Saturday, 15 December 2018

December 14, 2018

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Wendy Welt!

Married on this date
Happy Anniversary, Eileen and Leo Sasakamoose!

1,400 years ago
618


Died on this date
Xue Rengao
. Emperor of Qin, 618. Xue Rengao succeeded his father Xue Ju (Emperor Wu) as Emperor of the short-lived state of Qin on September 3, 618. Xue Rengao was regarded as a fierce but cruel general; he was forced to surrender to Tang Dynasty General Li Shimin (the later Emperor Taizong), and was executed, ending the state of Qin.

725 years ago
1293


Died on this date
Al-Ashraf Khalil, <40
. Sultan of Egypt, 1290-1293. Khalil succeeded his father Qalawun, and was best known for his capture of Acre in 1291. He earned the enmity of the Emirs, and was assassinated by Vice-Sultan Baydara. Khalil was succeeded on the throne by his 9-year-old brother An-Nasir Muhammad.

310 years ago
1708


War
Philippe Costebelle, French Governor of Placentia, Newfoundland led a company of 170 men to attack St. John's, with Joseph de Brouillan.

230 years ago
1788


Died on this date
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, 74
. German composer. Mr. Bach was the fifth child and second surviving son of Johann Sebastian Bach. He wrote many pieces for harpsichord and clavichord, as well as choral music.

Carlos III, 72. King of Spain, 1759-1788; King of Naples and Sicily, 1734-1759. Carlos III, the fifth son of King Philip V of Spain, ruled Naples as Carlos VII and Sicily as Carlos V before succeeding his half-brother Ferdinand VI on the Spanish throne. Shortly thereafter, Carlos relinquished the throne of Naples and Sicily to his brother Ferdinand IV (Naples) and III (Sicily). Carlos III believed in an enlightened but absolute monarchy, and made educational, commercial, and agricultural reforms that made him a successful and respected ruler. King Carlos III was succeeded by his son Carlos IV.

140 years ago
1878


Died on this date
Alice, Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine, 35
. U.K. Royal Family member. Princess Alice, the third child and second daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, married Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, in 1862. She became a nurse and supervised field hospitals during the Austro-Prussian War (1866), and took care of her children during a diphtheria epidemic before dying from it herself, 17 years to the day since the death of her father.

110 years ago
1908


Born on this date
Morey Amsterdam
. U.S. comedian and actor. Mr. Amsterdam had a long career in vaudeville, radio and television, hosting The Morey Amsterdam Show on radio (1948-1949) and television (1948-1950). He was best known for playing comedy writer Buddy Sorrell on The Dick Van Dyke Show (1961-1966). Mr. Amsterdam died of a heart attack on October 27, 1996 at the age of 88.

100 years ago
1918


Born on this date
James Aubrey
. U.S. television executive. Mr. Aubrey was head of television programming with ABC from 1956-1958 and president of CBS from 1959-1965. During Mr. Aubrey's reign at CBS, the network consistently had the highest ratings of the three major American networks. It was said that no one ever dominated American television to the extent that Mr. Aubrey did. Mr. Aubrey ws accused of "dumbing down" television to cater to the lowest common denominator of audience tastes with such programs as The Beverly Hillbillies (1962-1971) and Gilligan's Island (1964-1967). Mr. Aubrey was nicknamed "The Smiling Cobra," led an afterhours life characterized by degeneracy, and made many enemies, so when the television ratings for CBS showed signs of declining in the early part of the 1964-65 season, he was fired. Mr. Aubrey was president of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios from 1969-1973, where he succeeded in cutting budgets and turning profits. He disappeared into relative obscurity during the last 20 years of his life, and died on September 3, 1994 at the age of 75.

B. K. S. Iyengar. Indian yoga instructor. Mr. Iyengar founded Iyengar Yoga, described in his book Light on Yoga (1966). He died on August 20, 2014 at the age of 95.

