Wednesday, 30 December 2020

December 30, 2020

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Gladys Lucy Pomazongo Levano!

560 years ago
1460


Died on this date
Richard of York, 49. English royal family member. Richard was a great-grandson of King Edward III. He served under King Henry VI, and served as Protector of the Realm from 1454-1455 after King Henry suffered a complete nervous breakdown. Richard of York became a rival claimant to the throne, and was killed while fighting Lancastrian forces in the Battle of Wakefield.

War
Lancastrian forces loyal to King Henry VI of England defeated Yorkist troops in the Battle of Wakefield, and killed Richard of York.

130 years ago
1890


Born on this date
Adolfo Ruiz Cortines
. 47th President of Mexico, 1952-1958. Mr. Ruiz, a member of the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) (Institutional Revolutionary Party), served as Governor of Veracruz from 1944-1948, and was elected President in 1952. Mr. Ruiz's presidency included economic, educational, and health reforms, and women were allowed to vote in presidential elections. Mr. Ruiz died on December 3, 1973, 27 days before his 83rd birthday.

War
The day after the Wounded Knee Massacre, the Drexel Mission Fight took place in South Dakota between the 7th U.S. Cavalry, aided by the 9th Cavalry, and Lakota warriors.

110 years ago
1910


Born on this date
Paul Bowles
. U.S. author and composer. Mr. Bowles wrote poetry, short stories, and novels, and was best known for the novel The Sheltering Sky (1949). He composed works for piano and incidental music for the theatre. Mr. Bowles died on November 18, 1999 at the age of 88.

80 years ago
1940


At the movies
Mr. & Mrs. Smith, directed by Alfred Hitchcock, and starring Carole Lombard and Robert Montgomery, received a sneak preview screening in New Rochelle, New York, with the director in attendance.



Died on this date
C. Harold Wills, 62
. U.S. automotive engineer and executive. Mr. Wills began working with Henry Ford in 1899, and was the chief contributor to the design of the Model T. He left Ford Motor Company in 1919, and founded and led the automotive firm Wills Sainte Claire, which was in business from 1921-1927. Mr. Wills died shortly after suffering a stroke.

War
Associated Press estimated the total of dead, wounded, and missing for the first 15 months of the European war at 3-4 million.

Defense
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was reported by the White House to be "tremendously pleased" by the response to his radio address the night before, urging complete aid to the United Kingdom. U.S. Senator D. Worth Clark (Democrat--Idaho) said that Mr. Roosevelt's address was "a trick speech, calculated to lead the American people into war and ruin." Sen. Burton K. Wheeler (Democrat--Montana) criticized "warmongers," opposed aid to Britain that might involve the United States in War, and offered an eight-point peace program.

Politics and government
Representative Ramon Vina of the National Herrerista Party, which opposed the establishment of Pan-American bases in Uruguay, tried to shoot Socialist Rep. Emilio Frugoni on the floor of the Chamber of Representatives in Montevideo during a debate on the bases.

The National Student Federation of America voted to withdraw from the American Youth Congress, which it had helped to found, because of the AYC's alleged radical tendencies.

Transportation
California’s first freeway, the Arroyo Seco Parkway connecting Los Angeles and Pasadena, was officially opened.

75 years ago
1945


War
At the trial of Nazi war criminals in Nuremberg, the United States 3rd Army headquarters released German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler's "political testament," which named Admiral Karl Doenitz head of the German state, and predicted that Nazism would be reborn. Hiroshima Mayor Shichiro Kihara told Allied reporters that Americans should rebuild the city because "we were sacrificed to end the war;" he listed casualties at 139,000 killed out of a population of 310,000.

Diplomacy
League of Nations acting Secretary-General Sean Lester issued that body's final report and stated that the United Nations was in many respects a continuation of the League.

Politics and government
U.S. Secretary of State James Byrnes said that Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in Japan General Douglas MacArthur's authority in Japan would not be obstructed in any way by the Far Eastern Commission.

The Argentinian Radical Party named Dr. Jose Tamborini as its presidential candidate, and got pledges of support from the Socialists, Communists, and Progressive Democrats.

Defense
Republic Aviation Corporation revealed development of a four-engine flying photographic laboratory, named the XF-12, for the U.S. Air Technical Service.

Economics and finance
The Egyptian cabinet of Prime Minister Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha approved a boycott of goods produced by Zionists in Palestine.

