Friday, 31 January 2020

February 1, 2020

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Snejka!

1,170 years ago
850


Died on this date
Ramiro I, 60 (?)
. King of Asturias, 842-850. Ramiro I, the son of King Bermudo I, was away from Asturias (a kingdom in the Iberian peninsula) when he was chosen by King Alfonso II as his successor. King Alfonso's son-in-law Nepotian claimed the throne in Ramiro's absence, but Ramiro defeated him in battle, and had him blinded and interned in a monastery. King Ramiro I had to fend off attacks from Vikings and Moors during his reign. He was succeeded on the throne by his son Ordoño I.

330 years ago
1690


Born on this date
Francesco Maria Veracini
. Italian composer. Mr. Veracini was a violinist who was best known for his violin sonatas. He also wrote violin concertos, recorder sonatas, and orchestral suites, and has been described as heralding the end of the Baroque era. Mr. Veracini died on October 31, 1768 at the age of 78.

270 years ago
1750


Died on this date
Bakar, 50
. Georgian royal family member. Prince Bakar, the son of King Vakhtang VI of Kartli (eastern Georgia), was regent of Kartli from 1716-1719 while his father was absent at the Safavid court of Persia. Prince Bakar followed his father into exile in Russia in 1724, serving in the Russian diplomatic service and rising to the rank of lieutenant-general in the Army. He died in Moscow.

230 years ago
1790

Law

The Supreme Court of the United States convened for the first time, in New York City.

150 years ago
1870


Born on this date
Erik Adolf von Willebrand
. Finnish physician. Dr. von Willebrand, head of medicine at Deaconess Hospital in Helsinki from 1908-1933, made major contributions to hematology. He identified a bleeding disorder that was distinct from hemophilia, which became known as von Willebrand disease. The disease was caused by a a deficiency of a protein, now known as von Willebrand factor. Dr. von Willebrand died on September 12, 1949 at the age of 79.

130 years ago
1890


Born on this date
Nikolai Reek
. Estonian military officer and politician. Lieutenant General Reek was the Estonian military commander during the Estonian War of Independence (1918-1920) and Minister of War from 1939-1940 until Estonia was conquered and occupied by the U.S.S.R. He was arrested and imprisoned by Soviet authorities in 1941, and was executed at Ussolye, Perm Oblast on May 8, 1942 at the age of 52.

125 years ago
1895


Born on this date
Conn Smythe
. Canadian hockey executive and military officer. Mr. Smythe served with the Canadian Army in both word wars, winning the Military Cross in World War I and rising to the rank of acting major in World War II. He bought the Toronto St. Patricks of the National Hockey League in 1927, changed their name to Maple Leafs, and coached the team for the next three seasons and a few games afterward, compiling a regular season record of 58-57-20 and a playoff record of 2-2. The Maple Leafs won eight Stanley Cup championships during his years as owner. After selling his shares in the Maple Leafs to his son Stafford, Harold Ballard, and John Bassett, Mr. Smythe served as chairman of the Hockey Hall of Fame until 1971, and was inducted into the Hall in 1958. He was a successful owner of racehorses, including two Queen's Plate winners, and was inducted into the Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame in 1977. Mr. Smythe died on November 18, 1980 at the age of 85, after several years of declining health.

Frank Lane. U.S. football player and sports official and executive. "Trader" Lane played guard with the Cincinnati Celts with the professional Ohio League in the 1910s, and umpired baseball and refereed college basketball and football games before entering professional baseball with the Cincinnati Reds in 1933 as business manager, running their farm system by 1937. After serving with the U.S. Navy in World War II, he managed the Kansas City Blues of American Association and supervised the New York Yankees' farm system in 1946, and was President of the American Association from November 1946 until becoming the general manager of the Chicago White Sox after the 1948 season. Mr. Lane was general manager of the White Sox (1948-1955); St. Louis Cardinals (1956-1957); Cleveland Indians (1958-1960); Kansas City Athletics (1961); and Milwaukee Brewers (1971-1972), trading almost 700 players in more than 400 transactions. He made more than 200 trades during his years with the White Sox, building the team into a contender and laying the foundation for the team that won the American League pennant in 1959. Mr. Lane had less success with his trades in his later GM positions, often seeming to make trades for the sake of making trades. He was fired in Kansas City after less than eight months on the job, and his dispute with Athletics' owner Charlie Finley over his compensation dragged on for several yers, and he eventually won. While in forced inactivity from baseball during his dispute with Mr. Finley, Mr. Lane was general manager of the Chicago Zephyrs of the National Basketball Association (1962-63), but stayed behind when the team moved to Baltimore to become the Bullets. He served as a scout with the Baltimore Orioles from the mid-1960s until joining the Brewers. After two years as general manager, Mr. Lane was demoted to a scouting job with the Brewers; he then served as a scout with the Texas Rangers and California Angels, and was a consultant for the San Diego Padres in 1980 before he fell and broke his hip. He died on March 19, 1981 at the age of 86.

Environment
Fountains Valley, Pretoria, the oldest nature reserve in Africa, was proclaimed by President Paul Kruger.

120 years ago
1900


Politics and government
Raymond Préfontaine was re-elected Mayor of Montréal. After winning by acclamation in 1898, he received 6,217 votes to 3,095 for challenger William Doran.

100 years ago
1920


Born on this date
Mike Scarry
. U.S. football player and coach. Mr. Scarry was a center and tackle at Waynesburg College before playing with the Cleveland Rams (1944-1945), helping them to win the National Football League championship in 1945. When the Rams moved to Los Angeles in 1946, he elected to remain in Cleveland, and joined the Browns of the new All-America Football Conference. Mr. Scarry played with the Browns in 1946 and 1947, helping them win the first two of their four straight AAFC championships. He then went into coaching, as an assistant coach at three different universities, and head coach at Western Reserve University (1948-1949); Loras College (1952-1953); and Waynesburg College (1963-1965). Mr. Scarry was defensive line assistant coach with the Washington Redskins (1966-1968), and was a scout for various professional teams in 1969. He then joined the Miami Dolphins, serving as defensive line coach under head coach Don Shula (1970-1985), helping the Dolphins to consecutive Super Bowl championship seasons in 1972 and 1973. Mr. Scarry was a volunteer assistant coach with the Dolphins after his retirement, and died on September 9, 2012 at the age of 92.

80 years ago
1940


On the radio



Died on this date
Philip Francis Nowlan, 51
. U.S. author. Mr. Nowlan was a science fiction writer who created the character Buck Rogers in his novella Armageddon 2419 A.D. (1928). The Buck Rogers comic strip ran from 1929-1967. Mr. Nowlan died from a stroke.

War
Soviet forces launched a large assault against Finnish defenses along the Mannerheim Line. Kyosti Kollio, Finnish parliament President, stated his country's willingness to reach a peace agreement with the U.S.S.R. United Mine Workers of American President John L. Lewis claimed that American labour would oppose any U.S. war participation.

Defense
The United States Army tested a new cannon-carrying pursuit plane, travelling up to 400 miles per hour, at Bolling Field, near Anacostia, Maryland.

Economics and finance
The Japanese Diet received a record budget request of 10.282 billion yen, of which 4.460 billion were for the military.

U.S. Senators Robert Wagner (Democrat--New York) and Walter George (Democrat--Georgia) introduced legislation seeking $10 million for rural hospital construction.

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Chairman Jerome Frank urged the creation of a private agency, federally funded, to make loans for small business expansion.

U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt sent the nominations of Marriner Eccles and Chester Davis to the Senate for renomination to the Federal Reserve Board.

75 years ago
1945


Literature
The Thurber Carnival by James Thurber was published.

Abominations
A Communist "People's Tribunal" in Bulgaria executed former Prince Regent Kiril, 49; former Prime Minister and Regent Professor Bogdan Filov; General Nikola Mikhov; and 22 former cabinet ministers, 9 royal advisers, and 67 members of parliament.

War
The U.S. House of Representatives passed and sent to the Senate the May-Bailey bill providing "limited national service" for men aged 18-45. U.S. forces in Germany found little resistance on the Siegfried Line, recording advances of up to 2 miles. Soviet troops in eastern Germany gained 12 miles, reaching Liebenow.

Politics and government
The United States Senate passed the George bill separating lending agencies from the Commerce Department.

70 years ago
1950


On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Ben Wright and Eric Snowden, on ABC
Tonight’s episode: The Case of the Frightened Matriarch

The Casebook of Gregory Hood, starring Jackson Beck, on ABC

War
The U.S.S.R. accused Emperor Hirohito of Japan of responsibility for germ warfare in World War II, and demanded that he be tried by an international war crimes court. The Western Allies refused.

Politics and government
John Bowlen was installed as Lieutenant-Governor of Alberta, succeeding John Bowen.

The United Kingdom informed the United Nations Trusteeship Council that it had established a provincial council in its trust territory of Tanganyika, and allowed the creation of local governments there for the first time.

The U.S. Senate voted 64-27 to adopt a constitutional amendment to elect presidents and vice presidents by dividing the electoral votes of a state among candidates in proportion to their popular votes in that state.

Earl Warren announced that he would run for an unprecedented third term as Governor of California.

Defense
Israel ordered all men aged 18-49 and women aged 15-34 to register as military reservists.

