Saturday, 20 February 2021

February 21, 2021

275 years ago

The Siege of Inverness ended with British forces surrendering to the Jacobite army.

230 years ago

Born on this date
Carl Czerny
. Austrian musician and composer. Mr. Czerny was a child prodigy who began playing piano at the age of 3 and composing at the age of 7. He studied under Ludwig van Beethoven, and premiered Mr. Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 1 (1806 ). Mr. Czerny had a successful career as a teacher of piano, with Franz Liszt as his most famous pupil. Mr. Czerny composed more than 1,000 works, including seven symphonies, masses, choral music, chamber music, and numerous works for piano. He died on July 15, 1857 at the age of 66.

220 years ago

Born on this date
John Henry Newman
. U.K. clergyman. Cardinal Newman was an Anglican priest who apostatized and joined the Roman Catholic Church in 1845. He was made a cardinal by Pope Leo XIII in 1879, and died on August 11, 1890 at the age of 89.

200 years ago

Born on this date
Charles Scribner I
. U.S. publisher. Mr. Scribner became the younger partner of Isaac Baker in the New York-based publishing firm Baker and Scribner in 1846, restricting its output to the works of contemporary authors. After Mr. Baker's death in 1850, Mr. Scribner renamed the firm Charles Scribner, and then Charles Scribner and Company. He partnered with Charles Welford in 1857 to form Scribner and Welford, importing foreign books. In 1865, Charles Scribner and Co. began publishing the magazine Hours at Home, which was merged into Scribner's Monthly in 1870. Mr. Scribner was travelling in Lucerne, Switzerland when he died of typhoid on August 26, 1871 at the age of 50; his firm eventually became known as Charles Scribner's Sons.

175 years ago

Died on this date
Ninkō, 45
. Emperor of Japan, 1817-1846. Ninkō, born Ayahito, acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father Kōkaku. Emperor Ninkō's reign included natural disasters, famine, corruption, and decline in the power of the Togukawa Shogunate. Emperor Ninkō was succeeded on the throne by his son Kōmei.

140 years ago

Born on this date
F.W. Ricketts, aka Kenneth J. Alford
. U.K. bandleader and composer. Mr. Ricketts, who composed under the name Kenneth J. Alford, was a British Army Bandmaster who was known as the "British March King." His best-known works were The Colonel Bogey March (1914) and The Voice of the Guns (1917). Mr. Ricketts died on May 15, 1945 at the age of 64.

130 years ago

Died on this date
James Timberlake, 44
. U.S. police officer. Mr. Timberlake was a deputy U.S. marshal in Missouri who was known for leading the campaign against the James-Younger Gang in the 1870s and 1880s. He died of an overdose of morphine that he was using to treat his insomnia.

A coal gas explosion in Springhill, Nova Scotia killed 129 miners.

125 years ago

In a bout that was billed as a fight for the world heavyweight title, Bob Fitzsimmons (50-2-3) knocked out Peter Maher (103-5-2) just 1:35 into the 1st round in a specially-constructed ring near Langtry, Texas, but actually near Coahuila de Zaragoza, Mexico. Defending champion Jim Corbett had recently announced his retirement.

100 years ago

World events
Rezā Shāh Pahlevi took control of Tehran during a successful coup d'état.

Politics and government
The Constituent Assembly of the Democratic Republic of Georgia adopted the country's first constitution.

Québec became the first Canadian province to establish government control of liquor; for a period of time Québec was the only jurisdiction in North America with no prohibition of alcohol.

80 years ago

Died on this date
Frederick Banting, 49
. Canadian physician. Sir Frederick, a native of Alliston, Ontario, shared the 1923 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with J.J.R. Macleod for the discovery of insulin. He died of wounds and exposure following the crash near Musgrave Harbour, Newfoundland of the plane he was aboard while en route to England to conduct operational tests on the Franks flying suit developed by his colleague Wilbur Franks.

The Japanese newspaper Chugai asserted that the United States "is preparing to resort to economic blockage operations against Japan."

The United States disclosed that it had backed Brazil's protest to Britain of the U.K.'s seizure of a French ship within the 300-mile safety zone off the Brazilian coast.

Politics and government
The U.S.S.R. announced that Maxim Litvinov, Paulina Semyonoyana Zhemchuzhina, N.M. Antselovich, F.A. Merkulov, and I.A. Likhachev had been dismissed from the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Chilean President Pedor Aguirre Cerda vetoed a bill outlawing the Communist Party.

