Tuesday, 29 December 2020

December 29, 2020

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Christine Gotaas!

850 years ago
1170

Died on this date
Thomas Becket, 52
. English clergyman; Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170. Mr. Becket, who had quarrelled with King Henry II over matters involving church and state, was murdered in his cathedral by four knights acting on orders of the king.

470 years ago
1550


Died on this date
Bhuvanaikabahu VII, 82
. King of Kotte, 1521-1550. Bhuvanaikabahu VII acceded to the throne of Kotte, a kingdom in present-day Sri Lanka, upon the death of his father Vijayabahu VII. He was regarded as a weak king, dependent on help from the Portuguese to protect him from the attempts of his brother Mayadunne to depose him. King Bhuvanaikabahu was a Buddhist who resisted Portuguese attempts to convert him to Roman Catholicism, and was assassinated on the orders of either Maydunne or Viceroy Alfonso de Noronha. Bhuvanaikabahu VII was succeeded on the throne by his grandson Dharmapala.

220 years ago
1800


Born on this date
Charles Goodyear
. U.S. chemist and engineer. Mr. Goodyear was best known for developing vulcanized rubber, for which he received a U.S. patent in 1844. He lost a court battle in England in 1855 over a British patent for vulcanized rubber. He travelled to New York to see his dying daughter, and collapsed and died himself on July 1, 1860 at the age of 59, after finding out that she was already dead. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company was founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling and named after Mr. Goodyear.

175 years ago
1845


Americana
In accordance with International Boundary delimitation, the United States annexed the Republic of Texas, following the manifest destiny doctrine. The Republic of Texas, which had been independent since the Texas Revolution of 1836, was thereupon admitted to the Union as the 28th state.

160 years ago
1860


Defense
The British Royal Navy frigate HMS Warrior was launched; with her combination of screw propeller, iron hull and iron armour, she rendered all previous warships obsolete.

140 years ago
1880


Died on this date
Tuhiata
. N.Z. criminal. Tuhiata murdered artist Mary Dobie, 29, in Opunake on November 25, 1880. He confronted Miss Dobie, who thought he was going to rob her, and strangled her when she threatened to report him to the English authorities. The killing of a white woman by a Māori outraged the settler community, and the jury at Tuhiata's trial took less than half an hour to convict him of murder. He was hanged at Terrace Gaol in Wellington.

130 years ago
1890


War
Almost 200 Sioux Indian men, women, and children were shot by members of the U.S. 7th Cavalry in a massacre at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. It was the last major action in the various U.S. Indian wars.

Albertana
The Town of Lethbridge was incorporated.

125 years ago
1895


War
The botched Jameson Raid, an attack on the Transvaal Republic led by British Administrator of Rhodesia Leander Starr Jameson, began in Johannesburg.

110 years ago
1910


Born on this date
Ronald Coase
. U.K.-born U.S. economist. Professor Coase began his career in Britain before moving to the United States in the 1950s, settling at the University of Chicago in 1964. He was best known for the articles The Nature of the Firm (1937) and The Problem of Social Cost (1960), which helped him win the 1991 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences "for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy." Prof. Coase died on September 2, 2013 at the age of 102.

Politics and government
Liberal candidate Marcellin Robert defeated "oppositionist" candidate Henri Hébert 1,507-862 in a Quebec provincial by-election in the riding of Saint-Jean. The by-election was necessitated by the death of former Premier Félix-Gabriel Marchand.

Transportation
The Canada and Gulf Terminal Railway became the first rail line to reach the Lower St. Lawrence region as its station opened in Matane, Quebec.

100 years ago
1920


Born on this date
Viveca Lindfors
. Swedish actress. Miss Lindfors appeared in various plays, movies, and television programs, and won an Emmy Award in 1990 for her guest performance in Life Goes On. She died on October 25, 1995 at the age of 74.

80 years ago
1930


On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Richard Gordon and Leigh Lovell, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Reigate Puzzle

Politics and government
Sir Muhammad Iqbal, president of the All-India Muslim League, delivered a presidential address in Allahabad in which he encouraged the creation of a "state in northwestern India for Indian Muslims," introducing the two-nation theory and outlining a vision for the creation of Pakistan.

80 years ago
1940


On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Missing Three-Quarter

Movies
The New York Film Critics Circle named its award winners for 1940, which included: Best Picture--The Grapes of Wrath; Best Director--John Ford (The Grapes of Wrath); Best Actor--Charlie Chaplin (The Great Dictator); and Best Actress--Katharine Hepburn (The Philadelphia Story).

War
In the Second Great Fire of London, the German Luftwaffe fire-bombed London, killing almost 200 civilians. The United Kingsom announced that an unidentified German "powerful surface warship" had been routed in the North Atlantic Ocean on December 25 by the British cruiser Berwick.