USS Missouri, the only remaining active battleship in the U.S. fleet, was towed free from a sandbar in Chesapeake Bay after being grounded for two weeks.

Transportation
U.S. President Harry Truman asked Congress to authorize unification of Panama Canal operations under the Panama Canal Company, as urged by the Hoover Commission on Executive Organization.

Society
Yale University anthropologist George Murdock, addressing a meeting of the American Social Hygiene Association in New York, predicted that "within three generations" society would accept pre-marital sexual experimentation as a valuable aid in picking a mate. He urged the Protestant church to take the lead in such a "reform."

Economics and finance
The Organization for European Economic Cooperation asked member countries to abolish quotas on 60% of their imports within two months and on 75% of their imports by July 1950. Britain's opposition prevented the Council from completing an agreement on a system of free exchange of European currencies.

Labour
New York State ordered coal rationing to public utilities and other large users as the miners' strike continued.

Economist Arthur Lipsett concluded a survey of U.S. labour strength by estimating the net worth of the nation's unions at $3 billion-$4 billion.

60 years ago
1960


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): La Montaña--Lucho Gatica (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Le marchand de bonheur--Les Compagnons de la chanson (12th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Running Bear--Johnny Preston (3rd week at #1)
2 Teen Angel--Mark Dinning
3 El Paso--Marty Robbins
4 Where or When--Dion and the Belmonts
5 Go, Jimmy, Go--Jimmy Clanton
6 Why--Frankie Avalon
7 Handy Man--Jimmy Jones
8 The Big Hurt--Miss Toni Fisher
9 Way Down Yonder in New Orleans--Freddie Cannon
10 Pretty Blue Eyes--Steve Lawrence

Singles entering the chart were Country Boy by Fats Domino (#61); China Doll by the Ames Brothers (#70); Lady Luck by Lloyd Price and his Orchestra (#71); Wild One (#72)/Little Bitty Girl (#86) by Bobby Rydell; Let it Rock by Chuck Berry (#81); Time and the River by Nat King Cole (#83); That Old Feeling by Kitty Kallen (#85); Sixteen Reasons by Connie Stevens (#89); (There was a) Tall Oak Tree by Dorsey Burnette (#92); Money (That's What I Want) by Barrett Strong (#95); Peace of Mind by Teresa Brewer (#96); Fannie Mae by Buster Brown (#97); (Baby) Hully Gully by the Olympics (#98); and The Whiffenpoof Song by Bob Crewe (#100).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKWX)
1 Running Bear--Johnny Preston (2nd week at #1)
2 El Paso--Marty Robbins
3 First Name Initial--Annette with the Afterbeats
4 He'll Have to Go--Jim Reeves
5 Hound Dog Man/This Friendly World--Fabian
6 Not One Minute More/You're My Love--Della Reese
7 Pretty Blue Eyes--Steve Lawrence
8 Lonely Blue Boy--Conway Twitty
9 Way Down Yonder in New Orleans--Freddie Cannon
10 Among My Souvenirs--Connie Francis

Singles entering the chart were Darling Lorraine by the Knockouts (#36); Baby (You've Got What it Takes) by Dinah Washington & Brook Benton (#37); Mashed Potatoes by Nat Kendrick (#47); Lady Luck by Lloyd Price and his Orchestra (#53); Outside My Window by the Fleetwoods (#56); Cry Me a River by Janice Harper (#57); Eternally/You're My Baby by Sarah Vaughan (#58); Beatnik Fly by Johnny and the Hurricanes (#59); and On the Beach/Paris Valentine by Frank Chacksfield and his Orchestra (#60).

Protest
Four Negro college students began a series of sit-ins at a white-only lunch counter in Woolworth’s department store, Greensboro, North Carolina. The four--Franklin McCain; Joseph McNeil; Ezell Blair, Jr.; and David Richmond--were freshmen at North Carolina A&T State University. They took seats at the segregated lunch counter of F. W. Woolworth's, were refused service, and sat peacefully until the store closed. They returned the next day, along with about 25 other students, and their requests were again denied.



40 years ago
1970


Religion
In his first direct response to a request by a Dutch Roman Catholic council that celibacy for priests be made optional, Pope Paul VI said that the principle of celibacy was so fundamental that it could not be questioned, let alone dropped. He said that abandoning the doctrine would violate Christ’s injunction to hid disciples to leave all else and follow Him.

Education
The deadline for total desegregation of southern U.S. schools set by the Supreme Court was defied by officials of 20 districts in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. While two Alabama districts ignored the order, other administrators closed the schools temporarily and others supported boycotts by white parents and students.

Disasters
An Argentine express train rammed a stalled commuter train near Buenos Aires, killing 136 and injuring 179.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 6 @ Boston 7



Pittsburgh 0 @ New York 6

Terry Sawchuk got a rare start in goal for the Rangers and recorded his first shutout in two years, and his 103rd and final career regular season NHL shutout as the Rangers blanked the Penguins at Madison Square Garden.

40 years ago
1980


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): No More Tears (Enough is Enough)--Donna Summer/Barbra Streisand (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Video Killed the Radio Star--The Buggles (12th week at #1)

South Africa's Top 10 (Springbok Radio)
1 Don't Stop 'til You Get Enough--Michael Jackson (4th week at #1)
2 The Part of Me that Needs You Most--Exile
3 Rise--Herb Alpert
4 Crazy Little Thing Called Love--Queen
5 She's in Love with You--Suzi Quatro
6 If I Said You Had a Beautiful Body (Would You Hold it Against Me)--Bellamy Brothers
7 Video Killed the Radio Star--The Buggles
8 Caravan Song--Barbara Dickson
9 Great Balls of Fire--Nightmare
10 Friday on My Mind--Chilly

Singles entering the chart were Another Brick in the Wall (Part II) by Pink Floyd (#12); Babe by Styx (#17); and Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight) by ABBA (#18).

Austria's Top 10 (Ö3)
1 Video Killed the Radio Star--The Buggles (5th week at #1)
2 I Have a Dream--ABBA
3 Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight)--ABBA
4 Another Brick in the Wall (Part II)--Pink Floyd
5 Confusion--Electric Light Orchestra
6 Tusk--Fleetwood Mac
7 Don't Bring Me Down--Electric Light Orchestra
8 Todesengel--Frank Duval & Orchestra
9 I'm Born Again--Boney M.
10 Babe it's Up to You--Smokie

Singles entering the chart were Another Brick in the Wall (Part II) and The Ballad of Lucy Jordan by Marianne Faithfull (#12).

Hockey
NHL
Edmonton 9 Winnipeg 2

30 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Get Up! (Before the Night is Over)--Technotronic

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Nothing Compares 2 U--Sinéad O'Connor (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Peter Fricker, 69
. U.K. composer. Mr. Fricker composed more than 160 works, including five symphonies, and other instrumental, chamber, and choral pieces. He moved to the United States in 1964 and taught at the University of California, Santa Barbara until his death from throat cancer on February 1, 1990.

World events
East German Premier Hans Modrow, addressing a press conference in East Berlin, outlined a plan for reunifying East and West Germany. He described an approach for integrating economic and governmental institutions into a country that would become militarily neutral. West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl said he would not begin any negotiations until after East German elections in March.

Politics and government
Bulgarian Premier Georgi Atanasov and his cabinet resigned. The Communist Party of Bulgaria ratified a manifesto that endorsed democratic ideals but kept its Marxist-Leninist ideology.

The National Salvation Front agreed to a power-sharing arrangement prior to elections in Romania. It was agreed that the interim legislative body would be increased in size and would include representatives of 30 registered political parties.

Scandal
Albert Hakim was sentenced to two years’ probation and fined $5,000 for illegally supplementing the salary of former U.S. National Security Council staff member Oliver North.

U.S. Attorney General Richard Thornburgh recommended that an independent counsel be appointed to investigate Samuel Pierce, Jr. and other former high officials in the Department of Housing and Urban Development. In compliance with procedures established by law, Mr. Thornburgh made his recommendations to a special three-judge panel. He said that the counsel would investigate charges that Mr. Pierce, a former secretary of HUD, and other officials had awarded grants to developers backed by well-known Republicans.

Business
Humanitas publishing house was founded in Bucharest by philosopher Gabriel Liiceanu.

25 years ago
1995


On television today
Front Page Challenge, on CBC

This was the last broadcast of the panel show after 38 seasons; it was officially cancelled on April 13, 1995.

Law
The United States House of Representatives voted 360-74 in favour of a bill making it difficult for Congress to pass laws that required action by states and cities but did not provide federal funds for implementation. The Senate had passed such legislation five days earlier.

Labour
Major league baseball club owners and representatives of major league players met for the first time in 1995, in Washington, D.C. The players had gone on strike on August 11, 1994, ending the season unfinished.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Federal Reserve Board increased the federal funds rate (the interest rate banks charged each other for overnight loans) by 0.5% to 6%, and increased the discount rate (the interest rate charged by the Federal Reserve on loans to commercial banks) 0.5% to 5.25%. Both rates were at their highest levels in three years. In response to these increases, most major banks raised their prime rate from 8.5%-9.0%.

The United States Commerce Department reported that the index of leading economic indicators had increased 0.1% in December 1994.

