Saturday, 20 February 2021

February 20, 2021

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Maza Sellars!

590 years ago
1431


Died on this date
Martin V, 61-62 (?)
. Roman Catholic Pope, 1417-1431. Martin V, born Oddone Colonna, was created Cardinal-Deacon of San Giorgio in Velabro by Pope Innocent VII in 1405. He supported Antipope Alexander V and his successor Antipope John XXIII, and was excommunicated in 1411 by Pope Gregory XII. Cardinal-Deacon Colonna took part in the Council of Constance in 1415, leading to the deposition of John XXIII. He was elected Pope Martin V on November 11, 1417, was ordained a priest two days later, and was consecrated a bishop the day after that. Martin V was generally subservient to kings during his papacy, and authorized a crusade against Africa in 1418 that resulted in the sanctioning of Portugal's trade in slaves. Martin V died from a stroke, and was succeeded by Eugene IV.

175 years ago
1846


Protest
Polish insurgents in the Free City of Kraków led an uprising to incite a fight for national independence, which was put down by the Austrian Empire nine days later.

150 years ago
1871


Died on this date
Paul Kane, 60
. U.K.-born Canadian artist. Mr. Kane, a native of Ireland, moved with his family to York (now Toronto) as a child. He spent some years in the United States and Europe, returning to Canada in 1845. Mr. Kane traveled throughout western North America from 1846-1848, making more than 700 sketches, and producing more than 100 canvas paintings of Western scenes and people. He returned to Toronto permanently in 1848, and retired when his eyesight failed in the 1860s. Mr. Kane died in Toronto.

120 years ago
1901


Born on this date
Muhammad Naguib
. 1st President of Egypt, 1953-1954; Prime Minister of Egypt, 1954. Major General Naguib was a leader in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 and served as President until he was deposed by Gamal Abdul Nasser. He then spent 18 years under house arrest until being freed by President Anwar Sadat in 1972. Maj. Gen. Naguib died on August 28, 1984 at the age of 83.

Politics and government
The legislature of Hawaii Territory convened for the first time.

100 years ago
1921


Born on this date
Ruth Gipps
. U.K. composer. Dr. Gipps was a child prodigy on the oboe and piano who performed her first composition at the age of 8, and at the age of 26 became the youngest woman in Britain to receive a doctorate in music. She wrote five symphonies, numerous chamber works, concertos, piano pieces, and vocal and choral music. Dr. Gipps was discriminated against because she was a woman, but some of her compositions have been rediscovered and recorded since her death on February 23, 1999, three days after her 78th birthday.

90 years ago
1931


Protest
An anarchist uprising in Encarnación, Paraguay briefly transformed the city into a revolutionary commune.

Transportation
The U.S. Congress approved the construction of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge by the state of California.

80 years ago
1941


At the movies
Tobacco Road, directed by John Ford, and starring Charley Grapewin, Marjorie Rambeau, Gene Tierney, and William Tracy, received its premiere screening in New York City.



War
Japanese Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka denied that Japan had made a formal offer to mediate the European war, as announced the previous day in London. Meanwhile, a Tokyo newspaper said that Japan had warned Britain that a continutation of military activity in Southeast Asia may compel Japan to take counter-measures.

Diplomacy
U.K. Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden and General Sir John Dill arrived in Cairo to plan the next steps involving the Near East military and political situation.

Defense
Washington sources reported that U.S. Army General George Marshall had told a secret meeting of a Senate committee that new planes were being rushed to reinforce the air force in the Pacific. U.S. Senator Robert Reynolds (Democrat--North Carolina) denounced Lend-Lease as a step toward war. U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau said that he planned to issue about $2 billion in new taxable federal securities within the next two months to finance the defense program.

Politics and government
The Missouri General Assembly declared Forrest C. Donnell, a Republican, as Governor of Missouri, the day after the Missouri Supreme Court had ordered the Democratic-controlled legislature to seat him.

Labour
U.S. Office of Production Management Associate Director Sidney Hillman told the House of Representatives Judiciary Committee that anti-strike legislation in defense industries was unwise and may be harmful.

75 years ago
1946


Music
The Daughters of the American Revolution barred Eddie Condon's jazz band from DAR Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C. "because of the type of audience" that would attend the concert.

Religion
The World Council of Churches Provisional Committee conference opened in Geneva, with representatives of nearly 100 Protestant and Orthodox churches from 32 countries present to draft plans for a permanent world organization.

War
The hearings of the United States Senate committee on the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, concluded after accumulating nearly 15,000 pages of testimony. The committee promised to report to Congress by June 1, 1946.

Defense
The U.S.S.R. admitted gaining atomic information from Canadian citizens, but said that the information had been insignificant.

Terrorism
Zionist terrorists attacked police headquarters in Haifa and Tel Aviv and blew up a British Royal Air Force radar station at Mount Carmel.

