Monday, 28 February 2011

March 1, 2011

1,020 years ago
991


Died on this date
En'yū, 31
. Emperor of Japan, 969-984. En'yū, born Morihira-shinnō, succeeded his uncle Reizei on the Chrysanthemum Throne. He abdicated at the age of 26, and became a Buddhist priest.

230 years ago
1781


Politics and government
The U.S. Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation.

200 years ago
1811

World events

Muhammad Ali Pasha, Wali of the Ottoman province of Egypt, killed the leaders of the Mamluk Sultanate to seize power, founding a dynasty that would last until 1952.

130 years ago
1881


Politics and government
Hayter Reed appointed Canadian Indian Agent at Battleford, Northwest Territories.

Business
Henry Birks opened a larger jewellery store on St. James Street in Montreal.

110 years ago
1901


Defense
The Australian Army was formed.

100 years ago
1911


Died on this date
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, Jr., 58
. Dutch-born chemist. Dr. van 't Hoff taught at the University of Amsterdam for 18 years, and eventually moved to Germany. He was regarded as one of the founders of physical chemistry, and was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1901 "[for his] discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions." Dr. van 't Hoff died of tuberculosis.

90 years ago
1921


Protest
Following mass protests in Petrograd demanding greater freedom in the Russia, the Kronstadt rebellion began, with sailors and citizens taking up arms against the Bolsheviks.

80 years ago
1931


At the movies
Dracula, directed by George Melford, and starring Carlos Villarías and Lupita Tovar, opened in theatres in Havana.



75 years ago
1936


Energy
The Hoover Dam was completed.

Labour
A three-day sitdown strike began aboard the American ocean liner S.S. California as it was docked in San Pedro, California, leading to the demise of the International Seamen's Union and the creation of the National Maritime Union.

70 years ago
1941


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Frenesi--Artie Shaw and his Orchestra (11th week at #1)

Radio
W47NV began operations in Nashville, Tennessee, becoming the first FM radio station in the United States.

War
German troops occupied Varna and Sofia. German military authorities fined the city of Amsterdam $8 million as a penalty for disorders against the Nazi occupation. The Soviet Navy newspaper Red Fleet reported that Japan had been secretly building a fleet to be used in the event of a war against the United States.

Defense
Bulgarian Prime Minister Bogdan Philov signed the Tripartite Pact in Vienna, allying Hungary with the Axis powers.

The United States Senate approved a $15,000 appropriation for a seven-man committee, to be led by Sen. Harry Truman (Democrat--Missouri), to probe the defense spending program.

Communications
Overseas and transcontinental shortwave circuits and telephone communications were disrupted by sunspot activity in the worst magnetic storm since April 1940.

Horse racing
Bay View, a 58-1 longshot, won the $100,000 Santa Anita Handicap, earning $89,360.

60 years ago
1951


Diplomacy
The United Nations Palestine Conciliation Commission set up a Jerusalem office under Holgar Andersen of Denmark to handle questions affecting the rights and property of Palestinian refugees.

India opposed United Nations plans for appointing a new Kashmir mediator, saying that peace plans already adopted would work if Pakistan stopped menacing Kashmir with threats of an Islamic holy war.

Protest
The Brazilian Army put down rioting in Sao Luis, where political opponents attempted to prevent the inauguration of Eugenio de Barros was Governor of Marannao State.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Commerce Department barred all shipments to Soviet bloc nations without a license.

Labour
Representatives of the U.S.A.'s railroads and 15 unions agreed on a 12½c hourly pay raise plus cost-of-living adjustments after workers ended their wildcat strike.

50 years ago
1961


Politics and government
Uganda became self-governing; the first direct elections to the Legislative Council were held on March 23.

U.S. President John F. Kennedy addressed various issues at a news conference in Washington.



Americana
U.S. President Kennedy signed an executive order establishing, on a temporary pilot basis, the Peace Corps, which he described as "a pool of trained men and women sent overseas by the United States Government or through private institutions and organizations to help foreign countries meet their urgent needs for skilled manpower." On the same day, Mr. Kennedy sent a message to Congress urging the establishment of a permanent Peace Corps. He said at a press conference, "It is our hope to have between 500 and 1,000 people in the field by the end of this year, " and noted that the cost of the program for fiscal 1961 would be paid from funds already appropriated for foreign aid.