20 years ago
2000


Died on this date
Dick Rathmann, 76
. U.S. auto racing driver. Mr. Rathmann, born James Rathmann, drove in the AAA Championship Car Series in 1949-1950 and the USAC Championship Series from 1956-1964. He raced in the Indianapolis 500 nine times, with a best finish of fifth in 1956. He won the pole position for the race in 1958, but was one of several cars involved in a crash in the first lap that put them out of the race. Mr. Rathmann's best finish was at Daytona in 1959, when he finished second. He raced with the NASCAR circuit from 1951-1955. Mr. Rathmann's younger brother was named Dick, but the two switched first names in 1946 so that the younger brother could enter a race while underage; the name change stuck for life. Jim won the 1960 Indianapolis 500. Dick died 26 days after his 76th birthday.

War
Rebel forces in Chechnya announced that they were pulling out of the capital city of Grozny after sustaining heavy losses fighting against Russian forces.

Politics and government
Austrian People’s Party leader Wolfgang Schussel announced that his party and the Freedom Party would form a coalition government. The Freedom Party was led by Joerg Haider, who in the past had made remarks that had been widely interpreted as showing Nazi sympathies, though he later apologized for them. Mr. Schussel, who would become chancellor in the new government, deplored the threat by the European Union to impose sanctions if the Freedom Party joined the coalition.

The first primary votes took place in the contests for the Democratic and Republican Party nominations for President of the United States. Vice-President Al Gore defeated U.S. Senator Bill Bradley in the Democratic primary 50% to 46%. Sen. John McCain won the Republican primary with 48%, defeating Texas Governor George W. Bush, who took 30%, by a surprisingly large margin. Publisher Steve Forbes captured 13% of the vote; Alan Keyes took 6%, and Gary Bauer 1%.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Bill Clinton cited several reasons for the longest peacetime boom in American history, 107 consecutive months of economic expansion dating back to March 1991: the anti-inflationary policies of the U.S. Federal Reserve Board; his administration’s success in reducing and eliminating federal budget deficits; advances in technology, and free-trade policies supported by himself and Presidents Ronald Reagan and George Bush.

Disasters
Search teams found the remains of four victims of the crash of Alaska Airlines Flight 261, which had gone down off the California coast the previous day, killing all 88 people aboard.

Thursday, 30 January 2020

January 31, 2020

440 years ago
1580


Died on this date
Henrique, 68
. King of Portugal, 1578-1580. Henrique, the fifth son of King Manuel I, became a Roman Catholic cardinal, and was Archbishop of Lisbon from 1564-1570. He served as regent for his great-nephew Sebastião from 1562-1568, and acceded to the throne upon King Sebastião's death in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir. King Henrique was unable to obtain a release from Pope Gregory XIII to take a bride in order to continue the Aziz dynasty, and died on his 68th birthday, without an heir, and without having appointed a successor. António, Prior of Crato and King Philip II of Spain both claimed the throne; Philip was elected King in 1581.

200 years ago
1820


Born on this date
William B. Washburn
. U.S. politician. Mr. Washburn, a moderate Republican, sat in the Massachusetts Senate (1850) and House of Representatives (1853-1855). He represented the state's 9th District in the U.S. House of Representatives (1863-1871), leaving that office to serve as Governor of Massachusetts (1872-1874). Mr. Washburn was then appointed to the U.S. Senate to fill a vacancy caused by the death of Charles Sumner. He represented Massachusetts in the Senate from April 17, 1874 until the end of Mr. Sumner's term on March 3, 1875, and refused to run for office again. Mr. Washburn held various academic posts, and supported numerous Christian missionary societies. He died on October 5, 1887 at the age of 67.

120 years ago
1900


Died on this date
Datu Mat Salleh
. Bornean rebel leader. Datu Mat Salleh led a series of armed disturbances against the colonial British North Borneo Chartered Company administration in North Borneo (now the Malaysian state of Sabah). After a month of fighting in Tambunan between Mat Salleh's forces and those of the Company, Mat Salleh's fort fell, and he was killed when a shot from a Maxim gun struck him in the left temple.

War
30 days after the commencement of fighting in Tambunan between Bornean rebel forces led by Datu Mat Salleh and forces of the British North Borneo Chartered Company, and four days after Company forces had seized Mat Salleh's fort, the rebel defenses were broken, and about 1,000 of Mat Salleh's followers were killed, in addition to Datu Mat Salleh himself. It took five years before the remainder of the rebel forces were captured or killed, or surrendered.

100 years ago
1920


Born on this date
Stewart Udall
. U.S. politician. Mr. Udall, a Democrat, represented Arizona's 2nd District in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1955-1961. He resigned to accept the position of Secretary of the Interior in the administration of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, and remained in office through the presidency of Lyndon Johnson, which ended in 1969. Mr. Udall was succeeded in his congressional seat by his younger brother Mo. Stewart Udall was known for his advocacy for environmental and Native American concerns. He died on March 20, 2010 at the age of 90.

90 years ago
1930


Technology
3M began marketing Scotch Tape.

80 years ago
1940


On the radio



Defense
The first of 100 planes ordered from the United States arrived in the Australian capital of Canberra.

Diplomacy
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain asked the nations of the world to be tolerant of U.K. interference with their trade because of the war.

The United States Labor Department modified its deportation order against 68 Czech nationals working for the Bata Shoe Company, permitting them to stay in the U.S. until June 30, 1940.

Economics and finance
Japanese Foreign Minister Hachiro Arita said that his nation did not intend to block the legitimate trading rights of third parties in Asia.

The first U.S. social security cheque was issued to Ida Fuller for $22.54.

Disasters
A blizzard struck north-central Japan, causing 78 deaths.

Tennis
Australia announced that it would retain possession of the Davis Cup until competition was resumed.

75 years ago
1945


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Lili Marlene--Geraldo; Lale Andersen (1st month at #1)

Died on this date
Eddie Slovik, 24
. U.S. soldier. Private Slovik was executed in France by firing squad for deserting his infantry unit in October 1944. It was the first such execution of an American soldier since the Civil War.

War
U.S. forces in Germany drove into the Monschau Forest and completed the capture of Rocherath, Andler, Schonberg, Amelscheid, Heuem, and Alzerath. Soviet troops captured Beyersdorf and were within 63 miles of Berlin. U.S. forces in the Philippines went ashore on the west coast of the province of Batangas, thus outflanking Manila to the south. The British 3rd Commando Brigade repulsed a Japanese counterattack on their positions and precipitated a general retirement from the Arakan Peninsula, ending the Battle of Hill 170 during the Burma Campaign.

Abominations
About 5,000 inmates from the Stutthof concentration camp in Poland were forcibly marched into the Baltic Sea at Palmnicken (now Yantarny, Russia) and machine-gunned to death by Nazis, six days after being evacuated from the camp.

Law
The United Nations War Crimes Commission elected Lord Wright of Australia as chairman.

Four days after U.S. Federal Judge Philip Sullivan ruled in Chicago that the U.S. Army's seizure of Montgomery Ward & Company properties in seven localities was illegal, the U.S. government took its case to the Circuit Court of Appeals.

Defense
The United States and Canada reached an agreement whereby Canada would not pay for defense facilities established in Canada that would not be removed at war's end.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that exports in 1943, including Lend-Lease, broke all records with a value of $14,065 billion.

Scandal
Five Brooklyn College basketball players--Robert Leder, Lawrence Pearlstein, Stanley Simon, Jerome Greene, and Bernard Barret--admitted accepting a $1,000 bribe to throw the game in Boston that night against the University of Akron.

70 years ago
1950


On the radio
Philo Vance, starring Jackson Beck
Tonight’s episode: The Sterling Corpse Murder Case

On television tonight
Suspense, on CBS
Tonight's episode: The Distant Island, starring Nancy Carroll, Pat Kirkland, Ruth McDevitt, and William Redfield

War
Taiwan radio broadcast an appeal for aid against a Chinese Communist invasion, which had been threatened daily for two weeks by Radio Peking.

Diplomacy
The U.S.S.R. announced its recognition of the regime of Ho Chi Minh as the government of Vietnam.

Defense
U.S. President Harry Truman ordered the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to develop the hydrogen bomb, anticipated to have up to 1,000 times the explosive force of existing atomic bombs.

Academia
Israel's two universities, Hebrew University and Weizmann Institute of Science, merged, and chose Albert Einstein as president of the new American joint board of directors.

Economics and finance
The U.S. House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee approved a bill to restore $60 million in aid to South Korea, suspended earlier because of the administration of U.S. President Truman's refusal to request funds for the defense of Taiwan.

Italian Prime Minister Alcide de Gasperi outlined to the Italian Assembly a plan to spend 120 billion lire ($192 million) per year on roads, irrigation, land improvement, and other public works in backward southern provinces.

Labour
U.S. President Truman entered the soft-coal dispute by wiring United Mine Workers of America President John L. Lewis and the mine operators a request to resume normal production for 70 days while a presidential fact-finding team tried to arrange a settlement.

Baseball
Paul Pettit, 18, a left-hander who had pitched 6 no-hitters for Narbonne High School in Lomita, California, signed with the Pittsburgh Pirates for a record starting salary of $100,000.

