Sunday, 28 February 2021

March 1, 2021

1,030 years ago
991


Died on this date
En'yū, 31
. Emperor of Japan, 969-984. En'yū, born Morihira-shinnō, succeeded his uncle Reizei on the Chrysanthemum Throne. He abdicated at the age of 26, and became a Buddhist priest.

240 years ago
1781


Politics and government
The U.S. Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation.

210 years ago
1811

World events

Muhammad Ali Pasha, Wali of the Ottoman province of Egypt, killed the leaders of the Mamluk Sultanate to seize power, founding a dynasty that would last until 1952.

140 years ago
1881


Politics and government
Hayter Reed appointed Canadian Indian Agent at Battleford, Northwest Territories.

Business
Henry Birks opened a larger jewellery store on St. James Street in Montreal.

125 years ago
1896


War
An Ethiopian army defeated an outnumbered Italian force in the Battle of Adwa, ending the First Italo-Ethiopian War.

Science
Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity.

120 years ago
1901


Defense
The Australian Army was formed.

110 years ago
1911


Died on this date
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, Jr., 58
. Dutch-born chemist. Dr. van 't Hoff taught at the University of Amsterdam for 18 years, and eventually moved to Germany. He was regarded as one of the founders of physical chemistry, and was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1901 "[for his] discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions." Dr. van 't Hoff died of tuberculosis.

100 years ago
1921


Born on this date
Terence Cooke
. U.S. Roman Catholic cardinal. Rev. Cooke was Archbishop of New York from 1968 until his death; he was elevated to the cardinalate in 1969. Cardinal Cooke was a strong pro-life advocate, and was especially forceful in expressing such views while dying of leukemia. He died on October 6, 1983 at the age of 62.

Protest
Following mass protests in Petrograd demanding greater freedom in the Russia, the Kronstadt rebellion began, with sailors and citizens taking up arms against the Bolsheviks.

90 years ago
1931


At the movies
Dracula, directed by George Melford, and starring Carlos Villarías and Lupita Tovar, opened in theatres in Havana.



80 years ago
1941


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Frenesi--Artie Shaw and his Orchestra (11th week at #1)

Radio
W47NV began operations in Nashville, Tennessee, becoming the first FM radio station in the United States.

War
German troops occupied Varna and Sofia. German military authorities fined the city of Amsterdam $8 million as a penalty for disorders against the Nazi occupation. The Soviet Navy newspaper Red Fleet reported that Japan had been secretly building a fleet to be used in the event of a war against the United States.

Defense
Bulgarian Prime Minister Bogdan Philov signed the Tripartite Pact in Vienna, allying Hungary with the Axis powers.

The United States Senate approved a $15,000 appropriation for a seven-man committee, to be led by Sen. Harry Truman (Democrat--Missouri), to probe the defense spending program.

Communications
Overseas and transcontinental shortwave circuits and telephone communications were disrupted by sunspot activity in the worst magnetic storm since April 1940.

Horse racing
Bay View, a 58-1 longshot, won the $100,000 Santa Anita Handicap, earning $89,360.

75 years ago
1946


War
Ferenc Szalasy, leader of the Hungarian fascist "Arrow Cross" movement, was sentenced to death with six of his former cabinet members in Budapest for treason. U.S.S.R. forces prevented Iranian troops from occupying three towns in eastern Iran that the Soviets had supposedly evacuated.

Politics and government
Panama adopted a new constitution, replacing the one introduced by former President Arnulfo Arias.

Indonesian Nationalist Premier Sutan Sjahrir resigned in a dispute with President Sukarno over broadening the cabinet, but was renamed by the central committee to form a new cabinet.

Diplomacy
U.S. delegate to the United Nations John Foster Dulles said in a speech in Philadelphia, "It is particularly hard to find ways of working together with the Soviet Union, for it seems not to want cooperation."

The U.S. State Department revealed that the United Kingdom had accepted its proposals on Spain.

Economics and finance
The Bank of England Act 1946 came into force, a measure by the Labour Party government of Prime Minister Clement Attlee to nationalize the bank.

Business
The New York State Supreme Court awarded Donald Flamm $350,000 for being coerced by the United States Commerce Department to sell a radio station.

70 years ago
1951


Diplomacy
The United Nations Palestine Conciliation Commission set up a Jerusalem office under Holgar Andersen of Denmark to handle questions affecting the rights and property of Palestinian refugees.

India opposed United Nations plans for appointing a new Kashmir mediator, saying that peace plans already adopted would work if Pakistan stopped menacing Kashmir with threats of an Islamic holy war.

Protest
The Brazilian Army put down rioting in Sao Luis, where political opponents attempted to prevent the inauguration of Eugenio de Barros was Governor of Marannao State.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Commerce Department barred all shipments to Soviet bloc nations without a license.

Labour
Representatives of the U.S.A.'s railroads and 15 unions agreed on a 12½c hourly pay raise plus cost-of-living adjustments after workers ended their wildcat strike.

60 years ago
1961


Politics and government
Uganda became self-governing; the first direct elections to the Legislative Council were held on March 23.