Education
At the same press conference where he spoke about the Peace Corps, U.S. President John F. Kennedy addressed the denial of federal government aid to parochial and other sectarian schools, saying, "There isn’t any room for debate on that subject. It is prohibited by the Constitution, and the Supreme Court has made that very clear." Members of the U.S. Roman Catholic hierarchy, meeting in Washington, decided to oppose the school aid program unless it included aid to parochial schools. They pressed for an amendment to provide long-term low-interest federal loans to private schools, which they held would be "strictly within the framework of the Constitution."



40 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Shiretoko Ryojō--Tokiko Kato

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison

Terrorism
A bomb exploded in the United States Capitol building in Washington, D.C. that caused $300,000 in damage but injured no one. The Weather Underground terrorist movement claimed credit for the bombing. U.S. President Richard Nixon said the Capitol would remain open to the public.

Defense
In a reversal of party policy, the U.K. Conservative government of Prime Minister Edward Heath announced that it would withdraw from the Persian Gulf in 1971, in line with the preceding Labour government’s plan to leave the area as part of Britain’s east-of-Suez Canal troop withdrawal.

Politics and government
Bill Davis was sworn in as Premier of Ontario, succeeding John Robarts as head of the province's Progressive Conservative government.

Pakistani President Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan indefinitely postponed the pending national assembly session because of disagreement over a proposed new constitution, precipitating massive civil disobedience in East Pakistan.

10 days of voting began in India’s parliamentary elections. The New Congress Party, led by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, was the incumbent government.

Labour
As many as 1.5 million workers in the U.K. walked off the job for the day to protest the government’s new industrial relations bill.

30 years ago
1981


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Woman--John Lennon

#1 single in Switzerland: Life is for Living--Barclay James Harvest

Austria's Top 10 (Ö3)
1 Stop the Cavalry--Jona Lewie
2 Angel of Mine--Frank Duval & Orchestra
3 Some Broken Hearts Never Mend--Telly Savalas
4 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon
5 Super Trouper--ABBA
6 Felicidad (Margherita)--Boney M.
7 Imagine--John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band
8 Love Will Tear Us Apart--Chuzpe
9 Lies--Status Quo
10 More than I Can Say--Leo Sayer

Singles entering the chart were Love Will Tear Us Apart; Lies; and Never Knew Love Like This Before by Stephanie Mills (#19).

Crime
Irish Republican Army member and convicted terrorist Bobby Sands began a hunger strike in Maze Prison, near Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Oil
Alberta cut oil production to protest the energy policy of the federal government of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. The federal government replied by a compensation charge as Energy Minister Marc Lalonde matched Alberta cutbacks by the so-called Lougheed Levy to subsidize imports.

Economics and finance
The government of Poland cut sugar rations by half and announced that it would institute meat rationing on April 1.

25 years ago
1986


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Adesso Tu--Eros Ramazzotti (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Going--Billy Ocean (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Going--Billy Ocean (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Chain Reaction--Diana Ross

#1 single in the U.K.: When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Going--Billy Ocean (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Kyrie--Mr. Mister

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Kyrie--Mr. Mister
2 How Will I Know--Whitney Houston
3 When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Going--Billy Ocean
4 Sara--Starship
5 Living in America--James Brown
6 Life in a Northern Town--The Dream Academy
7 Silent Running--Mike + the Mechanics
8 The Sweetest Taboo--Sade
9 These Dreams--Heart
10 Burning Heart--Survivor

Singles entering the chart were So Far Away by Dire Straits (#64); West End Girls by Pet Shop Boys (#69); For America by Jackson Browne (#71); All the King's Horses by the Firm (#83); Shelter Me by Joe Cocker (#88); and In My Dreams by Dokken (#90).