60 years ago
1960


On television tonight
Alfred Hitchcock Presents, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Backward, Turn Backward, starring Tom Tully, Phyllis Love, and Alan Baxter

50 years ago
1970


Hit parade
#1 single in Rhodesia (Lyons Maid): Abbey Road (LP)--The Beatles (6th week at #1)

#1 single in France: Venus--The Shocking Blue (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Ma chi se ne importa--Gianni Morandi (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Dein schönstes Geschenk--Roy Black (5th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Love Grows (Where My Rosemary Goes)--Edison Lighthouse

Australia's Top 10 (Go-Set)
1 Raindrops Keep Falling on My Head--Johnny Farnham (2nd week at #1)
2 Down on the Corner/Fortunate Son--Creedence Clearwater Revival
3 And When I Die--Blood, Sweat & Tears
4 Take a Letter Maria--R.B. Greaves
5 Holly Holy--Neil Diamond
6 Suspicious Minds--Elvis Presley
7 Picking Up Pebbles--Matt Flinders
8 Something/Come Together--The Beatles
9 Smiley--Ronnie Burns
10 Penny Arcade--Roy Orbison

Singles entering the chart were Venus by the Shocking Blue (#32); Two Little Boys by Rolf Harris (#34); Wonderful World, Beautiful People by Jimmy Cliff (#36); and You've Got to Learn by Kamahl (#40).

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Mighty Joe--Shocking Blue (2nd week at #1)
2 Mijn Gebed--D.C. Lewis
3 Marian--The Cats
4 Jin-Go-La-Ba--Santana
5 Het Zal Je Kind Maar Wezen--Adèle Bloemendaal, Leen Jongewaard, Piet Römer en koor
6 Thanks--J. Vincent Edward
7 Whole Lotta Love--Led Zeppelin
8 Seasons--Earth and Fire
9 Wat Een Spreker is Die Man--Seth Gaaikema
10 Reflections of My Life--The Marmalade

Singles entering the chart were Het Stoomlied (Kunst- En Vliegwerk) by Ed & Willem Bever (#22); Get Down with It/Satisfaction by Mack Kissoon (#30); Fat Jack by Hearts of Soul (#32); All My Brothers are Clean by Billy Jones & the Stars (#33); Travelling in the U.S.A. by the Bintangs (#35); Raindrops Keep Falling on My Head by B.J. Thomas (#36); Voodoo Woman by Simon Stokes & the Nighthawks (#37); and Our Father by Unit Gloria (#39).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 I Want You Back--The Jackson 5
2 Venus--The Shocking Blue
3 Raindrops Keep Fallin' on My Head--B.J. Thomas
4 Whole Lotta Love--Led Zeppelin
5 Without Love (There is Nothing)--Tom Jones
6 Don't Cry Daddy/Rubberneckin'--Elvis Presley
7 I'll Never Fall in Love Again--Dionne Warwick
8 Thank You Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin/Everybody is a Star--Sly & the Family Stone
9 Someday We'll Be Together--Diana Ross and the Supremes
10 Leaving on a Jet Plane--Peter, Paul and Mary

Singles entering the chart were Travelin' Band/Who'll Stop the Rain by Creedence Clearwater Revival (#50); The Rapper by the Jaggerz (#79); Oh Well (Part 1) by Fleetwood Mac (#81); New World Coming by Mama Cass Elliot (#82); Down in the Alley by Ronnie Hawkins (#83); Welfare Cadillac by Guy Drake (#93); The Court of the Crimson King--Part 1 by King Crimson (#96); Victoria by the Kinks (#97); Save the Country by Thelma Houston (#98); Superstar by Murray Head with the Trinidad Singers (#99); and I'll See Him Through by Tammy Wynette (#100).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Venus--The Shocking Blue
2 I Want You Back--The Jackson 5
3 Raindrops Keep Fallin' on My Head--B.J. Thomas
4 Thank You Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin--Sly & the Family Stone
5 Someday We'll Be Together--Diana Ross and the Supremes
6 Don't Cry Daddy--Elvis Presley
7 Whole Lotta Love--Led Zeppelin
8 Jingle Jangle--The Archies
9 Without Love (There is Nothing)--Tom Jones
10 I'll Never Fall in Love Again--Dionne Warwick

Singles entering the chart were Bridge Over Troubled Water by Simon & Garfunkel (#67); Never Had a Dream Come True by Stevie Wonder (#68); Evil Ways by Santana (#69); My Elusive Dreams by Bobby Vinton (#84); If You've Got a Heart by Bobby Bland (#86); Then She's a Lover by Roy Clark (#88); Country Preacher by the "Cannonball" Adderley Quintet (#94); Do the Funky Chicken by Rufus Thomas (#98); Victoria by the Kinks (#99); and The Bells by the Originals (#100).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Record World)
1 Venus--The Shocking Blue (2nd week at #1)
2 I Want You Back--The Jackson 5
3 Raindrops Keep Fallin' on My Head--B.J. Thomas
4 Jingle Jangle--The Archies
5 Don't Cry Daddy/Rubberneckin'--Elvis Presley
6 Without Love (There is Nothing)--Tom Jones
7 Jam Up Jelly Tight--Tommy Roe
8 Thank You Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin/Everybody is a Star--Sly & the Family Stone
9 Early in the Morning--Vanity Fare
10 I'll Never Fall in Love Again--Dionne Warwick

Singles entering the chart were Travelin' Band/Who'll Stop the Rain by Creedence Clearwater Revival (#64); New World Coming by Mama Cass Elliot (#74); Never Had a Dream Come True by Stevie Wonder (#76); A Friend in the City by Andy Kim (#79); Good Guys Only Win in the Movies by Mel and Tim (#83); Bridge Over Troubled Water by Simon & Garfunkel (#86); Shades of Green by the Flaming Ember (#87); Shilo by Neil Diamond (#89); Mr. Bus Driver by Neal Dover (#92); To Love You by Country Store (#95); Lovely Way She Loves by the Moments (#98); and Victoria by the Kinks (#99).

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 Venus--The Shocking Blue
2 Jingle Jangle--The Archies
3 I Want You Back--The Jackson 5
4 Don't Cry Daddy/Rubberneckin'--Elvis Presley
5 Without Love (There is Nothing)--Tom Jones
6 Whole Lotta Love--Led Zeppelin
7 Raindrops Keep Fallin' on My Head--B.J. Thomas
8 I'll Never Fall in Love Again--Dionne Warwick
9 Winter World of Love--Engelbert Humperdinck
10 Early in the Morning--Vanity Fare

Singles entering the chart were Down in the Alley by Ronnie Hawkins (#72); Travelin' Band by Creedence Clearwater Revival (#79); Give Me Just a Little More Time by the Chairmen of the Board (#80); A Friend in the City by Andy Kim (#81); I've Gotta Make You Love Me by Steam (#82); Always Something There to Remind Me by R.B. Greaves (#83); Bridge Over Troubled Water by Simon & Garfunkel (#87); The Rapper by the Jaggerz (#88); Love Bones by Johnnie Taylor (#90); Dig the Way I Feel by Mary Wells (#91); House of the Rising Sun by Frijid Pink (#97); She Lets Her Hair Down (Early in the Morning) by Gene Pitney (#99); and New World Coming by Mama Cass Elliot (#100).

Politics and government
Lesotho’s Prime Minister, Chief Leabua Jonathan, declared the election of four days earlier invalid and ordered the counting of ballots stopped, saying, "I have seized power and I am not ashamed of it." This was a typical example of Winston Churchill’s description of black African politics: "One man, one vote--one time."

In a showdown with supporters of former Governor George Wallace, Alabama Democrats loyal to the national party pushed through a "statement of principles" that was seen as an effort to seek rapprochement with the state’s Negroes. The restructuring of the internal machinery of the state party’s executive was expected to open the way for Negroes to become party members.

Diplomacy
West German Chancellor Willy Brandt concluded his two-day visit to Paris, receiving approval of his "Ostpolitik" initiative from French leaders.



Defense
U.S. Senator Mike Mansfield (Democrat--Montana) said "Where the hell is it going to end?" in response to President Richard Nixon’s proposed expansion of the Safeguard antiballistic missile system. Sen. Mansfield predicted that the system would cost more than $50 billion.

Labour
A U.S. federal judge ordered the railroad shopcraft unions to end their day-old strike against the Union Pacific Railroad, and ordered the country’s railroads to postpone their planned nationwide lockout for at least 10 days.

Basketball
NCAA
Mississippi 89 @ Louisiana State 109

Pete Maravich scored 53 points and added 12 assists to lead the Tigers to victory before an overflow crowd of 11,000 at LSU Coliseum in Baton Rouge. He sank a 23-foot jump shot in the 2nd half to move past Oscar Robertson as the leading scorer in U.S. collegiate basketball history. Mr. Maravich ended the game with 2,987 career points.