Radu Beligan. Romanian actor and politician. Mr. Beligan appeared in films, television, and radio, but was best known as a stage actor in a career that spanned almost 80 years. He was a member of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party (1969-1989) and was a deputy of the Great National Assembly (1961–1975). Mr. Beligan died on July 20, 2016 at the age of 97.

Died on this date
Sidónio Pais, 46
. Prime Minister of Portugal, 1917-1918; 4th President of Portugal, 1917-1918. Major Pais was a professor of mathematics before entering politics, holding various cabinet posts before leading a military coup that seized power in December 1917. In violation of the Portuguese constitution, he institute a more presidential form of government, earning the nickname of "President-King." Social conflict increased in Portugal toward the end of 1918, and Mr. Pais became increasingly unpopular. He was assassinated by left-wing activist José Júlio da Costa while preparing to board a train at the Lisboa-Rossio Railway Station in Lisbon. Mr. Pais' guards fatally shot four civilian bystanders in the resulting chaos. Mr. Pais was succeeded as Prime Minister and President by Foreign Affairs and Navy Minister João do Canto e Castro.

Europeana
Friedrich Karl von Hessen, a German prince elected by the Parliament of Finland to become King Väinö I, renounced the Finnish throne. He was a nephew of recently-deposed German Kaiser Wilhelm II.

Politics and government
A coalition of Liberals led by Prime Minister David Lloyd George and Conservatives led by Andrew Bonar Law achieved a landslide victory in the British general election. The Conservatives took 382 seats--an increase of 111 from before the election--with the coalition Liberals winning 127 of 707 seats in the House of Commons. The Irish radical nationalist party Sinn Féin, led by Éamon de Valera, took 73 seats in their first election with Labour, led by William Adamson, next with 57. Liberals led by former Prime Minister H.H. Asquith, who weren't part of the coalition, were reduced from 236 seats to 36, with the National Democratic Party, led by George Barnes, next with 9. It was the first U.K. general election in which women were eligible to vote; Sinn Féin candidate Constance Markievicz, who was in Holloway prison after being convicted of anti-conscription activities, was elected in Dublin St Patrick's with 66% of the vote to become the first woman to be elected to the British House of Commons, but declined to take her seat because of Sinn Féin's abstentionist policy.

90 years ago
1928


Died on this date
Theodore Roberts, 67
. U.S. actor. Mr. Roberts appeared in plays and movies, and was often associated with films produced and directed by Cecil B. DeMille. He played Moses in The Ten Commandments (1923).

Thomas "Red" Moran. U.S. criminal. Mr. Moran was executed at Sing Sing Prison in New York for the murder of a Brooklyn policeman.

75 years ago
1943


Died on this date
John Harvey Kellogg, 91
. U.S. physician. Dr. Kellogg co-founded, with his brother W.K., the Battle Creek Sanitarium in Battle Creek, Michigan in 1866. J.H. Kellogg was a Seventh-day Adventist who incorporated Adventist principles, such as vegetarianism, into the sanitarium, but he was disfellowshipped from the church in 1907 over doctrinal differences. Dr. Kellogg is best known for his 1894 invention of corn flakes, which still bear his name.

War
U.S.S.R. forces stormed and took Cherkassy, the last major German stronghold on the middle Dnieper River. British units in Italy with bridgeheads on the Moro River joined forces to establish a combined holding about 5 miles long. Canadian Army Major Paul Triquet earned the Victoria Cross in capturing Casa Berardi, north of Moro. U.S. planes bombed Eleusis, Kalamaki, and Tatoi airfields and shipping at Piraeus, the port of Athens. U.S. Navy Secretary Frank Knox said that Pacific preliminaries were out of the way and preparations were being made for major blows against Japan.

Medicine
Courtland Professor of Biochemistry at University of London Dr. E.C. Dodds reported that the use of diethylstibestrol, a synthetic female hormone, made it possible to completely control cancer of the prostate gland.