Politics and government
Spokesmen in Lisbon for Spanish pretender to the throne Don Juan said that negotiations for Spanish dictator Generalissimo Francisco Franco' surrender of power had ended in failure.

World events
Austrian Chancellor Leopold Figl promised Austrian Jews full citizenship rights and restitution of their property stolen by the Nazis.

Law
The Allied Control Council in Germany drafted a new marriage law, repealing the Nazi law that banned "interracial" marriages and permitted political divorces.

Labour
The U.S. Employment Service began a nationwide canvass to find jobs for more than six million World War II veterans and others expected to seek employment through June 1946. U.S. Stabilization Director John C. Collet issued an order permitting wage increases without government approval until March 15, 1946, after which they would have to be submitted to the National Wage Stabilization Board.

70 years ago
1951


On television tonight
Suspense, on CBS
Tonight's episode: The Victims, starring Eileen Heckart and Stanley Ridges

Science
The American Museum of Natural History in New York reported that 18 nesting pairs of the cahow aka the Bermuda petrel, a sea bird believed to be extinct since the 1620s, had been found alive in Castle Harbour, Bemuda.

Economics and finance
A British Commonwealth consultative conference in Colombo, Ceylon decided that $2 billion in U.S. or other outside financing was needed to carry out the $5.5-billion Colombo Plan for economic development of South and Southeast Asian countries.

After a visit to Europe, U.S. Economic Cooperation Administrator William C. Foster said that Marshall Plan aid was being geared to defense requirements and Western Europe would try to increase industrial and farm output by $100 billion per year.

The U.S. National Production Authority cut the use of steel for passenger cars and other durable goods 20% below the average for the first half of 1950.

60 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Are You Lonesome To-night?--Elvis Presley (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Non, je ne regrette rien--Édith Piaf (6th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Calcutta--Lawrence Welk and his Orchestra (2nd week at #1)
2 Shop Around--The Miracles
3 Will You Love Me Tomorrow--The Shirelles
4 Pony Time--Chubby Checker
5 There's a Moon Out Tonight--The Capris
6 Calendar Girl--Neil Sedaka
7 Emotions--Brenda Lee
8 Exodus--Ferrante and Teicher
9 Dedicated to the One I Love--The Shirelles
10 Wheels--The String-A-Longs

Singles entering the chart were Surrender by Elvis Presley (#24); Hearts of Stone by Bill Black's Combo (#70); Asia Minor by Kokomo (#75); I Don't Want to Cry by Chuck Jackson (#76); Happy Birthday Blues by Kathy Young with the Innocents (#79); The Watusi by the Vibrations (#80); The Touchables by Dickie Goodman (#83); To Be Loved (Forever) by the Pentagons (#84); Let's Go Again (Where We were Last Night) by Hank Ballard and the Midnighters (#89); But I Do by Clarence "Frogman" Henry (#90); Orange Blossom Special by Billy Vaughn and his Orchestra (#96); Pony Express by Danny and the Juniors (#97); I Pity the Fool by Bobby Bland (#98); Top Forty, News, Weather and Sports by Mark Dinning (#99); and Dream Boy by Annette with the Afterbeats (#100).

Died on this date
Percy Grainger, 78
. Australian-born U.S. composer and pianist. Mr. Grainger’s works included Country Gardens; Irish Tune from County Derry; and Colonial Song. He also helped to invent the Free Music Machine, a forerunner of the modern electronic synthesizer.

Education
U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in a special message to Congress, proposed a $5.625-billion program of federal aid to education from public elementary school through college.

50 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in Rhodesia (Lyons Maid): I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Vent'anni--Massimo Ranieri (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (4th week at #1)

Australia's Top 10 (Go-Set)
1 My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (3rd week at #1)
2 The Pushbike Song--The Mixtures
3 I Think I Love You--The Partridge Family
4 Knock Three Times--Dawn
5 Eleanor Rigby--Zoot
6 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
7 Band of Gold--Freda Payne
8 A Song of Joy--Miguel Rios
9 My Baby's Gone--Axiom
10 Mr. America--Russell Morris

Singles entering the chart were Lotus 1 by Lotus (#50); Falling in Love Again by Ted Mulry (#54); That's Where I Went Wrong by the Poppy Family (#56); Be My Baby by Andy Kim (#57); He Ain't Heavy...He's My Brother by Neil Diamond (#58); and Good Feeling by Max Merritt and the Meteors (#60).