40 years ago
1980


Hit parade
Edmonton’s Top 20 (CHED)
1 I Don’t Like Mondays--The Boomtown Rats (2nd week at #1)
2 Coward of the County--Kenny Rogers
3 Video Killed the Radio Star--The Buggles
4 Crazy Little Thing Called Love--Queen
5 The Long Run--Eagles
6 Jane--Jefferson Starship
7 Don’t Do Me Like That--Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers
8 Yes I’m Ready--Teri DeSario with K.C.
9 Do That to Me One More Time--Captain & Tennille
10 Tiny Thing--Jenson Interceptor
11 Why Me--Styx
12 Chiquitita--ABBA
13 Message in a Bottle--The Police
14 Babe--Styx
15 A Night to Remember--Prism
16 Rock with You--Michael Jackson
17 Janine--Trooper
18 This is It--Kenny Loggins
19 Sara--Fleetwood Mac
20 Please Don’t Go--KC & the Sunshine Band

Protest
Bella Akhmadulina, a leading Soviet poet, spoke out on behalf of recently-exiled dissident physicist Andrei Sakharov, as Soviet intellectuals grappled with the banishment of one of the 231 full members of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, a distinguished body relatively immune from politics.

30 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Another Day in Paradise--Phil Collins (6th week at #1)

Politics and government
U.S. President George Bush delivered his annual State of the Union address to Congress. He proposed a ceiling of 225,000 on the number of U.S. and Soviet troops that could be deployed in Europe. Under his plan, no more than 195,000 could be deployed by each side in the central zone of Europe. At present, the U.S. had 300,000 troops in Europe and the U.S.S.R. had 565,000.



Economics and finance
The U.S. Commerce Department reported that the index of leading economic indicators had risen 0.8% in December 1989.

Business
The first McDonald's restaurant in the U.S.S.R. was opened by George Cohon in Moscow's Pushkin Square.

Hockey
NHL
Detroit 7 Edmonton 5

25 years ago
1995


Died on this date
George Abbott, 107
. U.S. theatre producer, director, and playwright. Mr. Abbott was active on Broadway for more than 80 years, beginning in 1913 as an actor. As a playwright and director, his works included Broadway (1926); Three Men on a Horse (1935); The Pajama Game (1954); and Damn Yankees (1955). Mr. Abbott also produced and directed the movie versions of The Pajama Game (1957) and Damn Yankees (1958). He remained active to the end of his life.

George Stibitz, 90. U.S. physicist. Dr. Stibitz was a Bell Labs researcher in the 1930s and '40s who became known as one of the fathers of the modern digital computer.

John Smith, 63. U.S. actor. Mr. Smith, born Robert Errol Van Orden, starred in the Western television series Cimarron City (1958-1959) and Laramie (1959-1963). He died of cirrhosis of the liver and heart problems, likely brought on by heavy drinking.

Crime
The prosecution began presenting its case in the Los Angeles murder trial of former football star O.J. Simpson, charged with the June 12, 1994 murders of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Bill Clinton used his emergency powers to authorize a $20-billion loan to Mexico to stabilize its economy. The loan consisted of short-term loans and longer-term loan guarantees. As collateral, buyers of oil from the Mexican national oil company would deposit part of their payments into a U.S. Federal Reserve Bank fund. The U.S. also obtained pledges of support from the International Monetary Fund and the Bank for International Settlements. Canada, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia were other donors, bringing the overall commitment to Mexico of $49.5 billion.

20 years ago
2000


Politics and government
Portuguese Prime Minister Antonio Guterres, speaking for the other 14 member nations of the European Union, warned against the emergence of the Freedom Party and its leader Joerg Haider as a force in Austrian politics. Mr. Guterres said that "behaviour of a racist or xenophobic character will not be tolerated within the European Union." He stated that Austria faced diplomatic isolation if it allowed the Freedom Party to join a new government. In October 1999 the Freedom Party had won 27% of the vote in Austrian elections, placing second behind the Social Democrats and ahead of the People’s Party. Those two parties had shared power, but the coalition had broken down after the election. Mr. Haider had then explored forming a coalition with the People’s Party. The Freedom Party was opposed to immigration, and Mr. Haider had drawn criticism for making inflammatory remarks.

Crime
Dr. Harold Shipman, a family general practitioner, was sentenced at Preston Crown Court to life in prison by Mr. Justice Thayne Forbes for murdering 15 of his patients, making him the United Kingdom's biggest serial killer. An official inquiry conducted by Dame Janet Smith concluded that Dr. Shipman may have killed as many as 250 patients over 23 years.

Law
The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that criminals who commit violent crimes should be eligible for conditional sentences, rejecting calls from the federal and provincial governments to increase prison sentences.

Abominations
Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig suspended Atlanta Braves' relief pitcher John Rocker from spring training and the first 28 days of the season, and fined him $20,000 for exercising his constitution right of freedom of speech and expressing currently unfashionable opinions in a magazine interview that disparaged foreigners, perverts, and freaks.

Business
The government of Canada approved the $8-billion takeover of Canada Trust by Toronto Dominion Bank.

Disasters
Alaska Airlines Flight 261, a McDonnell Douglas MD-80 jetliner with 88 aboard, crashed while en route from Puerto Vallarta, Mexico to San Francisco. The National Transportation Safety Board reported the next day that at about 4:15 P.M. the crew had advised air traffic controllers that the plane’s stabilizer--a device that controlled the plane’s up-and-down movement--had jammed. The controllers cleared the flight to land at Los Angeles International Airport, but at 4:21 the plane disappeared from the radar screen. It went into the ocean northwest of Los Angeles, and there were no survivors.

10 years ago
2010


Football
NFL
Pro Bowl @ Sun Life Stadium, Miami Gardens, Florida
AFC 41 NFC 34

Chris Johnson's 2-yard touchdown rush with 6:03 remaining in the 4th quarter broke a 34-34 tie as the American Football Conference defeated the National Football Conference before 70,697 fans in the first Pro Bowl to be played the week before the Super Bowl.

Wednesday, 29 January 2020

January 30, 2020

1,050 years ago
970


Died on this date
Petar I
. Czar of Bulgaria, 927-969. Petar I acceded to the throne upon the death of his father Simeon I. He achieved an early military success and a peace treaty with the Byzantine Empire in 927 and then experienced a largely peaceful reign, but suffered territorial losses to Byzantine forces in 968 and 969. Czar Petar suffered a stroke in 969 and abdicated to become a monk. He was succeeded on the throne by his son Boris II.

270 years ago
1730


Died on this date
Peter II, 14
. Emperor of Russia, 1727-1730. Peter II, the only son of Prince Alexis and grandson of Peter I (the Great), succeeded his grandfather's second wife Catherine I on the throne. He led a dissolute life despite his tender years, and died of smallpox, ending the direct male line of the Romanov dynasty. Peter II was succeeded on the throne by Anna Ivanovna, daughter of Peter the Great's half-brother and co-ruler Ivan V.

200 years ago
1820


Exploration
U.K. Royal Navy master Edward Bransfield landed on King George Island in the South Shetland Islands and took formal possession on behalf of King George III, who,unbeknownst to the explorers, had died the day before. Master Bransfield then crossed what is now known as Bransfield Strait and sighted Trinity Peninsula, the northernmost point of the Antarctic mainland. He claimed discovery of Antarctica, unaware that three days earlier, Russian explorer Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen may have caught sight of an icy shoreline now known to have been part of East Antarctica.

120 years ago
1900


Born on this date
Martita Hunt
. Argentine-born U.K. actress. Miss Hunt, born in Buenos Aires to English parents, moved to England at the age of 20. She appeared in numerous plays in Britain and the United States, and won a Tony Award in 1949 for her starring performance in The Madwoman of Chaillot. Miss Hunt appeared in supporting roles in numerous films from 1932-1969, most notably The Wicked Lady (1945) and Great Expectations (1946). She died of bronchial asthma on June 13, 1969 at the age of 69.

110 years ago
1910


Born on this date
Chidambaram Subramaniam
. Indian politician. Mr. Subramaniam, a member of the Indian National Congress Party, was an independence activist before serving as Minister of Education, Law and Finance for Madras State (1952-1962). He was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1962, and held various cabinet posts, including Minister of Agriculture (1964-1966); Minister of Finance (1975-1977); and Minister of Defence (1979-1980), resigning after criticizing Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao. Mr. Subramaniam was Governor of Maharashtra from 1990-1993. He died on November 7, 2000 at the age of 90.

100 years ago
1920


Born on this date
Patrick Heron
. U.K. artist and critic. Mr. Heron was one of the leading abstract painters of his generation, and was also known as an art critic. He died on March 20, 1999 at the age of 79.

Delbert Mann. U.S. film and television director. Mr. Mann directed the original television drama (1953) and movie (1955) Marty, winning the Academy Award for Best Director for the latter. Mr. Mann was president of the Directors Guild of America from 1967-1971. He died on November 11, 2007 at the age of 87.

Michael Anderson. U.K.-born film director. Mr. Anderson was nominated for an Academy Award for directing Around the World in 80 Days (1956), which won the Oscar for Best Picture. His other movies included The Dam Busters (1955) and Logan's Run (1976). Mr. Anderson moved to Canada in 1981, and eventually became a Canadian citizen, working mostly in television. He died of heart failure in Vancouver, British Columbia on April 25, 2018 at the age of 98.

90 years ago
1930


Abominations
The Politburo of the Soviet Union ordered the extermination of the Kulaks.

80 years ago
1940


On the radio



Died on this date
Bronislaw Dembjnski
. Polish historian. Professor Dembjnski was murdered by the Gestapo in Poland.

War
German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler proclaimed in Berlin that the second phase of the European war, carrying it to the West, was beginning.