Canada’s Top 10 (RPM)
1 How Will I Know--Whitney Houston
2 Conga--Miami Sound Machine
3 When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Going--Billy Ocean
4 Kyrie--Mr. Mister
5 Living in America--James Brown
6 That’s What Friends are For--Dionne and Friends (with Elton John, Gladys Knight & Stevie Wonder)
7 Life in a Northern Town--The Dream Academy
8 Rock Me Amadeus--Falco
9 I Miss You--Klymaxx
10 Sara--Starship

Singles entering the chart were Kiss by Prince (#73); Let's Go All the Way by Sly Fox (#87); I Touch Roses by Rock of Love (#88); Yeh Yeh by Matt Bianco (#91); Wood Beez (Pray Like Aretha Franklin) by Scritti Politti (#94); No Easy Way Out by Robert Tepper (#96); Le Bel Age by Pat Benatar (#97); and X-Ray Eyes by Jim Foster (#98).

Hockey
NHL
Detroit 6 @ Toronto 4
Vancouver 2 @ Calgary 3

20 years ago
1991


Died on this date
Edwin Land, 81
. U.S. inventor. In 1932, Mr. Land co-founded the company that became Polaroid Corporation. He was best known for inventing a camera that processed photographs within the camera and delivered the prints within 60 seconds.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the index of leading economic indicators had declined 0.4% from January. With revisions in previous data, this marked the sixth straight monthly decline.

Business
Maclean-Hunter sold CHCH-TV in Hamilton to WIC Western International Communications for $46 million.

Labour
Nearly 200,000 coal miners went on strike in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Russia, demanding higher pay. The strike spread and soon included a demand by the miners that Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev resign.

Disasters
More than 160 Somali refugees, fleeing their war-torn country, drowned when their overcrowded dhow ran aground several hundred yards from shore off Kenya.

10 years ago
2001


Terrorism
Nearly five months after being abducted, seven foreign oil workers--four Americans, and one each from New Zealand, Chile, and Argentina--were freed in a jungle region of Ecuador. The seven men had been taken from an oilfield owned by the Spanish-Argentinian company Repsol YPF. Their employers paid a ransom of $13 million.

Economics and finance
The U.S. unemployment rate in February stood at 4.2%. Consumer prices had increased 0.3% over January, while producer prices had increased 0.1%. The index of leading economic indicators had declined 0.2% from January.

February 29 (2011)

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Sandy Mains!

75 years ago
1936

On the radio

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Louis Hector and Harry West, on MBS
Tonight’s episode: The Reigate Puzzle

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Don Sutherin! Mr. Sutherin joined the Hamilton Tiger-Cats of the Canadian Football League during the 1958 season as a fullback and defensive back. He then went to the National Football League, playing for the New York Giants in 1959 and the Pittsburgh Steelers in 1959-1960. Mr. Sutherin rejoined the Tiger-Cats in time for the last game of the 1960 season and remained with the team through 1966. He refused to report to the Edmonton Eskimos when he was traded in 1967, and his rights were eventually traded to the Ottawa Rough Riders. He played with the Rough Riders through the pre-season of 1970, and finished his career with a 5-game stint with the Toronto Argonauts in 1970. He was an Eastern Conference All-Star 6 times, and an All-Canadian 3 times. Mr. Sutherin led the East in scoring 3 times, and at the time of his retirement he stood third in CFL career scoring (714 points), first in career field goals (114), and first in career interceptions (58). His 11 interceptions in 1961 (in a 14-game season) were a single-season record at the time. He played in 8 Grey Cups, and was on the winning side 4 times. Mr. Sutherin then put in many years as an assistant coach with the Ottawa Rough Riders, Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Edmonton Eskimos, and Calgary Stampeders, and was the Tiger-Cats’ head coach from 1995-1997. He was inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame in 1992.

February 28, 2011

150 years ago
1861


Americana
U.S. President James Buchanan signed an act creating the territory of Colorado.

120 years ago
1891


Died on this date
George Hearst, 70
. U.S. magnate and politician. Mr. Hearst became wealthy through mining activities in the western United States, especially with silver in Utah. A Democrat, he represented California in the United States Senate from March-August 1886 and 1887 until his death. Mr. Hearst was the son of publishing magnate William Randolph Hearst.