70 years ago
1950


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Goodnight Irene--Gordon Jenkins and his Orchestra and the Weavers (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): The Tennessee Waltz--Patti Page (Best Seller--1st week at #1); The Thing--Phil Harris (Disc Jockey--5th week at #1; Jukebox--2nd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 The Tennessee Waltz--Patti Page
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Les Paul and Mary Ford
--Jo Stafford
2 Harbor Lights--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Ray Anthony and his Orchestra
--Bing Crosby
3 The Thing--Phil Harris
4 Thinking of You--Don Cherry
--Eddie Fisher
5 A Bushel and a Peck--Perry Como and Betty Hutton
--Margaret Whiting and Jimmy Wakely
6 All My Love (Bolero)--Patti Page
--Percy Faith and his Orchestra
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Bing Crosby
7 Nevertheless (I’m in Love with You)--Paul Weston and his Orchestra
--The Mills Brothers
--Ralph Flanagan and his Orchestra
--Ray Anthony and his Orchestra
8 Patricia--Perry Como
9 Orange Colored Sky--Nat "King" Cole and Stan Kenton
10 Oh, Babe!--Kay Starr
--Louis Prima and Keely Smith

Singles entering the chart that week were Roving Kind (#29), with versions by Guy Mitchell; and the Weavers; and Silver Bells by Margaret Whiting and Jimmy Wakely (#34).

Movies
The Motion Picture Herald annual poll of theatre audiences named John Wayne as the most popular actor of the year, followed by Bob Hope, Bing Crosby, Betty Grable, and James Stewart.

War
In the biggest jet plane dogfight of the Korean War to date, 40 Soviet MiG-15s and 15 U.S. F-86 Sabres clashed over northwestern Korea near Manchuria. The U.S. Air Force reported two MiGs damaged.

Diplomacy
Pakistani Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan refused to attend a British Commonwealth conference in London until he was promised that the meeting would try to settle the dispute between Pakistan and India over the status of Kashmir.

Economics and finance
The Hungarian governemnt instructed all ministries to work out emergency programs within the next 30 days to accelerate industrial growth and the development of substitutes for imported raw materials and to provide strict economy in all branches of production.

U.S. President Harry Truman's Council of Economic Advisers issued a 31-page annual report, pronouncing the nation's economy essentially sound, but urging immediate action on wage and price controls, a broader tax program, and fixing the size of military requirements.

Baseball
The Baseball Writers Association of New York named New York Giants' second baseman Eddie Stanky as the major league player of the year. He batted .300 with 8 home runs and 51 runs batted in in 152 games, leading the National League in bases on balls (144); beig hit by a pitch (12); and on-base percentage (.460) in 1950.

60 years ago
1960


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): It's Now or Never--Elvis Presley (9th week at #1)

War
The Laotian government of Premier Prince Boun Oum asked the United Nations for aid against a reported invasion of Laos by troops from the Communist countries of North Vietnam and China. Vientiane radio had broadcast a communiqué stating that several battalions of North Vietnamese troops had entered Laos.

50 years ago
1970


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Grandad--Clive Dunn

On television tonight
Rod Serling’s Night Gallery, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The House, starring Joanna Pettet; Certain Shadows on the Wall, starring Louis Hayward, Rachel Roberts, Agnes Moorehead, and Grayson Hall

Died on this date
Sonny Liston, 38 (?)
. U.S. boxer. Charles Liston, 24th of 25 children of an Arkansas sharecropper, was illiterate, became a criminal while a youth, and learned to box in the penitentiary at Jefferson City, Missouri. He was controlled by organized crime figures, but earned a world heavyweight title fight after an impressive string of victories. A fearsome presence and a devastating puncher, Mr. Liston won the title on September 25, 1962 by knocking out defending champion Floyd Patterson in just 2 minutes and 6 seconds of the 1st round. A rematch on July 22, 1963 lasted just 4 seconds longer. Mr. Liston lost the title on February 25, 1964 in his next defense, failing to come out of his corner to begin the 7th round against brash young Cassius Clay, who then promptly announced that he preferred to be known as Muhammad Ali. Mr. Liston’s reputation was further tarnished in the rematch on May 25, 1965, when he was knocked out at 1:42 of the 1st round in the rematch. He was widely accused of taking a dive, although films clearly showed Mr. Ali delivering a short punch directly to Mr. Liston’s chin. Mr. Liston attempted a comeback, running up a string of wins over unheralded opponents, until he was knocked out by former sparring partner Leotis Martin on December 6, 1969. Mr. Liston’s final fight was a 9-round technical knockout of Chuck Wepner in New Jersey on June 29, 1970, giving him a professional record of 50-4. Mr. Liston, who spent his last years in Las Vegas, died while his wife Geraldine was away visiting relatives, and she discovered his body when she arrived home on January 5, 1971. The date of death was estimated in part from a stack of newspapers outside the front door. Mr. Liston died of an apparent drug overdose, although it was said that he wasn’t a drug user. He was reportedly working as an enforcer for unsavoury characters in Las Vegas. Whatever the truth, Sonny Liston took many secrets with him to the grave, as The Ring magazine stated in its April 1971 issue.