12 more people were killed in Hindu-Muslim riots in Rangoon.

Diplomacy
Russo-Japanese negotiations in Tokyo to adjust the Outer Mongolia-Manchukuo border broke down.

Defense
U.S. Army General George Marshall told Congress that the Army would need $40 million to give the nation an air raid warning system.

Politics and government
The U.S. House of Representatives Appropriations Committee cut $154 million from the Agriculture Department's appropriation bill.

Business
An Associated Press report indicated a 67% increase in profits for 1939 over 1938 in the top 100 U.S. corporations.

75 years ago
1945


At the movies
Kolberg, the most expensive German film made during World War II, premiered at two theatres in Berlin and at the German naval base in La Rochelle, France.



War
In what turned out to be his last radio broadcast, German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler told the German people that there was still hope for victory by maintaining unity. A strong American push into Germany developed on a broad front directed at the Siegfried Line. The Soviet drive on Berlin went unchecked with a gain of 21 miles. 126 American Rangers and Filipino resistance fighters liberated 513 Allied prisoners from the Japanese-controlled Cabanatuan prisoner of war camp near Cabu. The Japanese advance on the Hankow-Canton railroad reduced the line to a 20-mile section in the Chinese province of Hunan.

Disasters
The German passenger ship MV Wilhelm Gustloff, overfilled with German refugees evacuating from Courland, East Prussia, sank in the Baltic Sea after being torpedoed by a Soviet submarine, killing approximately 9,500 people--including 5,000 children--in the deadliest known maritime disaster.

Diplomacy
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at Malta for talks prior to the conference with U.S.S.R. dictator Josef Stalin at Yalta in the Crimea several days hence.

Medicine
Medical Press and Circular announced in London the discovery of a drug called hypholin, which was made from penicillin notatum. It had been successfully used in cases of meningitis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, impetigo, and staphylococcale.

Football
NCAA
William Alexander announced his resignation after 25 seasons as head coach at Georgia Institute of Technology. He compiled a record of 134-95-15, leading the Yellow Jackets to the national championship in 1928. Assistant coach Bobby Dodd was named to succeed Mr. Alexander.

70 years ago
1950


Diplomacy
Boston City Council refused to let 14 members of the Japanese Diet, touring the United States on Army invitation to study American democracy, attend a council session.

Politics and government
The West Java State government dissolved itself and asked Indonesian central authorities to take charge of protecting the state from guerrilla bands and Muslim extremists.

Education
East St. Louis, Illinois ended racial segregation in its public schools.

Crime
Former United Auto Workers of America official Carl Bolton went on trial in Detroit for the 1948 shooting of UAW President Walter Reuther.

The New Jersey State Commission on the Habitual Sex Offender reported that laws to curb sex crimes had failed in most of the 12 states which had passed such legislation.

Religion
The Vatican Holy Office ruled that baptisms performed in the Presbyterian, Congregational, Baptist, Methodist, and Disciples of Christ churches were valid.

Economics and finance
The United Kingdom, Sweden, Denmark, and Norway agreed to set up a limited free interchange of currency under an Anglo-Scandinavian financial union, to be called "Uniscan."

U.S. President Harry Truman asked Congress for a $27.4-million contribution to the United Nations relief and public works program for Palestinian Arab refugees.

60 years ago
1960


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Joey's Song/Ooh! Look-a-There, Ain't She Pretty?--Bill Haley and his Comets (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Italy: Oh! Carol--Neil Sedaka (4th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Marina--Rocco Granata and the International Quintet (5th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Mirror): Why--Anthony Newley (2nd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Running Bear--Johnny Preston (2nd week at #1)
2 Why--Frankie Avalon
3 El Paso--Marty Robbins
4 Teen Angel--Mark Dinning
5 You Got What it Takes--Marv Johnson
6 Where or When--Dion and the Belmonts
7 Go, Jimmy, Go--Jimmy Clanton
8 The Big Hurt--Miss Toni Fisher
9 Way Down Yonder in New Orleans--Freddie Cannon
10 Pretty Blue Eyes--Steve Lawrence

Singles entering the chart were Baby (You’ve Got What it Takes) by Dinah Washington & Brook Benton (#71); Delaware by Perry Como (#72); Forever by the Little Dippers (#75); Harbor Lights by the Platters (#80); Too Much Tequila by the Champs (#82); Country Boy by Fats Domino (#84); Eternally by Sarah Vaughan (#85); Money (That's What I Want) by Barrett Strong (#90); Cry Me a River by Janice Harper (#91); Honey Hush by Joe Turner (#92); Up Town by Roy Orbison (#94); Baby What You Want Me to Do by Jimmy Reed (#95); Shake a Hand by LaVern Baker (#96); Teensville by Chet Atkins (#98); Little Bitty Girl (#100)/Wild One (also #100) by Bobby Rydell; and Let the Good Times Roll by Ray Charles (also #100). Honey Hush was a new recording of the song that had been a major hit for Mr. Turner in 1953.

Vancouver's Top 10 (CFUN)
1 Running Bear--Johnny Preston
2 Lucky Devil--Carl Dobkins, Jr.
3 Lonely Blue Boy--Conway Twitty
4 Teen Angel--Mark Dinning
5 Go, Jimmy, Go--Jimmy Clanton
6 Terry--Leigh Bell
7 Down by the Station--The Four Preps
8 Pretty Blue Eyes--Steve Lawrence
9 Little Bitty Girl--Bobby Rydell
10 Why--Frankie Avalon

Singles entering the chart were Beatnik Fly/Sandstorm by Johnny and the Hurricanes (#32); What in the World's Come Over You by Jack Scott (#34); Sweet Nothin's by Brenda Lee (#38); Pink Canary by the Club 93 Rebels (#39); and Above and Beyond by Wynn Stewart (#40).

Politics and government
The African National Party was founded in Chad, through the merger of traditionalist parties.

50 years ago
1970


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): And When I Die--Blood, Sweat & Tears (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Two Little Boys--Rolf Harris (6th week at #1)


South Africa's Top 10 (Springbok Radio)
1 Pretty Belinda--Chris Andrews (2nd week at #1)
2 (Call Me) Number One--The Tremeloes
3 Theresa--Dave Mills
4 Raindrops Keep Fallin' on My Head--B.J. Thomas
5 Jam Up Jelly Tight--Tommy Roe
6 Down on the Corner--Creedence Clearwater Revival
7 Without Love (There is Nothing)--Tom Jones
8 He Ain't Heavy, He's My Brother--The Hollies
9 Na Na Hey Hey (Kiss Him Goodbye)--Steam
10 Don't Cry Daddy--Elvis Presley

Singles entering the chart were All I Have to Do is Dream by Bobbie Gentry and Glen Campbell (#18); Wonderful World, Beautiful People by Jimmy Cliff (#19); and Take a Letter Maria by R.B. Greaves (#20).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKLG)
1 Venus--The Shocking Blue
2 No Time--The Guess Who
3 That's Where I Went Wrong--The Poppy Family
4 Arizona--Mark Lindsay
5 Fancy--Bobbie Gentry
6 I'm Tired--Savoy Brown
7 Walkin' in the Rain--Jay and the Americans
8 He Ain't Heavy, He's My Brother--Hollies
9 Thank You Falletinme Be Mice Elf Agin--Sly & the Family Stone
10 Let's Work Together--Wilbert Harrison

Singles entering the chart were Travelin' Band/Who'll Stop the Rain by Creedence Clearwater Revival (#24); Breaking Up is Hard to Do by Lenny Welch (#27); If I were a Carpenter by Johnny Cash and June Carter (#28); and Give Me Just a Little More Time by the Chairmen of the Board (#30).

Edmonton's Top 10 (CJCA)
1 Fancy--Bobbie Gentry
2 Arizona--Mark Lindsay
3 Venus--The Shocking Blue
4 Groovy Grubworm--Harlow Wilcox and the Oakies
5 Whole Lotta Love--Led Zeppelin
6 Jennifer Tomkins--Street People
7 That's Where I Went Wrong--The Poppy Family
8 I'll Never Fall in Love Again--Dionne Warwick
9 No Time--The Guess Who
10 I Want You Back--The Jackson 5

World events
Chief Leabua Jonathan, Prime Minister of Lesotho, suspended the constitution, declared a state of emergency, and ordered a curfew in Maseru, the capital, after Lesotho’s first election since independence. The main opposition party leader, Ntsu Mokhehle, who had been claiming victory in the election three days earlier, was arrested.

Protest
Two students were killed and more than 100 wounded after about 2,000 young people tried to storm the Philippine presidential palace. Police and army units used tear gas, bullets, rifle butts, fire hoses, nightsticks, and wicker shields in a running battle with the demonstrators, who hurled stones and gasoline bombs after the assault on the palace was repulsed.

Widespread arson and violence erupted in Haryana state after the Indian government awarded the disputed city of Chandigarh to Punjab state. Mobs in Haryana set fire to buses, trains, government offices, and the homes of government officials. The police opened fire, and at least six deaths were reported.

Diplomacy
West German Chancellor Willy Brandt began a two-day visit to Paris. Meanwhile, his State Secretary Egon Bahr met in Moscow with Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko to discuss a possible mutual renunciation-of-force accord.