U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt told a press conference that the previous day's reports that U.S. Army General George Marshall had told a secret meeting of a Senate committee that new planes were being rushed to reinforce the air force in the Pacific were inaccurate and injurious to national defense. Senator Burton K. Wheeler (Democrat--Montana) said that Mr. Roosevelt "wants to muzzle the press."

Dr. Ralph West Robey, who had led a National Manufacturers Association-sponsored survey, declared that a "substantial proportion" of social science textbooks were critical of the American form of government and free enterprise.

The U.S. National Labor Relations Board ordered Ford Motor Company to reinstate 142 employees with back pay from January 3, 1938 at its Richmond, California plant, and to cease discouraging membership in the Congress of Industrial Organizations United Auto Workers.

Tony Zale (47-15-2) retained his world middleweight title with a knockout of Steve Mamakos (25-8-1) 26 seconds into the 14th round at Chicago Stadium. Mr. Zale had won a 10-round decision over Mr. Mamakos in a non-title bout at Chicago Stadium six weeks earlier.

75 years ago

Died on this date
José Streel, 34
. Belgian journalist. Mr. Streel was a prominent member of the Rexist movement, which collaborated with the Nazis during World War II. He was executed by firing squad at the army barracks in Ixelles.

Eight World War II Finnish leaders were sentenced to prison in Helsinki for leading Finland into the war on Germany's side. The Soviet prosecution at the Nuremberg trial of accused Nazi war criminals charged that SS leader Heinrich Himmler had decided that only 30 million people should be left alive in Russia after Germany had won World War II.

At least 14 people were killed and 123 wounded as anti-British riots swept Egypt. British troops in Bombay fired on mobs as they looted and set up barricades after a mutiny of Indian sailors.

U.S. President Harry Truman said that plans to outlaw peacetime military training throughout the world were impractical. The U.S. Navy revealed that it would send a task force to the Arctic in March to test the operation of carrier planes in cold weather.

Politics and government
The U.S. House of Representatives passed the national school lunch bill and the Lea bill aimed at curbing "coercive" labour practices in the communications industry.

The United States Senate confirmed Federal Communications Commission Chairman Paul A. Porter as head of the Office of Price Administration.

70 years ago

Divorced on this date
U.S. actress Barbara Stanwyck was divorced from U.S. actor Robert Taylor in Los Angeles.

Canada announced plans to increase its Korean contingent from 1,000 to 5,000 men.

General Dwight D. Eisenhower arrived in Paris with his wife Mamie to assume his duties as Supreme Commander of NATO--Europe.

The U.S.A. and U.K., in a new effort to settle the Kashmir dispute, proposed that a new mediator be named and given three months to work out a solution.

Economics and finance
U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson rejected the British Commonwealth request for American participation in the Colombo Plan, noting that the U.S. had its own program of technical aid to South and East Asia.

N.Z. Prime Minister Sid Holland declared a state of emergency amid a waterfront strike involving thousands of workers.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Norway (VG-lista): Seemann--Lolita (6th week at #1)

On television tonight
Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond, hosted by John Newland, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Night of Decision, starring Robert Douglas, Richard Carlyle, and Donald Buka

Alfred Hitchcock Presents, on NBC
Tonight's episode: The Landlady, starring Dean Stockwell and Patricia Collinge

Thriller, hosted by Boris Karloff, on NBC
Tonight's episode: The Fingers of Fear, starring Nehemiah Persoff, Robert Middleton, and Kevin Hagen

Dr. Robert Gilruth, director of NASA’s Project Mercury, announced the selection of three men who would undergo training for the first U.S. manned mission. The three finalists were John Glenn, 39; Gus Grissom, 35; and Alan Shepard, 37. In fact, the decision had already been made in favour of Mr. Shepard, but NASA decided to keep the public in the dark.

At Cape Canaveral, Florida, the United States launched Mercury-Atlas 2, an unmanned test of the Mercury capsule that was designed for manned flight. The empty one-ton capsule was subjected to the worst conditions it could be expected to meet on an orbital flight. Recovered by a helicopter, the capsule was said to have come through in excellent condition. Project Mercury director Robert Gilruth said that the interior temperature of the capsule had not exceeded 90 F. and that a man apparently could have lived through the test.

World events
President Moise Tshombe of the secessionist Congolese province of Katanga denounced the United Nations Security Council’s authorization of UN troops to use force if necessary to prevent civil war in Congo. Mr. Tshombe ordered general mobilization of his forces to keep the UN force from carrying out the Council’s resolution.