Economics and finance
The U.S. War Production Board reported that war production in November had reached an an all-time high: an overall munitions gain of 3% in dollar values over October. The production index reached 665, a gain of 18 points over the previous month.

Labour
Police officers and firefighters in Montreal affiliated with the Canadian Labor Congress (CLC) went on strike, as members refused the ultimatum of public servants and councillors that included the recognition of a union of the Canadian Congress for Public Works Employees, but denied recognition firefighters and police. In exchange, they offered them as an alternative a salary increase of $ 500 on average. The strike ended on December 15 when the provincial government ordered Montreal's City Council to recognize the association of police officers and firefighters of the city of Montreal and their affiliation to the CLC.

70 years ago
1948


World events
A military coup in El Salvador deposed President Salvador Castaneda Castro, who had hoped to revise the country's constitution to allow himself a second four-year term.

Politics and government
The U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Un-American Activities claimed that Soviet agents in the United States government had had access to military secrets at the Army's Aberdeen, Maryland testing ground, including the famed Norden bomb sight, during the late 1930s.

Technology
American physicists Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann were awarded a patent for their cathode-ray tube amusement device, the first interactive electronic game.

Economics and finance
The Supreme Court of Canada lifted the ban on margarine.

Boxing
World lightweight champion Ike Williams was named the winner of the Edward J. Neil Memorial Plaque as the outstanding boxer of 1948.

Football
WIFU
The day after a meeting of enthusiasts had elected a board of directors and set a budget of $50,000, Edmonton was re-admitted to the Western Interprovincial Football Union. The Edmonton Eskimos had disbanded on October 27, 1939, the day before their last scheduled game, and hadn't played since, with an abortive revival in 1941 failing to result in any games.

60 years ago
1958


On television tonight
Alfred Hitchcock Presents, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Tea Time, starring Margaret Leighton, Marsha Hunt, and Murray Matheson

Defense
The China Lake (California) Naval Ordnance test station announced the development of a camera that could detect and track any new satellite that may appear.

Politics and government
The U.S.A., U.K., and France issued a formal rejection of U.S.S.R. demands that they withdraw their troops from West Berlin, and agreed to liquidation of the four-power Berlin occupation.

Exploration
The Third Soviet Antarctic Expedition became the first to reach the southern pole of inaccessibility.

Religion
Pope John XXIII formally designated 23 new members of the College of Cardinals, increasing membership to 74, the highest in history.

Labour
Eastern Airlines and the International Association of Machinists settled a strike of 5,000 mechanics in Miami by agreeing on a new contract providing raises of 26c-49c per hour over a three-year period.

50 years ago
1968


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Hey Jude/Revolution--The Beatles (11th week at #1)

#1 single in Rhodesia (Lyons Maid): Little Arrows--Leapy Lee (5th week at #1)

#1 single in France: Le Temps des Fleurs--Ivan Rebroff (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Applausi--I Camaleonti (7th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Heidschi Bumbeidschi--Heintje (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): The Good, the Bad and the Ugly--Hugo Montenegro, his Orchestra and Chorus (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Lily the Pink--The Scaffold

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): I Heard it Through the Grapevine--Marvin Gaye

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Eloise--Barry Ryan (2nd week at #1)
2 Lea--The Cats
3 Battle Hymn of the Republic--Andy Williams
4 Just a Little Bit of Peace in My Heart--Golden Earrings
5 Jerushala'im Shel Zahav--Rika Zarai
6 Red Red Wine--Peter Tetteroo
7 My Little Lady--The Tremeloes
8 Jezamine--The Casuals
9 White Room--Cream
10 Heidschi Bumbeidschi--Heintje