Economics and finance
In his first Economic Report to Congress, U.S. President Richard Nixon predicted a growth in the national economy of about $50 billion in 1970 and a drop in inflation from 1969. He said that if Congress supported his "prudent" fiscal policy, "overly long and overly severe restraint" in monetary policy could be avoided.

40 years ago
1980


Died on this date
Professor Longhair, 61
. U.S. musician. Professor Longhair, whose real name was Henry Roeland "Roy" Byrd, was a New Orleans rhythm and blues pianist in the late 1940s and '50s, who influenced artist such as Fats Domino, Huey Smith, and Allen Toussaint. He dropped out of the limelight in the 1960s, but made a comeback as a jazz pianist in the 1970s. Professor Longhair died of a heart attack in his sleep, in the midst of filming the documentary Piano Players Rarely Ever Play Together (1982).

Defense
South African troops left Zimbabwe Rhodesia after British and Patriotic Front representatives reached an agreement.

30 years ago
1990


Abominations
The 7% Goods and Services Tax bill passed first reading in the Canadian House of Commons.

Diplomacy
After meeting with East German Premier Hans Modrow, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev indicated that German reunification was to be expected, adding, "No one casts any doubt upon it."

25 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy: All I Need is Love--Indiana (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Zombie--Ororo (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Norway (VG-lista): Cotton Eye Joe--Rednex (17th week at #1)

#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Tears Don't Lie--Mark 'Oh (3rd week at #1)

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 Insensitive--Jann Arden
2 On Bended Knee--Boyz II Men
3 You Don't Know How it Feels--Tom Petty
4 Take a Bow--Madonna
5 Bang and Blame--R.E.M.
6 The Sweetest Days--Vanessa Williams
7 When I Come Around--Green Day
8 Greasy Jungle--The Tragically Hip
9 House of Love--Amy Grant and Vince Gill
10 Nothing Behind Us--Richard Marx

Singles entering the chart were She's a River by Simple Minds (#61); Truth Untold by Odds (#74); Thank You by Jimmy Page and Robert Plant (#75); The Love in Your Eyes by Dan Hartman (#79); Over You by Anne Murray (#85); L.U.V. by John Mellencamp (#86); Today I Hate Everyone by the Killjoys (#91); Hip Today by Extreme (#92); and Walk on Water by Aerosmith (#93).

Died on this date
Gerald Durrell, 70
. Indian-born U.K. zookeeper. Mr. Durrell believed that the main purpose of zoos should be to act as a reserve of critically endangered species which need captive breeding in order to survive--a belief that was in contrast to the prevailing policy of the time. In 1958, Mr. Durrell founded Jersey Zoological Park, now Durrell Wildlife Park. He helped to finance his work with the proceeds of numerous books, most of them autobiographical, such as The Overloaded Ark (1953) and My Family and Other Animals (1956).

Terrorism
42 people were killed and 300 injured when a car bomb exploded in Algiers. Muslim fundamentalists were attempting to overthrow Algeria's military-led government of Prime Minister Mokdad Sifi.

War
Rebel Serbs in Croatia refused to accept a proposal, drafted by international mediators, that would give them limited autonomy.

Defense
The United Nations Security Council authorized deployment of 6,000 peacekeepers to train Haiti's police and military and to help prepare for elections. They would take over from U.S. troops at the end of March and remain in Haiti until February 1996.

Medicine
Workers with the U.S. National Institutes of Health announced the success of clinical trials testing the first preventive treatment for sickle-cell disease.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 2 Dallas 1

20 years ago
2000


Disasters
Kenya Airways Flight 431, an Airbus A 310-304 jet carrying 169 passengers and 10 crew members crashed into the sea one minute after taking off from Abidjan, Ivory Coast, bound for Lagos, Nigeria and Nairobi, Kenya. 10 survivors were pulled from the water.

Football
NFL
Super Bowl XXXIV @ Georgia Dome, Atlanta
St. Louis 23 Tennessee 16

Kurt Warner passed for a Super Bowl record 414 yards to lead the Rams to their first Super Bowl win and their first NFL championship since 1951, when the team was based in Los Angeles. Tennessee quarterback Steve McNair brought the Titans back from a 16-0 deficit, and Al Del Greco’s 43-yard field goal tied the game 16-16 with 2:12 remaining in the 4th quarter. The Rams scored just 18 seconds later on a 73-yard touchdown pass from Mr. Warner to Isaac Bruce. The Titans weren’t finished, however, and they drove to the St. Louis 10-yard line with time for one more play in regulation time. Mr. McNair completed a pass to Kevin Dyson, who was tackled by Mike Jones at the 1-yard line as time expired. 72,625 were in attendance at the Georgia Dome.

Tuesday, 28 January 2020

January 29, 2020

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Ken Dies!

200 years ago
1820


Died on this date
George III, 81
. King of Great Britain and Ireland, 1760-1820; King of Hanover, 1814-1820. George III was the grandson of King George II, and the son of Frederick, Prince of Wales. He was the first monarch of the House of Hanover to be born in England and to speak English as his first language. He succeeded to the throne on the death of George II. Madness, which in recent years has been attributed to the genetic disease porphyria as well as to arsenic poisoning, increasingly affected King George in his later years, and in 1810 he was replaced as regent by his eldest son, who succeeded to the throne as King George IV upon the death of George III. King George III died six days after the death of his son Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn.

175 years ago
1845


Literature
Edgar Allan Poe's poem The Raven was published in the New York Evening Mirror.

170 years ago
1850

Politics and government

Henry Clay (Whig--Kentucky) introduced the Compromise of 1850 into the United States Senate. The compromise included: the admission of California as a free state; the organization of New Mexico and Utah territories without mention of slavery, the status of that institution to be determined by the territories themselves when they were ready to be admitted as states; the prohibition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia; a more stringent fugitive slave law; and the settlement of Texas boundary claims by federal payment of $10 million on the debt contracted by the Republic of Texas.

160 years ago
1860


Born on this date
Anton Chekhov
. Russian playwright and author. Dr. Chekhov, a physician by trade, wrote the novel The Shooting Party (1884) and several novellas, but was known for the plays The Seagull (1896); Uncle Vanya (1899-1900); Three Sisters (1901); and The Cherry Orchard (1904)--and for more than 280 short stories. He died of tuberculosis on July 15, 1904 at the age of 44.

140 years ago
1880


Born on this date
W.C. Fields
. U.S. actor. Mr. Fields, born William Claude Dukenfield, was famous (and beloved by this blogger) for his misanthropic persona, side-of-the-mouth vocal delivery, large nose, juggling skill, and fondness for alcohol. His movies included It's a Gift (1934); You Can't Cheat an Honest Man (1939); and Never Give a Sucker an Even Break (1941). He died on December 25, 1946 at the age of 66 as a result of years of heavy drinking.

120 years ago
1900


Baseball
Under the leadership of Ban Johnson, the American League was organized in Philadelphia, with franchises in Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Milwaukee and Minneapolis. The AL competed as a minor league in 1900 before challenging the National League as a major league in 1901.

80 years ago
1940


On the radio



The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce
Tonight’s episode: The Second Stain

French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier delivered a nationwide broadcast titled The Nazi's Aim is Slavery.

War
German planes bombed targets along 550 miles of Britain's east coast from Shetland to Kent.

Hindu-Muslim clashes in Rangoon continued despite appeals by Burmese civic and religious leaders for harmony.

Diplomacy
A spokesman for the Japanese Foreign Office asserted that Japan must affirm continuation of the Anti-Comintern pact because Communism was the antithesis of Japan's goals.

The Pan-American Neutrality Committee announced a resolution to standardize treatment of citizens of belligerent countries.

Politics and government
Supporters of New York City District Attorney Thomas Dewey said that they would enter his name in the Illinois primary in April for the Republican Party nomination for President of the United States in the November 1940 election.

Law
The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the U.S. government's contention that a federal appeals court had no right to supervise the Federal Communications Commission.

Disasters
Three trains on the Nishinari Line in Osaka, Japan collided and exploded while approaching Ajikawaguchi Station; 181 people were killed.

75 years ago
1945


Hit parade
U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Don't Fence Me In--Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters (5th week at #1)
--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
--Kate Smith
--Horace Heidt and his Musical Knights
2 I Dream of You (More than You Dream I Do)--Tommy Dorsey and his Orchestra
--Andy Russell
--Frank Sinatra
--Perry Como
3 Rum and Coca-Cola--The Andrews Sisters
4 Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate the Positive--Johnny Mercer and the Pied Pipers with Paul Weston and His Orchestra
--Artie Shaw and his Orchestra
--Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters
5 I'm Making Believe--The Ink Spots and Ella Fitzgerald
6 One Meat Ball--The Andrews Sisters
7 The Trolley Song--The Pied Pipers
--Vaughn Monroe and his Orchestra
--Judy Garland
8 There Goes that Song Again--Russ Morgan and his Orchestra
--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
9 And Her Tears Flowed Like Wine--Stan Kenton and his Orchestra
10 Confessin' (That I Love You)--Ella Fitzgerald and the Song Spinners
--Perry Como

Singles entering the chart were Horace Heidt and his Musical Knights' version of Don't Fence Me In; Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters' version of Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate the Positive; Perry Como's version of Confessin' (That I Love You); Robin Hood, with versions by Les Brown and his Orchestra; and Tony Pastor and his Orchestra (#12); Cocktails for Two by Spike Jones and his City Slickers (#13); I'm Beginning to See the Light, with versions by Harry James and his Orchestra; and Duke Ellington and his Orchestra (#14); and A Little on the Lonely Side by Frankie Carle and his Orchestra (#21).

