in the 111th and last game of his 5-year major league career.

Albert Belle's 3-run home run climaxed a 4-run 8th inning as the Baltimore Orioles overcame a 3-1 deficit to defeat the Boston Red Sox 5-3 before 43,329 fans at Oriole Park at Camden Yards in Baltimore.

Miguel Tejada tripled home 2 runs with none out in the top of the 9th inning to climax a 3-run rally as the Oakland Athletics overcame a 3-1 deficit and defeated the Texas Rangers 5-3 before 35,619 fans at the Ballpark in Arlington.

10 years ago

Politics and government
Liberal Party candidates Jean D'Amour and Clément Gignac won Quebec provincial by-elections in the ridings of Rivière-du-Loup and Marguerite-Bourgeoys, respectively, leading to a cabinet shuffle by Premier Jean Charest.

A Washington D.C Metro train travelling southbound near Fort Totten station collided with another train waiting to enter the station. Nine people were killed in the collision (eight passengers and the train operator), and at least 80 others were injured.

Lucas Glover shot a 3-over-par 73 to win the U.S.Open on the Black Course at Bethpage State Park in Farmingdale, New York with a 4-under-par total score of 276, 2 strokes ahead of Ricky Barnes, David Duval, and Phil Mickelson. First prize money was $1,350,000.

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