110 years ago
1901


Born on this date
Linus Pauling
. U.S. chemist. Dr. Pauling was awarded the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances" and the 1962 Nobel Peace Prize "for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing". He lost a libel suit against National Review when the magazine, in 1962, accused him of being a "fellow traveller" in sympathy with Soviet Communism. Dr. Pauling received his reward, however, when he was one of seven winners of the 1968-1969 International Lenin Peace Prize from the U.S.S.R. In his later years, Dr. Pauling was a prominent advocate of the use of large amounts of vitamin C for health and longevity. He died on August 19, 1994 at the age of 93.

80 years ago
1931


Football
CRU
The Canadian Rugby Union adopted the forward pass; it had been used in the Western Canada Rugby Football Union since 1929.

75 years ago
1936


Died on this date
Charles Nicolle, 69
. French bacteriologist. Dr. Nicolle was awarded the 1928 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his identification of lice as the transmitter of epidemic typhus.

Protest
Charges against the five leaders of the 1935 On to Ottawa Trek were dropped.

70 years ago
1941


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): The Woodpecker Song--Kate Smith; Glenn Miller and his Orchestra (4th month at #1)

Died on this date
Alfonso XIII, 54
. King of Spain, 1886-1941. Alfonso XIII was King from birth, his father Alfonso XII having died the previous year. Alfonso XIII's mother Maria Christina of Austria served as regent until Alfonso XIII's 16th birthday in 1902. King Alfonso XIII supported the government of dictator Le Marqués de Estella from 1923-1930, but fled the country in 1931 when the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed. Living in exile in Rome,Alfonso XIII maintained his claim to the throne until six weeks before his death, when abdicated in favour of his third son Juan.

War
A Japanese spokesman said that France must accept Japan's mediation proposal in the Thailand-Indochina dispute today or face the consequences.

Diplomacy
U.S. consulates in the Italian cities of Naples and Palermo were closed on the Italian government's request, and their staffs were transferred to the consulate general in Rome.

Defense
A U.S. federal grand jury in Honolulu indicted 80 people, most of them Japanese, for conspiring to violate laws on registration of sampans, which were frequently seen in the area when the U.S. fleet was maneuvering.

Weather
A blizzard resulting in 12-foot snowdrifts swept the eastern U.S. seaboard from Maine to Virginia.

Economics and finance
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission member Gerhard Gesell and commissioner Sumner Pike recommended to the Temporary National Economic Committee (TNEC) that a federal insurance advisory council be created.

Labour
U.S. Office of Production Management Director William Knudsen submitted a three-point plan to curb strikes in defense industries, providing for federal mediation; a 60% strike vote; and a 40-day delay for OPM to investigate and report.

Boxing
World lightweight champion Lew Jenkins (48-16-5) scored a technical knockout of former champion Lou Ambers (91-8-7) at 2:26 of the 7th round of a non-title fight at Madison Square Garden in New York. Mr. Jenkins knocked Mr. Ambers down twice in the 7th round. Mr. Jenkins had scored a 3rd-round TKO on May 10, 1940 to win the championship from Mr. Ambers. This was Mr. Ambers' last professional fight.

60 years ago
1951


Music
Composer Igor Stravinsky was awarded the Gold Medal for Music by the National Institute and American Academy of Arts and Letters.

Politics and government
The French cabinet of Prime Minister Rene Pleven resigned when it failed to agree on single-ballot or runoff elections for the National Assembly.

Crime
The U.S. Senate Crime Investigating Committee said that at least two major crime syndicates operated in the United States: one run by Frank Costello and Joe Adonis between New York and Miami, and the other by Tony Acardo, Rocco and Charles Fischetti, and Jake "Greasy Thumb" Guzik between Chicago and Miami.

Health
The American Cancer Society revealed that more men than women were dying of cancer for the first time since statistics on all causes of death had been kept.

Labour
Organized labour in the United States withdrew its representatives from all mobilization agencies in protest against the 10% ceiling on wage raises, alleged domination of the defense effort by big business, and Defense Mobilization Director Charles Wilson's "arrogant seizure of control over manpower."