U.S. President John F. Kennedy addressed various issues at a news conference in Washington.



Americana
U.S. President Kennedy signed an executive order establishing, on a temporary pilot basis, the Peace Corps, which he described as "a pool of trained men and women sent overseas by the United States Government or through private institutions and organizations to help foreign countries meet their urgent needs for skilled manpower." On the same day, Mr. Kennedy sent a message to Congress urging the establishment of a permanent Peace Corps. He said at a press conference, "It is our hope to have between 500 and 1,000 people in the field by the end of this year, " and noted that the cost of the program for fiscal 1961 would be paid from funds already appropriated for foreign aid.

Education
At the same press conference where he spoke about the Peace Corps, U.S. President John F. Kennedy addressed the denial of federal government aid to parochial and other sectarian schools, saying, "There isn’t any room for debate on that subject. It is prohibited by the Constitution, and the Supreme Court has made that very clear." Members of the U.S. Roman Catholic hierarchy, meeting in Washington, decided to oppose the school aid program unless it included aid to parochial schools. They pressed for an amendment to provide long-term low-interest federal loans to private schools, which they held would be "strictly within the framework of the Constitution."



50 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Shiretoko Ryojō--Tokiko Kato

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison

Terrorism
A bomb exploded in the United States Capitol building in Washington, D.C. that caused $300,000 in damage but injured no one. The Weather Underground terrorist movement claimed credit for the bombing, supposedly to protest the U.S. invasion of Laos. U.S. President Richard Nixon said the Capitol would remain open to the public.

Defense
In a reversal of party policy, the U.K. Conservative government of Prime Minister Edward Heath announced that it would withdraw from the Persian Gulf in 1971, in line with the preceding Labour government’s plan to leave the area as part of Britain’s east-of-Suez Canal troop withdrawal.

Politics and government
Bill Davis was sworn in as Premier of Ontario, succeeding John Robarts as head of the province's Progressive Conservative government.

Pakistani President Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan indefinitely postponed the pending national assembly session because of disagreement over a proposed new constitution, precipitating massive civil disobedience in East Pakistan.

10 days of voting began in India’s parliamentary elections. The New Congress Party, led by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, was the incumbent government.

Labour
As many as 1.5 million workers in the U.K. walked off the job for the day to protest the government’s new industrial relations bill.

40 years ago
1981


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Woman--John Lennon

#1 single in Switzerland: Life is for Living--Barclay James Harvest

Austria's Top 10 (Ö3)
1 Stop the Cavalry--Jona Lewie
2 Angel of Mine--Frank Duval & Orchestra
3 Some Broken Hearts Never Mend--Telly Savalas
4 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon
5 Super Trouper--ABBA
6 Felicidad (Margherita)--Boney M.
7 Imagine--John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band
8 Love Will Tear Us Apart--Chuzpe
9 Lies--Status Quo
10 More than I Can Say--Leo Sayer

Singles entering the chart were Love Will Tear Us Apart; Lies; and Never Knew Love Like This Before by Stephanie Mills (#19).

Crime
Irish Republican Army member and convicted terrorist Bobby Sands began a hunger strike in Maze Prison, near Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Oil
Alberta cut oil production to protest the energy policy of the federal government of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. The federal government replied by a compensation charge as Energy Minister Marc Lalonde matched Alberta cutbacks by the so-called Lougheed Levy to subsidize imports.

Economics and finance
The government of Poland cut sugar rations by half and announced that it would institute meat rationing on April 1.

30 years ago
1991


Died on this date
Edwin Land, 81
. U.S. inventor. In 1932, Mr. Land co-founded the company that became Polaroid Corporation. He was best known for inventing a camera that processed photographs within the camera and delivered the prints within 60 seconds.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the index of leading economic indicators had declined 0.4% from January. With revisions in previous data, this marked the sixth straight monthly decline.

Business
Maclean-Hunter sold CHCH-TV in Hamilton to WIC Western International Communications for $46 million.

Labour
Nearly 200,000 coal miners went on strike in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Russia, demanding higher pay. The strike spread and soon included a demand by the miners that Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev resign.

Disasters
More than 160 Somali refugees, fleeing their war-torn country, drowned when their overcrowded dhow ran aground several hundred yards from shore off Kenya.

25 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Spaceman--Babylon Zoo (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): How Deep is Your Love--Take That

Basketball
NBA
Dallas 119 @ Vancouver 111

The Mavericks set an NBA record for 3-point field goal attempts in a game, attempting 44 (16 successful) in their victory over the Grizzlies before 15,656 fans at Pacific Coliseum.

20 years ago
2001


Terrorism
Nearly five months after being abducted, seven foreign oil workers--four Americans, and one each from New Zealand, Chile, and Argentina--were freed in a jungle region of Ecuador. The seven men had been taken from an oilfield owned by the Spanish-Argentinian company Repsol YPF. Their employers paid a ransom of $13 million.

Economics and finance
The U.S. unemployment rate in February stood at 4.2%. Consumer prices had increased 0.3% over January, while producer prices had increased 0.1%. The index of leading economic indicators had declined 0.2% from January.

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