Cassius Clay (5-0) scored a technical knockout of Donnie Fleeman (35-12-1) at the Miami Beach Auditorium in Miami Beach, Florida when Mr. Fleeman suffered a rib injury and was unable to continue when the bell rang to begin the 7th round. Mr. Clay was well ahead on points on all three cards. It was the last professional fight for Mr. Fleeman.

50 years ago

Died on this date
Hemantha Kumar Bose
. Indian politician. Mr. Bose, chairman of the All India Forward Bloc, was murdered in Calcutta.

Brazilian diplomat Aloysio Mares Dias Gomide, kidnapped by Tupamaros guerrillas in July 1970, was released after Uruguay complied with the kidnappers’ demands to restore civil liberties, which had been suspended after the January kidnapping of British Ambassador Geoffrey Jackson, who was still their captive. Earlier, Mr. Dias Gomide’s wife had paid a ransom of more than US$250,000 for his release.

The Convention on Psychotropic Substances was signed in Vienna.

40-50 tornadoes ripped through scores of small towns in Mississippi, North Carolina, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Ohio, killing more than 100 people and leaving 2,300 homeless.

Michel Plasse of the Kansas City Blues scored into an empty net to clinch a win over the Oklahoma City Blazers, thus becoming the first professional goalie in North America to score a goal.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Anna Dai Capelli Rossi--I Ragazzi Dai Capelli Rossi (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Stars on 45--Stars on 45 (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland: (Just Like) Imagine--John Lennon (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Vienna--Ultravox

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Stars on 45--Stars on 45
2 Shine Up--Doris D and the Pins
3 If You Could Read My Mind - Special U.S. Disco-Mix--Viola Wills
4 Amoureux Solitaires/Dis Moi que Tu M'aimes--Lio
5 Funkin' for Jamaica (N.Y.)--Tom Browne
6 Flip Fluitketel/Er Staat Een Paard in de Gang--André Van Duin
7 Ik Wil Op M'n Kop Een Kamerbreed Tapijt--Barry Hughes & De Kwaffeurs
8 Embarrassment--Madness
9 Imagine--John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band
10 Net as Gisteren--Normaal

Singles entering the chart were In the Air Tonight by Phil Collins (#31); Hold on to Love by Patty Brard (#34); The Eyes of Jenny by Sandy Coast (#37); and Dreamer (Live) by Supertramp (#38).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
2 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
3 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
4 Woman--John Lennon
5 The Tide is High--Blondie
6 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
7 The Best of Times--Styx
8 Giving it Up for Your Love--Delbert McClinton
9 Same Old Lang Syne--Dan Fogelberg
10 Hey Nineteen--Steely Dan

Singles entering the chart were Angel of the Morning by Juice Newton (#70); I Love You by Climax Blues Band (#80); Wasn't That a Party by the Rovers (#81); Theme from Raging Bull (Cavalleria Rusticana) by Joel Diamond (#83); Who Do You Think You're Foolin' by Donna Summer (#84); Ch Ch Cherie by the Johnny Average Band featuring Nikki Wills (#86); It's My Job by Jimmy Buffett (#87); Love on the Airwaves by Night (#88); Games by Phoebe Snow (#89); and Bon Bon Vie (Gimme the Good Life) by T.S. Monk (#90).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
2 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
3 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
4 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
5 The Tide is High--Blondie
6 Woman--John Lennon
7 Same Old Lang Syne--Dan Fogelberg
8 Passion--Rod Stewart
9 The Best of Times--Styx
10 Giving it Up for Your Love--Delbert McClinton

Singles entering the chart were Angel of the Morning by Juice Newton (#68); Wasn't That a Party by the Rovers (#81); Being with You by Smokey Robinson (#82); Who Do You Think You're Foolin' by Donna Summer (#84); Keep this Train a-Rollin' by the Doobie Brothers (#85); Medley: Yesterday Once More/Nothing Remains the Same by the Spinners (#86); It's a Love Thing by the Whispers (#89); Let Me Go by the Rings (#93); and Burn Rubber (Why You Wanna Hurt Me) by the Gap Band (#97).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Record World)
1 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
2 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
3 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
4 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
5 The Tide is High--Blondie
6 Woman--John Lennon
7 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
8 Passion--Rod Stewart
9 Same Old Lang Syne--Dan Fogelberg
10 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon

Singles entering the chart were Being with You by Smokey Robinson (#78); Angel of the Morning by Juice Newton (#80); Wasn't That a Party by the Rovers (#82); All American Girls by Sister Sledge (#87); Medley: Yesterday Once More/Nothing Remains the Same by the Spinners (#88); and Who Do You Think You're Foolin' by Donna Summer (#89).