50 years ago
1961


On television tonight
Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond, hosted by John Newland, on ABC
Tonight's episode: The Stranger, starring Bill Nagy, Peter Dynely, and Patrick McAlinney



Alfred Hitchcock Presents, on NBC
Tonight's episode: The Throwback, starring

Thriller, hosted by Boris Karloff, on NBC
Tonight's episode: Well of Doom, starring Ronald Howard, Henry Daniell, and Torin Thatcher



Diplomacy
The three major groups in the Congo that were opposed to the faction loyal to recently-deposed and assassinated Premier Patrice Lumumba signed a pact establishing a "common bloc against the danger of UN trusteeship, Communist tyranny and a Korean-style war." The leaders were newly-installed Congolese Premier Joseph Ileo; Moise Tshombe, president of the secessionist province of Katanga; and Albert Kalonji of the province of South Kasai. They said they had invited Antoine Gizenga, recognized by 20 Communist and neutral countries as the leader of Congo’s "legitimate" government, and his associates to a meeting of all factions to take place in March in Tananarive, Malagasy Republic.

40 years ago
1971


Music
The Beach Boys performed at Symphony Hall in Boston; David Marks, who had been a member of the group from 1962-1963 and was currently studying music in Boston, rejoined the group for an encore.



World events
Ecuador had seized, fined, and released seven U.S. tuna boats on charges of fishing within Ecuadorian territorial waters since February 10.

Golf
Jack Nicklaus won the Professional Golfers Association Championship for the second time, becoming the first golfer to win each of the four major tournaments at least twice. The 1971 PGA Championship was held at the PGA National Golf Club course at North Palm Beach, Florida.



30 years ago
1981


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Woman in Love--Barbra Streisand

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Shine Up--Doris D and the Pins

#1 single in Ireland: Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre (2nd week at #1)

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Stars on 45--Stars on 45 (2nd week at #1)
2 Shine Up--Doris D and the Pins
3 Amoureux Solitaires/Dis Moi que Tu M'aimes--Lio
4 If You Could Read My Mind - Special U.S. Disco-Mix--Viola Wills
5 Embarrassment--Madness
6 Flip Fluitketel/Er Staat Een Paard in de Gang--André Van Duin
7 Imagine--John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band
8 Rock this Town--Stray Cats
9 Ik Wil Op M'n Kop Een Kamerbreed Tapijt--Barry Hughes & De Kwaffeurs
10 While You See a Chance--Steve Winwood

Singles entering the chart were It's a Love Thing by the Whispers (#25); Don't Stop the Music by Yarbrough & Peoples (#28); I Can Dance by Sugar and the Lollipops (#31); My Girl by Rod Stewart (#32); Hokie Pokie (All Over the World) by Big John Russel (#34); and Leila (The Queen of Sheba) by Dolly Dots (#37).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
2 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
3 Woman--John Lennon
4 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
5 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
6 The Best of Times--Styx
7 The Tide is High--Blondie
8 Giving it Up for Your Love--Delbert McClinton
9 Same Old Lang Syne--Dan Fogelberg
10 The Winner Takes it All--ABBA

Singles entering the chart were I Can't Stand It by Eric Clapton and his Band (#63); The Party's Over (Hopelessly in Love) by Journey (#73); Mister Sandman by Emmylou Harris (#83); Hold on Loosely by 38 Special (#85); Hold On by Badfinger (#86); Lovers After All by Melissa Manchester and Peabo Bryson (#88); and Burn Rubber (Why You Wanna Hurt Me) by the Gap Band (#95).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
2 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
3 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
4 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
5 Woman--John Lennon
6 The Tide is High--Blondie
7 The Best of Times--Styx
8 Same Old Lang Syne--Dan Fogelberg
8 Rapture--Blondie
10 Giving it Up for Your Love--Delbert McClinton

Singles entering the chart were I Can't Stand It by Eric Clapton and his Band (#63); The Party's Over (Hopelessly in Love) by Journey (#84); Ch Ch Cherie by the Johnny Average Band featuring Nikki Wills (#86); Walking on Thin Ice by Yoko Ono (#88); and Hold On by Badfinger (#90).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Record World)
1 9 to 5--Dolly Parton (2nd week at #1)
2 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
3 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
4 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
5 Woman--John Lennon
6 The Tide is High--Blondie
7 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
8 Hello Again--Neil Diamond
9 Same Old Lang Syne--Dan Fogelberg
10 Rapture--Blondie

Singles entering the chart were I Can't Stand It by Eric Clapton and his Band (#72); I Love You by Climax Blues Band (#87); The Party's Over (Hopelessly in Love) by Journey (#88); Bon Bon Vie (Gimme the Good Life) by T.S. Monk (#89); and Thighs High (Grip Your Hips and Move) by Tom Browne (#97).