World events
Facing threats of violence by Basque separatists because of death sentences handed to 6 defendants in a court-martial, Spanish dictator Francisco Franco defused the situation by commuting the death sentences to 30-year prison sentences.

Disasters
A coal mine explosion in Hyden, Kentucky killed 38 miners.

30 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Ice Ice Baby--Vanilla Ice (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Sadeness Part I--Enigma (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Sadeness Part I--Enigma (3rd week at #1)

Diplomacy
In response to demands and threats from U.S.S.R. President Mikhail Gorbachev, the Moldavian parliament said that it would review a law that made Moldavian the republic’s official language, and also agreed not to form a special defense force in Moldavia.

25 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (11th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (VRT): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Wallonia (Ultratop 40): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (5th week at #1)

#1 single in France (SNEP): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (5th week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Ademnood--Linda, Roos & Jessica (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Earth Song--Michael Jackson (4th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 One Sweet Day--Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men (5th week at #1)
2 Exhale (Shoop Shoop)--Whitney Houston
3 Hey Lover--LL Cool J
4 Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V.
5 Diggin' on You--TLC
6 Fantasy--Mariah Carey
7 Before You Walk Out of My Life/Like This and Like That--Monica
8 Breakfast at Tiffany's--Deep Blue Something
9 Name--Goo Goo Dolls
10 Free as a Bird--The Beatles

Singles entering the chart were Free as a Bird; Sittin' Up in My Room by Brandy (#46); Fu-Gee-La by the Fugees (#89); Cold World by Genius/GZA featuring Inspektah Deck (#97); and You Put a Move on My Heart by Quincy Jones introducing Tamia (#98). Sittin' Up in My Room was from the movie Waiting to Exhale (1995).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 One Sweet Day--Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men (4th week at #1)
2 Exhale (Shoop Shoop)--Whitney Houston
3 Hey Lover--LL Cool J
4 Diggin' on You--TLC
5 Name--Goo Goo Dolls
6 You'll See--Madonna
7 Fantasy--Mariah Carey
8 Before You Walk Out of My Life/Like This and Like That--Monica
9 Breakfast at Tiffany's--Deep Blue Something
10 Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V.

Singles entering the chart were Just Tah Let U Know by Eazy-E (#54) and I Got ID/Long Road by Pearl Jam (#55).

Died on this date
Ralph Flanagan, 81
. U.S. musician. Mr. Flanagan, born Ralph Flenniken, was a pianist who became an arranger for a number of big bands and led a band of his own in the late 1940s and 1950s, having hit singles with songs such as Hot Toddy and Singing Winds.

Football
NFL
AFC Wild Card Playoff
Miami 22 @ Buffalo 37



NFC Wild Card Playoff
Detroit 37 @ Philadelphia 58



20 years ago
2000


Died on this date
Julius J. Epstein, 91
. U.S. screenwriter. Mr. Epstein, his twin brother Philip, and Howard Koch won an Academy Award for their screenplay for Casablanca (1942). Julius Epstein also received Oscar nominations for his screenplay adaptations for Four Daughters (1938); House Calls (1978); and Reuben, Reuben (1983).

Terrorism
A series of bombs exploded in various places in Metro Manila within a period of a few hours, killing 22 and injuring about 100.

Football
NFL
AFC Wild Card Playoff
Indianapolis 17 @ Miami 23 (OT)



NFC Wild Card Playoff
St. Louis 28 @ New Orleans 31





10 years ago
2010


Basketball
NCAA
Top-ranked University of Connecticut's record 90-game winning streak in women's basketball ended with a 71-59 loss to #9-ranked Stanford.

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