Singles entering the chart were Going Up the Country by Canned Heat (#24); Ome Sjakie/Het Hele Zakie Loopt in Z'n Nakie by De Praatpalen (#31); See Saw by Aretha Franklin (#38); and Send Me a Postcard by Shocking Blue (#40).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 For Once in My Life--Stevie Wonder
2 Love Child--Diana Ross and the Supremes
3 Abraham, Martin and John--Dion
4 Stormy--Classics IV
5 I Heard it Through the Grapevine--Marvin Gaye
6 Who's Making Love--Johnnie Taylor
7 Wichita Lineman--Glen Campbell
8 Chewy Chewy--Ohio Express
9 I Love How You Love Me--Bobby Vinton
10 Both Sides Now--Judy Collins

Singles entering the chart were I Started a Joke by the Bee Gees (#66); (There’s Gonna Be A) Showdown by Archie Bell & the Drells (#69); Electric Stories by the 4 Seasons (#71); My Favorite Things by Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass (#77); Are You Happy by Jerry Butler (#81); Malinda by Bobby Taylor & the Vancouvers (#83); Crimson and Clover by Tommy James and the Shondells (#86); A Minute of Your Time by Tom Jones (#88); She's a Lady by John Sebastian (#91); Tragedy by Brian Hyland (#92); The Beginning of My End by the Unifics (#93); Honey Do by the Strangeloves (#94); Take a Heart by Don Fardon (#95); Husbands and Wives by Wayne Newton (#97); and This Magic Moment by Jay and the Americans (#99).

Calgary's Top 10 (Glenn's Music)
1 Little Arrows--Leapy Lee (2nd week at #1)
2 Abraham, Martin and John--Dion
3 Hey Jude--The Beatles
4 Revolution--The Beatles
5 Chewy Chewy--Ohio Express
6 Beyond the Clouds--The Poppy Family
7 White Houses--Eric Burdon and the Animals
8 Quick Joey Small (Run Joey Run)--Kasenetz-Katz Singing Orchestral Circus
9 Wichita Lineman--Glen Campbell
10 Bang-Shang-A-Lang--The Archies
Pick hit of the week: Of a Dropping Pin--The Guess Who?

Diplomacy
Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Dayan met with U.S. President-elect Richard Nixon in Washington, and told the press that he was not worried about the possibility of Mr. Nixon reducing support for Israel, despite recommendations by adviser William Scranton calling for a "more even-handed" U.S. policy in the Middle East.

Terrorism
FLQ terrorists planted three bombs in Montréal; two were disarmed, one exploded.

Disasters
A train crash near Minsk left 13 people dead and 36 injured.

40 years ago
1978


Died on this date
Salvador de Madariaga, 92
. Spanish historian, diplomat, and politician. Professor Madariaga wrote books about the history of Latin America and other topics, but was best known as a pacifist, serving as chief of the Disarmament Section of the League of Nations. He was Spanish Ambassador to the U.S.A. (1931-1932) and France (1932-1934), and was a permanent delegate to the League of Nations (1931-1936). Prof. Madariaga was Spain's Minister of both Justice and Education from 1933-1936, but fled to England when the Spanish Civil War began. He co-founded the College of Europe in 1949, and returned to Spain in 1976, several months after the death of dictator Generalissimo Francisco Franco.

30 years ago
1988


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Sarah--Mauro Scocco (5th week at #1)

On television tonight
The Wonder Years, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Christmas

Television
The Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation (ERT) entertainment network ET3 was launched in Thessaloniki.

Diplomacy
Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat, responding to U.S. criticism that he hadn't gone far enough in his statement to the United Nations General Assembly in Geneva the previous day in promoting a peace agreement in the Middle East and denouncing terrorism, affirmed "the right of all parties," including Israel, "to exist in peace and security." U.S. President Ronald Reagan then announced that the PLO had met all U.S. conditions and authorized the U.S. State Department to enter a dialogue with the PLO. While worldwide response to the U.S. decision was mostly favourable, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir called the decision a "grave mistake."