Canada’s Top 10 (RPM)
1 The Tide is High--Blondie (4th week at #1)
2 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
3 Hey Nineteen--Steely Dan
4 Passion--Rod Stewart
5 The Best of Times--Styx
6 Woman--John Lennon
7 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon
8 Tell it Like it Is--Heart
9 Games People Play--Alan Parsons Project
10 He Can’t Love You--Michael Stanley Band

Singles entering the chart included Crying by Don McLean (#48); and Banana Republic by the Boomtown Rats (#50).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CFUN)
1 Turn Me Loose--Loverboy
2 Wasn't That a Party--The Rovers
3 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
4 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
5 Every Woman in the World--Air Supply
6 Teacher Teacher--Rockpile
7 Miss Sun--Boz Scaggs
8 Stealin' the Night--J.C. Stone
9 The Best of Times--Styx
10 Hey Nineteen--Steely Dan

Singles entering the chart were Giving it Up for Your Love by Delbert McClinton (#27); and Cover Girl by Prism (#30).

War
A high-level diplomatic mission including the presidents of Bangladesh, Gambia, Guinea, and Pakistan, as well as high-ranking officials from Malaysia, Senegal, Turkey, and the Palestine Liberation Organization arrived in Tehran to attempt to end the war between Iran and Iraq. The mission was scheduled to have talks with Iranian President Abolhassan Bani-Sadr and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

Defense
British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher promised her nation’s support for U.S. president Ronald Reagan’s blocking of Soviet encroachment in El Salvador, Africa, and the Persian Gulf.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 3 @ Montreal 5

25 years ago
1986


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Jeanny--Falco (8th week at #1)

Died on this date
Laura Z. Hobson, 85
. U.S. author. Mrs. Hobson, born Laura Kean Zametkin, was known for her novel Gentleman's Agreement (1947), which was made into an Academy Award-winning film, also in 1947.

Olof Palme, 59. Prime Minister of Sweden, 1969-1976; 1982-1986. Mr. Palme became leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party in 1969, succeeding Tage Erlander as party leader and Prime Minister. The Social Democrats lost the 1976 and 1979 elections, but were restored to power in 1982. Mr. Palme was known for his foreign policy of non-alignment and his support for Third World "liberation" movements. He was shot twice in the stomach and his wife was shot in the back as they left a movie theatre in Stockholm at 11:30 P.M. She survived.

Weather
It was such a nice day in Edmonton that this blogger wore shorts outside.

Business
Westar Mining Limited (formerly the British Columbia Coal Division of the British Columbia Resources Investment Corporation) closed the Balmer North mine at Michel, B.C.

Scandal
Baseball Commissioner Peter Ueberroth issued one-year suspensions or fines amounting to 10% of their income against Keith Hernandez, Dave Parker, and five other major league players for using cocaine. 21 players in all were penalized in the largest drug-abuse scandal in major league history.

20 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Do the Bartman--The Simpsons (6th week at #1)

War
Just before the Gulf War cease-fire went into effect, 800 U.S. tanks clashed with 300 Iraqi tanks north of Kuwait. Iraq reportedly lost 200 tanks and the U.S. lost none. According to a U.K. white paper issued in July 1991, allied combat deaths in the war were as follows: U.S.A., 147; Saudi Arabia, 33; U.K., 24; Egypt, 10; United Arab Emirates, 6; France, 2; Kuwait, 1, for a total of 223. A U.S. Defense Department spokesman said on July 17 that the U.S. had suffered 148 combat deaths and 120 non-combatant deaths during the war, and another 13 after the cease-fire. U.S. personnel wounded in combat totalled 458. 11 U.S. women were killed in combat and 4 in non-combat situations, according to the spokesman.

10 years ago
2001


War
Soldiers from Rwanda and Uganda began withdrawing from front-line positions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Economics and finance
U.S. President George W. Bush submitted a budget to Congress for fiscal 2002 of $1.96 trillion, projecting surpluses for the next 10 years of $5.6 trillion. Defense spending was to increase by $14.2 billion to $310.5 billion, but the departments of Transportation, Energy, Interior, and Agriculture would have their budgets cut. The overall budget called for an increase in spending of 4%.