Defense
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared in a "fireside chat" radio broadcast that the United States must become the "arsenal of democracy," and that full aid must be given to the United Kingdom on a war basis. He added that no threats by dictators could weaken American determination to give Britain all the aid she needed.

Law
Mexican President Manuel Avila Camacho sent a bill to the Chamber of Deputies granting amnesty for political offenders during the recent presidential election campaign.

Labour
Congress of Industrial Organizations United Auto Workers President R.J. Thomas said that the U.S. War Department contract awarded to Ford Motor Company for 1,500 scout cars would "seriously undermine the morale of labor engaged in defense work."

Football
NFL
All-Star Game @ Los Angeles
Chicago Bears 28 NFL All-Stars 14

Sid Luckman won the quarterbacking duel over Sammy Baugh of the Washington Redskins as the champion Bears defeated the All-Stars at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum.

75 years ago
1945


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Chickery Chick--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra with Nancy Norman, Billy Williams and the Kaye Choir (Best Seller--3rd week at #1; Juke Box--2nd week at #1); White Christmas--Bing Crosby with the Ken Darby Singers and John Scott Trotter and His Orchestra (Airplay--1st week at #1); It's Been a Long, Long Time--Harry James and His Orchestra with Kitty Kallen; Bing Crosby with Les Paul and his Trio (Honor Roll of Hits--7th week at #1)

At the movies
Hitler Lives, an adaptation of the previously released documentary short film Your Job in Germany, opened in theatres.



War
The Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) released World War II's casualty statistics: 41,371 Canadians in service killed; 43,178 wounded; 10,844 made prisoners of war; 32 missing in action.

U.S. Army Lieutenant General Albert Wedemeyer announced that American troops would help Nationalist Chinese forces move into Manchuria.

British troops in Indonesia disarmed all Indonesian police on the ground that they had not been able to maintain law and order.

Defense
The United States Army and Navy created a joint advisory board to work with Major General Leslie Groves on the atomic bomb.

Energy
The American Association of Scientific Workers issued a statement supporting the Moscow Agreement for United Nations control of atomic energy.

Politics and government
Brazilian President-elect Eurico Dutra pledged to restore full deomocracy; maintain close ties with the United States; ease immigration laws; and encourage the flow of foreign capital into Brazil.

Labour
The bitter United Auto Workers strike against Ford Motor Company of Canada, which had started on September 12, 1945 when 17,000 workers walked off the job in Windsor, Ontario ended, as both sides agreed to binding arbitration by Justice Ivan Rand.

U.S. National Federation of Telephone Workers President Joseph Beirne appealed to U.S. President Harry Truman to intervene in the dispute between Western Electric and its Employees Association to avert a strike by January 3, 1946.

The U.S. National War Labor Board recommended weekly wage increases of $3 and $4 for 11,500 employees of Northwestern Bell Telephone Company in five states.

Hockey
NHL
Montréal Canadiens' right winger Maurice Richard scored his 100th career National Hockey League goal in his 134th game.

Football
NCAA
Blue-Gray Game @ Montgomery, Alabama
North 26 South 0

70 years ago
1950


On the radio
Hear it Now, hosted by Edward R. Murrow, on CBS

Tonight's program included news about the Korean War.

Theatre
The Rose Tattoo by Tennessee Williams received its premiere performance in Chicago. Mr. Williams revised the play before it opened on Broadway in New York on February 3, 1951.

World events
Aden's eastern state of Mukalla was placed under martial law after nationalist rioters attacked the sultan's palace guard.

Politics and government
The South Korean cabinet, expressing confidence that Seoul's defenses would hold, decided to remain in the city.

Defense
The French National Assembly approved a record 740-billion franc increase in the country's military budget, to be financed by higher taxes.

Transportation
The last streetcar run in Calgary took place.

Medicine
Dr. Selman Wakeman conceded in Newark Superior Court that Dr. Albert Schatz was the co-discoverer of the antibiotic streptomyecin, and agreed to reach a financial settlement on division of royalties from sales of the drug.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Harry Truman signed a bill authorizing the use of $38 million in Marshall Plan funds for famine aid to Yugoslavia.

Business
U.S. President Truman signed a measure strengthening the Clayton Anti-Trust Act by barring business mergers that would lessen competition.

Labour
The U.S. Office of Defense Manpower announced plans to establish 13 regional manpower committees to handle problems of job turnover, absenteeism, and manpower shortages.

60 years ago
1960


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): I Love You--Cliff Richard and the Shadows

On television tonight
The Untouchables, starring Robert Stack, on ABC
Tonight's episode: The Tommy Karpeles Story



50 years ago
1970


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Kvällstoppen): Cracklin' Rosie--Neil Diamond (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland (Swiss Hitparade): San Bernadino--Christie (4th week at #1)

40 years ago
1980


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Sneaker Blues--Masahiko Kondō (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Woman in Love--Barbra Streisand (4th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Super Trouper--ABBA (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Tim Hardin, 39
. U.S. musician. Mr. Hardin was a singer-songwriter best known for writing the songs Reason to Believe and If I Were a Carpenter, both of which have been recorded by many artists. His only notable hit single as a performer came in the fall of 1969 with Simple Song of Freedom, a Bobby Darin composition (Mr. Darin’s version of If I Were a Carpenter had been a major hit in the fall of 1966). Mr. Hardin had a drug habit for many years and died of a heroin overdose, six days after his 39th birthday.