Politics and government
U.S. Vice-President and President-elect George Bush named Clayton Yeutter, currently the trade representative in the administration of President Ronald Reagan, to be Secretary of Agriculture in the new administration.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the U.S. merchandise trade deficit had shrunken slightly to $10.35 million in October.

The Quebec National Assembly voted in favour of a law amending the province's income security policy, providing more benefits to people who were unable to work, while encouraging other recipients to work.

Business
CBS won an auction to televise major league baseball with a bid that paid the 26 teams nearly $1.1 billion through 1993.

25 years ago
1993


Died on this date
Myrna Loy, 88
. U.S. actress. Miss Loy, born Myrna Williams, had a career in theatre, cinema, and television spanning more than 50 years, and was best known for playing Nora Charles in the movie The Thin Man (1934) and five sequels through 1947. She died after years of declining health.

Jeff Alm, 25. U.S. football player. Mr. Alm was a defensive tackle with the University of Notre Dame and then with the Houston Oilers (1990-1993). He and his best friend Sean Lynch had dinner at a restaurant in the Houston area; afterward, Mr. Alm was driving while intoxicated and lost control of his convertible, throwing Mr. Lynch to his death down an embankment. Mr. Alm then phoned 911, took out a shotgun, fired two shots into the air, and then fatally shot himself in the head.

Abominations
Colorado District Court Judge Jeffrey Bayless issued a permanent injunction barring implementation of a law that would have forbidden communities from passing ordinances protecting sodomites from discrimination. Voters in Colorado had approved the anti-sodomite measure in a statewide referendum in 1992. The law would have had the effect of overturning existing pro-sodomite ordinances in Aspen, Boulder, and Denver. The Colorado Supreme Court had ruled in July 1993 that the law violated the U.S. Constitution's guarantee of equal protection of the law.

The day after ruling that gravely ill people with little prospect for recovery and a poor quality of life had the right to take their own lives, Wayne County, Michigan Circuit Court Judge Richard Kaufman dismissed charges against mad scientist "Dr." Jack Kevorkian for assisting in a suicide in September 1993.

Politics and government
Daniel Johnson was acclaimed leader of Quebec's Liberal Party. He would replace the retiring Robert Bourassa as party leader and Premier of Quebec.

Crime
Richard Barnabé, a Negro, was beaten by six Montréal police officers.

20 years ago
1998


Died on this date
Annette Strauss, 74
. U.S. philanthropist and politician. Mrs. Strauss was a well-known philanthropist in Dallas, and was elected to City Council in 1984, serving as the city's Mayor from 1987-1991. She died of cancer.

Norman Fell, 74. U.S. actor. Mr. Fell, born Norman Feld, was a character actor in movies and television programs in a career spanning more than 40 years. He was best known for playing landlord Stanley Roper in the television comedy series Three's Company (1977-1979) and its spinoff, The Ropers (1979-1980). Mr. Fell died after a brief bout with cancer.

A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., 70. U.S. judge. Judge Higginbotham served on various courts from 1964-1993. He was on the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit from 1977-1993, serving as the Court's Chief Judge from 1990-1991 and as Senior Judge from 1991-1993. Judge Higginbotham was a Negro who was a civil rights activist before becoming a judge, and issued a judicial opinion in 1974 that a judge should not be forced to recuse himself from a case solely because of his membership in a minority group. Judge Higginbotham died after a series of strokes.

War
The Yugoslav Army ambushed a group of Kosovo Liberation Army fighters attempting to smuggle weapons from Albania into Kosovo, killing 36.

Business
Canadian Minister of Finance Paul Martin prohibited Canada's banks from merging.

10 years ago
2008


Journalism
During a press conference in Baghdad, Iraqi journalist Muntadhar al-Zaidi threw his shoes at U.S. President George W. Bush, yelling that "this is for the widows and orphans and all those killed in Iraq." Mr. Bush was not hit by the shoes.

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