On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on MBS
Tonight's episode: The Werewolf of Vair

War
U.S. troops broke into Germany from the Ardennes bulge, crossing at the Our River near Oberhausen and Peteskirsche, and captured Schlierbach, Welchenhausen, and Stupbach. Soviet troops invaded Germany's northeastern province of Pomerania on a 30-mile front, driving to Woldenberg, only 93 miles from Berlin. U.S. troops in the Philippines took Rosario in northeastern Luzon after two weeks of fighting; other forces landed on the island's west coast, establishing beachheads in the province of Zambales.

Politics and government
King Peter II of Yugoslavia abandoned his stand against plans for a regency.

Law
The Argentine government of President Edelmiro Farrell decreed drastic penalties for almost every form of treason, espionage, and sabotage.

Labour
Harry Bridges, the Australian-born leader of the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union (ILWU), won a U.S. Supreme Court petition for a review of the U.S. government's order deporting him.

Scandal
The U.S. Justice Department filed suit against seven companies and nine individuals, charging a conspiracy to restrict production, monopolize sales, and arbitrarily inflate prices of 95% of the world's output of diamonds.

Two Brooklyn College basketball players arrived at the Brooklyn apartment of Henry Rosen to tell him and partner Harvey Stemmer that they had decided not to "intentionally lose" their game against the University of Akron, scheduled for the following night at Boston Garden. The players had accepted $1,000 to throw the game. As they arrived at the apartment, so did police and detectives, who suspected Mr. Rosen of being a fence for stolen goods. The statement by the players, who were never publicly identified, was the beginning of the first college basketball gambling scandal.

70 years ago
1950


Died on this date
Ahmad I, 64 or 65
. Sheikh of Kuwait, 1921-1950. Sheikh Sir Ahmad I, the son of Sheikh Jaber II, succeeded his uncle Salem on the throne. He was the lead cavalry commander and founder of the Military of Kuwait and the Directorate of Public Security Force. Sheikh Sir Ahmad was succeeded by his cousin Abdullah III.

R. Sudiman, 40. Indonesian military officer. General Sudiman, the Japanese-trained chief of staff of the Indonesian Army, died of tuberculosis.

Diplomacy
Ethiopia protested to the United Nations against the appointment of General Guglielmo Nasi as Governor of Italian Somaliland, charging that he was once listed as a war criminal by the Allies for his actions during the Italo-Ethiopian War.

Archaeology
Dr. George F. Carter of Johns Hopkins University reported in Geographical Review that studies in a cliff near La Jolla, California indicated that man lived in North America 40,000 years ago rather than 4,000-20,000 years ago, as previously believed.

Protest
Three Ku Klux Klan groups--Federated Klans of Alabama, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and Association of Carolina Klans--united in Jacksonville, Florida to combat the Federal Council of Churches of Christ, B'nai B'rith, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples.

Economics and finance
Belgium became the first nation to wipe out its indebtedness to the International Monetary Fund, completing repayment of a 1947-48 $33-million loan.

U.S. Budget Director Frank Pace said in a broadcast that the 1951 deficit may be considerably less than the $5.1 billion anticipated in President Harry Truman's budget message.

60 years ago
1960


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Starry Eyed--Michael Holliday

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): Starry Eyed--Michael Holliday

On television tonight
The Twilight Zone, on CBS
Tonight’s episode: The Fever, starring Everett Sloane and Vivi Janiss

50 years ago
1970


On television tonight
Dragnet 1970, on NBC
Tonight's episode: Homicide: Who Killed Who?



Died on this date
Basil Liddell Hart, 74
. French-born U.K. historian and strategist. Sir Basil, born in Paris to English parents, served as a British Army captain during World War I, and remained in the service until 1927. He was known for his influential military history books from the 1920s onward, in which he argued against the use of frontal assault and in favour of the "indirect approach" and reliance on fast-moving armoured formations. Sir Basil's ideas were influential not only in Britain, but in the United States, Australia, and other countries.

Politics and government
Jomo Kenyatta was inaugurated into his second term as President of Kenya.

Indianica
The Indian government ended three years of indecision over the possession of the capital Chandigarh--shared by the predominantly Sikh state of Punjab and the Hindu state of Haryana--by awarding the city to Punjab.

40 years ago
1980


Died on this date
Jimmy Durante, 86
. U.S. entertainer. Mr. Durante, nicknamed "The Great Schnozzola" because of his large nose, was one of the most popular stars in the United States from the 1920s through the 1960s as a singer, pianist, comedian, and actor. His distinctive New York-accented gravelly voice is still widely imitated. Mr. Durante retired in 1972 after an incapacitating stroke, and died 12 days before his 87th birthday.

Diplomacy
American and Canadian officials announced the successful escape from Iran the previous day of six U.S. diplomats who were not among those who had been taken hostage in the U.S. embassy in Tehran on November 4, 1979. Canadian diplomats led by Ken Taylor had protected the Americans and aided in their flight.

War
A Conference of Islamic States passed a resolution calling for the immediate withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan.

Popular culture
Rubik's Cube, patented in Hungary as the "Magic Cube" five years earlier, made its international debut at the Ideal Toy Corporation in Earl's Court, London.

30 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Midnight Taxi--Miho Nakayama

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Another Day in Paradise--Phil Collins (9th week at #1)

Politics and government
Former Progressive Conservative MP and Justice Minister Ray Hnatyshyn was sworn in as Canada’s 24th Governor General, succeeding Jeanne Sauve.

It was announced that former Bulgarian Communist Party leader Todor Zhivkov, under house arrest since January 18 on charges of malfeasance in office and misuse of government property and money, had been transferred to a prison.

A congress of Poland’s United Workers’ (Communist) Party in Warsaw voted overwhelmingly to disband and create at once a new Social Democracy Party. Some former Communist Party members bolted and formed yet another new group, the Social Democratic Union.

Protest
A judge investigating the violence in December 1989 in Timosoara, Romania, said that only 95 civilian deaths had been verified, contrary to earlier reports that there had been thousands of victims.

Diplomacy
U.S. Vice President Dan Quayle concluded a three-day visit to Panama, Honduras, and Jamaica. His purpose was to explain the Latin American policy of the administration of U.S. President George Bush.

Society
Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney deplored a motion by the city council of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario declaring English the official language of the municipality.

Scandal
Marilyn Harrell, a private escrow agent, pled guilty in U.S. federal court to embezzling $4.5 million that was supposed to go to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. She also admitted underreporting income on her tax return for 1987. Ms. Harrell had previously claimed that she had given much of the money to charities and the poor, and had been nicknamed "Robin HUD." Prosecutors said that Ms. Harrell had been "her own biggest charity."

Economics and finance
U.S. President George Bush submitted a budget for the 1991 fiscal year to Congress that called for no increase in taxes. The $1.23-trillion budget included a small cut in real spending for defense--a 1.9% increase in outlays that was below the rate of inflation. Larger cuts were proposed for some domestic programs, but not for environmental programs, the war on drugs, and space projects. Overall, the budget adhered to the deficit limitation of the Gramm-Rudman law, but the Congressional Budget Office and some economists said that the deficit projections were based on economic forecasts that were far too optimistic.

Bank of Canada Governor John Crow told a Canadian Senate banking committee that any reduction in interest rates would have to be done cautiously and gradually.

25 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand: Here Comes the Hotstepper--Ini Kamoze (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Old Pop in an Oak--Rednex

#1 single in Switzerland: Cotton Eye Joe--Rednex (10th week at #1)

Defense
U.S. Secretary of State William Perry said that Haiti was "safe and secure," and that U.S. troops had put an end to all but occasional uses of violence.

Tennis
Andre Agassi defeated Pete Sampras 4-6, 6-1, 7-6, 6-8, 6-4 in the men's final at the Australian Open in Melbourne.

Football
NFL
Super Bowl XXIX @ Joe Robbie Stadium, Miami
San Francisco 49 San Diego 26

Steve Young threw 6 touchdown passes, breaking the Super Bowl record set by former teammate Joe Montana, as the 49ers defeated the Chargers before 74,107 fans to become the first team to win five Super Bowls. Jerry Rice caught 3 of Mr. Young's TD passes, while Ricky Watters caught 2 more and rushed for another touchdown.



20 years ago
2000


Boxing
The dismal professional career of American heavyweight Isaac Poole, which had begun in 1988, ended when he was knocked out in the 1st round by Reynaldo Minus (15-5) in Nassau. Those who wish to see professional boxing abolished can use Mr. Poole as evidence for their case. In 23 professional fights he won 2 and lost 21. He was knocked out 16 times, with 8 of his knockout losses coming in the first round and 6 in the second round. One of his two wins was a 4-round decision in Hialeah, Florida on January 22, 1999 over 58-year-old Levi Forte, who was coming off a 21-year layoff, and whose six most recent fights from 1969-1977 had ended in defeat. Mr. Poole was 38 when he fought Mr. Forte.