World events
Testimony and arguments concluded in the trial of Jiang Qing, widow of Chairman Mao Zedong and one of China’s "Gang of Four." She was hauled from the courtroom shouting, "I am prepared to die." The chief prosecutor had demanded a death sentence.

Oil
Libya and Indonesia announced price increases of US$3-$4 per barrel. It was widely believed that Algeria would not only raise its price to $41 per barrel, but would also maintain its surcharge of $3 per barrel, making the total price $44 per barrel. Nigeria raised its price $3 per barrel, to $40 per barrel.

30 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Australian Music Report): Unchained Melody--The Righteous Brothers (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Attenti Al Lupo--Lucio Dalla

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): I've Been Thinking About You--Londonbeat (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Sadeness Part I--Enigma

#1 single in France (SNEP): Petit Frank--François Feldman

#1 single in the U.K. (CIN): Saviour's Day--Cliff Richard

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40)
: Ice Ice Baby--Vanilla Ice (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard)
: Because I Love You (The Postman Song)--Stevie B (4th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Justify My Love--Madonna
2 Because I Love You (The Postman Song)--Stevie B
3 Impulsive--Wilson Phillips
4 Tom’s Diner--D.N.A. featuring Suzanne Vega
5 High Enough--Damn Yankees
6 Love Will Never Do (Without You)--Janet Jackson
7 Sensitivity--Ralph Tresvant
8 From a Distance--Bette Midler
9 I’m Your Baby Tonight--Whitney Houston
10 The First Time--Surface

Singles entering the chart were It Never Rains (In Southern California) by Tony! Toni! Tone! (#54); Go for It! (Heart and Fire) by Joey B. Ellis and Tynetta Hare (#63); Don’t Hold Back Your Love by Daryl Hall John Oates (#66); I've Been Waiting for You by Guys Next Door (#76); One More Try by Timmy -T- (#79); Caroline by Concrete Blonde (#85); and Pick Up the Pace 1990 by Young M.C. (#88).

Politics and government
A week after taking office as President of Poland, Lech Walesa named economist Jan Krzysztof Bielecki as Premier.

25 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio feauring L.V. (10th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Father and Son--Boyzone (5th week at #1)

At the movies
Mr. Holland's Opus, directed by Stephen Herek, and starring Richard Dreyfuss and Glenne Headly, opened in theatres in limited release.



Died on this date
Lita Grey, 87
. U.S. actress. Miss Grey, born Lillita MacMurray, was married to Charlie Chaplin from 1924-1927, and appeared in his movies The Kid (1921) and The Idle Class (1921).

Politics and government
An agreement was signed to begin the transfer of some civil powers in Hebron from Israel to the Palestinian Authority.

Another member of the British House of Commons defected from the government of Prime Minister John Major, reducing the Conservative majority to 3 seats.

Economics and finance
Canadian Minister of International Trade Art Eggleton announced that Canada and Chile would pursue a free trade agreement without the participation of the United States.

Skiing
Edi Podivinsky of Canada won the bronze medal in the FIS World Cup Bormio downhill race at Bormio, Italy.

Hockey
NHL
Detroit 2 @ Dallas 1

Scotty Bowman coached his 1,607th career game, becoming the National Hockey League's career leader in games coached, as his Red Wings edged the Stars 2-1 at Reunion Arena. Mr. Bowman passed former St. Louis Blues and New York Islanders coach Al Arbour.

20 years ago
2000


Weather
A blanket of snow and temperatures as low as -13C. disrupted life in the United Kingdom.

Politics and government
U.S. President-elect George W. Bush named four more nominees for his cabinet: Tommy Thompson--Secretary of Health and Human Services; Gale Norton--Secretary of the Interior; Rod Paige--Secretary of Education; Anthony Principi; Secretary of Veterans’ Affairs. All appointees were subject to approval by the United States Senate.

Economics and finance
The technology-heavy NASDAQ composite index stood at 2,470.52, a 39% decline from a year earlier. The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 10,786.85, a 6.2% decline during 2000. The Standard & Poor’s 500-stock index declined 10.1% to 1,320.28.

The U.S. unemployment rate for November was reported as 4.0%; consumer prices had increased 0.2% in November, while producer prices were unchanged. The index of leading economic indicators had declined 0.6% in November, while the gross domestic product for the fourth quarter of 2000 was growing at an annual rate of 1.0%. For the entire year, consumer prices had risen 3.4% and producer prices had risen 3.6%. The GDP had grown 5.0% for the year.

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