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Nothing Rhymed--Gilbert O'Sullivan (4th week at #1)
2 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
3 Bridget the Midget--Ray Stevens
4 Du--Peter Maffray
5 Holy Holy Life--Golden Earring
6 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
7 Rozie die Bloeien--Corry en de Rekels
8 Mother--John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band
9 Geef Mij de Liefde En....--De Twee Pinten
10 Hup Daar is Willem!--Ed en Willem Bever

Singles entering the chart were Vader Abraham Had Zeven Zonen by Vader Abraham met Z'n Zeven Zonen (#16); Your Song by Elton John (#25); Amazing Grace by Judy Collins (#27); Rainbow (I Love You) by the New Inspiration (#31); There's No More Corn on the Brasos by the Walkers (#32); Goin' Back to Indiana by the Jackson 5 (#33); Health of Freedom by Moan (#35); and Zig-Zag City by Dizzy Man's Band (#37).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds (2nd week at #1)
2 Knock Three Times--Dawn
3 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
4 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
5 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
6 Mama's Pearl--The Jackson 5
7 Groove Me--King Floyd
8 Sweet Mary--Wadsworth Mansion
9 Mr. Bojangles--Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
10 Lonely Days--Bee Gees

Singles entering the chart were What's Going On by Marvin Gaye (#81); Oye Como Va by Santana (#82); Free by Chicago (#85); Eighteen by Alice Cooper (#90); You're All I Need to Get By by Aretha Franklin (#91); Do Me Right by the Detroit Emeralds (#92); Tulsa by Billy Joe Royal (#95); and I Don't Know How to Love Him by Helen Reddy (#99). I Don't Know How to Love Him was a version of a song from the rock opera Jesus Christ Superstar (1970).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds (2nd week at #1)
2 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
3 Mama's Pearl--The Jackson 5
4 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
5 Sweet Mary--Wadsworth Mansion
6 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
7 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
8 Watching Scotty Grow--Bobby Goldsboro
9 Knock Three Times--Dawn
10 If I were Your Woman--Gladys Knight & the Pips

Singles entering the chart were What is Life by George Harrison (#46); You're All I Need to Get By by Aretha Franklin (#47); Oye Como Va by Santana (#49); Love's Lines, Angles and Rhymes by the 5th Dimension (#55); What's Going On by Marvin Gaye (#66); Free by Chicago (#71); Soul Power (Part 1) by James Brown (#77); The Look of Love by Isaac Hayes (#79); No Love at All by B.J. Thomas (#84); Ask Me No Questions by B.B. King (#88); Heavy Makes You Happy (Sha-Na-Boom Boom) by the Staple Singers (#93); Eighteen by Alice Cooper (#95); Maria (You were the Only One) by Jimmy Ruffin (#97); and Go On Fool by Marion Black (#98).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Record World)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
2 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
3 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
4 Mama's Pearl--The Jackson 5
5 Knock Three Times--Dawn
6 Watching Scotty Grow--Bobby Goldsboro
7 Lonely Days--Bee Gees
8 Mr. Bojangles--Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
9 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
10 Remember Me--Diana Ross

Singles entering the chart were Free by Chicago (#70); Love's Lines, Angles and Rhymes by the 5th Dimension (#77); Wild World by Cat Stevens (#81); Oye Como Va by Santana (#85); One Toke Over the Line by Brewer and Shipley (#87); You're All I Need to Get By by Aretha Franklin (#88); The Look of Love by Isaac Hayes (#89); The Morning of Our Lives by Arkade (#91); Ask Me No Questions by B.B. King (#93); We Can Make the World by Gravy (#96); Wild World by the Gentrys (#98); and Eighteen by Alice Cooper (#99).

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
2 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
3 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
4 Sing High, Sing Low--Anne Murray
5 Knock Three Times--Dawn
6 Lonely Days--Bee Gees
7 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
8 Mr. Bojangles--Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
9 Remember Me--Diana Ross
10 Stoney End--Barbra Streisand

Singles entering the chart were Children of the Sun by Mashmakhan (#93); Free by Chicago (#96); Covered Wagon by Danny O'Keefe (#97); Glory Glory by Smyle (#98); Blue Money by Van Morrison (#99); and Eighteen by Alice Cooper (#100).

Calgary's Top 10 (Glenn's Music)
1 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson (3rd week at #1)
2 Stay Awhile--The Bells
3 1900 Yesterday--Liz Damon's Orient Express
4 Born to Wander--Rare Earth
5 Your Song--Elton John
6 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
7 Theme from "Love Story--Francis Lai
8 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
9 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
10 Sweet Mary--Wadsworth Mansion
Pick hit of the week: I was Wondering--The Poppy Family

Defense
The United States Emergency Broadcast System was accidentally activated in an erroneous national alert.

Sport
At the World Weightlifting Championships in Columbus, Ohio, Vasili Alexeyev of the Soviet Union lifted 501¼ pounds in the clean and jerk to become the first man to lift at least 500 pounds in competition.