#1 single in Canada (RPM): The Tide is High--Blondie (3rd week at #1)

Vancouver's Top 10 (CFUN)
1 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
2 Turn Me Loose--Loverboy
3 Wasn't That a Party--The Rovers
4 Hey Nineteen--Steely Dan
5 I Ain't Gonna Stand for It--Stevie Wonder
6 Teacher Teacher--Rockpile
7 Every Woman in the World--Air Supply
8 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
9 Looking for Clues--Robert Palmer
10 Stealin' the Night--J.C. Stone

Singles entering the chart were Crying by Don McLean (#28); Hearts on Fire by Randy Meisner (#29); and Just Between You and Me by April Wine (#30).

Leaders of the Marxist guerrillas in El Salvador said that they were short of arms, but that they were trying to re-equip themselves by buying on the black market. They refused to admit that some of their arms had come from Communist countries.

U.S. Vice President George Bush announced the establishment of a task force to coordinate federal efforts to aid Atlanta’s investigation into the murders of young Negro men in that city. 17 bodies of boys between the ages of 7 and 15 had been found in recent months, and one boy was still reported missing.

Pope John Paul II continued his tour of the Philippines with visits to Legazpi City and a refugee camp at Morong before returning to Manila.

The owners and builders of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor in Pennsylvania settled the claims of thousands of people resulting from the evacuation of the area after an accident at the plant in 1979. The claimants all lived within a 25-mile radius of the plant, and the settlement totalled $25 million. Most of the money would be paid for business losses incurred during the evacuation.

Minnesota 3 @ Toronto 5
Detroit 1 @ Montreal 4
Edmonton 5 @ Winnipeg 1

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Do the Bartman--The Simpsons (5th week at #1)

Died on this date
Margot Fonteyn, 71
. U.K. dancer. Dame Margot, born Margaret Hookham, was the prima ballerina with the Royal Ballet in a career that spanned more than 40 years. She married Panamanian diplomat Roberto Arias in 1955, and was briefly detained in Panama in 1959 after the couple participated in an unsuccessful coup attempt against Panamanian President Ernesto de la Guardia. Mr. Arias became a quadriplegic after he was shot in 1964, and Dame Margot cared for him until his death in 1989. She died after a long battle with ovarian cancer.

World events
The parliament of Croatia passed legislation asserting a veto power over all Yugoslavian federal laws that applied to that republic. Croatia also passed legislation that barred the federal government of Yugoslavia from declaring a state of emergency in Croatia without the republic’s permission to use federal security forces in Croatia.

The Soviet Union announced that Iraq had agreed to its peace proposal. U.S. President George Bush still had "serious concerns" about several points in the plan. The estimate of the number of Iraqi tanks destroyed in the Gulf War so far was put at 2,100.

Politics and government
Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa said that his province would not hold a referendum on sovereignty in 1991, despite such a proposal by the co-chairmen of the Belanger-Campeau commission that was studying Quebec’s future. Mr. Bourassa said that federalism must be given another chance, adding that the people weren’t yet ready to make a decision on sovereignty and that a referendum should wait until at least 1992.

25 years ago

Died on this date
Morton Gould, 82
. U.S. composer. Mr. Gould composed scores for radio and television programs, Broadway plays, and movies, as well as numerous works commissioned by orchestras. He served as president of the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) from 1986-1994.

Politics and government
Yasser Arafat was sworn in as president of the Palestinian Council's executive.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Bernard Nathanson, 84
. U.S. physician and activist. Dr. Nathanson was an obstetrician/gynecologist in New York City who performed about 60,000 abortions from the 1950s through the 1970s. He was the director of the Center for Reproductive and Sexual Health (CRASH)--then the largest freestanding abortion facility in the world--and, in 1969, co-founded the National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws (NARAL), helping to devise the slogans still used by the pro-abortion movement today. When Dr. Nathanson began to use ultrasound in his practice in the 1970s, he realized that abortion was murder, and by the end of the decade had become an anti-abortion advocate, expressing his views in the books Aborting America (1979); The Abortion Papers: Inside the Abortion Mentality (1983); and The Hand of God: A Journey from Death to Life by the Abortion Doctor Who Changed His Mind (1996) and documentary films The Silent Scream (1984) and Eclipse of Reason (1987). He was an atheist Jew for most of his life, but converted to Roman Catholicism in 1996. Dr. Nathanson died of cancer.

Deep cracks opened in Moammar Gadhafi's regime, with Libyan government officials at home and abroad resigning, air force pilots defecting and a major government building ablaze after clashes in the capital of Tripoli.

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