40 years ago
1981


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): När vi två blir en--Gyllene Tider (11th week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Reality--Richard Sanderson (4th week at #1)

South Africa's Top 10 (Springbok Radio)
1 Can You Feel It--The Jacksons
2 Passion--Rod Stewart
3 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
4 Love on the Rocks--Neil Diamond
5 The Tide is High--Blondie
6 I'm Alright--Kenny Loggins
7 Lady--Kenny Rogers
8 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon
9 A Lot of Things--Peach
10 Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre

The only single entering the chart was Shaddap You Face.

Died on this date
Nicolas de Gunzburg, 76
. French-born U.S. journalist and socialite. Baron de Gunzburg, a native of Paris, grew up in a wealthy banking family and spent most of his youth in England before returning to Paris, throwing lavish costume balls in the 1920s and early '30s. Using the name Julian West, he starred in the movie Vampyr (1932). Baron de Gunzburg found out after the death of his father in 1932 that the family fortune had been depleted, leading to his emigration to the United States in 1934. He arrived in New York City in 1936, and spent the rest of his life there as a magazine editor. Baron de Gunzburg was an editor at Harper's Bazaar; editor-in-chief of Town & Country; and, beginning in 1949, fashion editor at Vogue.

War
An assessment by the U.S. Defense Department said that the army of the government of El Salvador was so ill-prepared to fight the country’s Marxist guerrillas that it had no hope of defeating them. Because of that, U.S. Secretary of State Al Haig stated that it was even more important to cut off the flow of arms to that country from Cuba and the U.S.S.R.

Medicine
Dr. Genevieve Matanoski of the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health suggested a possible connection between chronic exposure to X-rays and an increased risk of fatal heart disease. In her study she found that the death rate from heart disease was 29% higher in radiologists than in eye doctors.

Religion
Pope John Paul II continued his tour of the Philippines with visits to Davao, Bacolod City, and Iloilo.

Hockey
NHL
Boston 5 @ Edmonton 1

30 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Crazy--Seal (2nd week at #1)

World events
The parliament of Slovenia approved amendments to its constitution that would invalidate all Yugoslav federal law in Slovenia. Slovenian President Milan Kucan said that Yugoslavia had "ceased to exist," and proposed immediate negotiations on the dissolution of the country.

Protest
A mob in Tirana brought down a gigantic statue of Albania's longtime dictator Enver Hoxha. Mr. Hoxha had ruled the country as Leader of the Party of Labour (i.e., Communist) from 1941 until his death on April 11, 1985 at the age of 76.

Energy
U.S. President George Bush announced a comprehensive national energy plan with the objectives of increasing domestic production and encouraging conservation while ensuring continued economic growth. He proposed to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and some otehr areas in Alaska to oil exploration, and to explore the outer continental shelf off California and in the Gulf of Mexico. The plan also emphasized nuclear power, increased spending on transportation technology, and efficiency standards for electric lights. Congressional critics said the plan did not focus enough on conservation or the use of renewable fuels.

Economics and finance
The United States Labor Department reported that consumer prices had risen 0.4% in January.

25 years ago
1996


Died on this date
Audrey Munson, 104
. U.S. model. Miss Munson is today regarded as "America's first supermodel;" she was the model for at least a dozen statues in New York City in the 1910s and most of the sculptures at the Panama–Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco in 1915. She appeared in four movies from 1915-1921, but her career ended after her landlord, Dr. Walter Wilkins, fell in love with her and murdered his wife. Miss Munson an her mother fled New York but were found in Toronto, where they were questioned. Miss Munson denied having anything to do with the murder, and was never charged with anything; however, her career was ruined. She attempted suicide in 1922, and in 1931 was committed by her mother to the St. Lawrence State Hospital for the Insane in Ogdensburg, New York, where she was treated for depression and schizophrenia for the next 65 years until her death, several years after suffering a stroke. She received no visitors at the asylum until a half-niece discovered her there in 1984.



Solomon Asch, 88. U.S. psychologist. Dr. Asch practiced in the field of social psychology, and was best known for his conformity experiments, in which he demonstrated the influence of group pressure on opinions.

Toru Takemitsu, 65. Japanese composer. Mr. Takemitsu composed several hundred works, including 90 film scores.

World events
The two sons-in-law of Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, who had defected in August 1995 with their families, returned to Iraq after being promised pardons. The were shot to death, allegedly by family members intent on restoring their tribe's honour.

Crime
The annual Carnival celebrations in Rio de Janeiro ended with a record 219 murders during the festival.

20 years ago
2001


Died on this date
Rosemary DeCamp, 90
. U.S. actress. Miss DeCamp appeared in movies, radio, and television programs in a career spanning more than 50 years. She had recurring roles in the television comedy series The Bob Cummings Show (1955-1959); That Girl (1966-1970); and The Partridge Family (1970-1973).

Politics and government
Former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak rejected Prime Minister Ariel Sharon’s offer to join his coalition government as Defense Minister, and resigned his seat in the Knesset.

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