Disasters
10 people were killed and more than 70 injured when a high-speed passenger train travelling from Newcastle to London collided with a goods engine on the East Coast Main Line in North Yorkshire.

250 people were injured when an earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale whose epicentre was near Olympia, Washington damaged buildings and pavement in Seattle, with tremors being felt in Vancouver, British Columbia and Salt Lake City. Damage, at $3 billion, was considered modest.



Sunday, 27 February 2011

February 27, 2011

320 years ago
1691


Born on this date
Edward Cave
. English publisher and editor. Mr. Cave founded The Gentleman's Magazine, the first general interest magazine, which was published in London from 1731-1922. He died on January 10, 1754 at the age of 62.

210 years ago
1801


Politics and government
Pursuant to the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801, Washington, D.C. was placed under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Congress.

130 years ago
1881


Born on this date
Sveinn Björnsson
. Regent of Iceland, 1941-1944; 1st President of Iceland, 1944-1952. Mr. Björnsson was a public prosecutor before entering politics. He was a member of Reykjavik City Council (1912-1920) and was its chairman (1918-1920). Mr. Björnsson represented the city in the Althing (1914-1915, 1919-1920), and was twice Icelandic Ambassador to Denmark (1920-1924, 1926-1940). He was Regent of Iceland during the Nazi occupation of Denmark, and being elected President after the country became a republic. Mr. Björnsson took Iceland into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949, and in 1951 allowed American troops into the country as the Iceland Defence Force. Mr. Björnsson died in office on January 25, 1952 at the age of 70, after several years of poor health.

Died on this date
George Colley, 45
. U.K. military officer. Major General Sir George joined the British Army in 1852 and served in South Africa, and was named Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Natal and High Commissioner for South Eastern Africa in April 1880. He was killed leading his troops against Boer forces in the Battle of Majuba Hill.

War
Transvaal forces commanded by General Nicolaas Smit defeated British forces led by Major General Sir George Colley in the Battle of Majuba Hill in South Africa. It was the final and decisive battle of the First Boer War.

120 years ago
1891


Born on this date
David Sarnoff
. Belarusian-born U.S. broadcasting executive. Mr. Sarnoff founded Radio Corporation of America in 1919, and led RCA until his retirement in 1970. He was a major figure in the development of radio and television. Mr. Sarnoff died on December 12, 1971 at the age of 80.

90 years ago
1921


Politics and government
The International Working Union of Socialist Parties was founded in Vienna.

80 years ago
1931


Died on this date
Chandra Shekhar Azad, 24
. Indian revolutionist. Chandra Shekhar, who took the name Azad ("Free"), led the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA) in resistance against British rule. He died in Allahabad, killing three policemen in a shootout and then shooting himself when his situation became hopeless.

80 years ago
1941


Died on this date
William D. Byron, 45
. U.S. politician. Mr. Byron, a Democrat, served in local and state politics in Maryland before representing Maryland's 6th District in the United States House of Representatives from 1939 until his death as one of the passengers of Eastern Air Lines Flight 21 when the Douglas DC-3 crashed while preparing to land in Atlanta.

Movies
The Academy Awards for 1940 were presented at the Biltmore Bowl at the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles. The winners included: Best Picture--Rebecca; Best Director--John Ford (The Grapes of Wrath); Best Actor--James Stewart (The Philadelphia Story); Best Actress--Ginger Rogers (Kitty Foyle); Best Supporting Actor--Walter Brennan (The Westerner); Best Supporting Actress--Jane Darwell (The Grapes of Wrath).



Politics and government
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill challenged his opponents in the House of Commons, demanding a vote of confidence and receiving unanimous support.

Thomas Miller was installed as Lieutenant-Governor of Saskatchewan.

Defense
U.S. Senator Robert Taft (Republican--Ohio) accused President Franklin D. Roosevelt of "deliberately holding back aid to England in order to put pressure on Congress" to pass Lend-Lease. William Bullitt, former U.S. Ambassador to France and the U.S.S.R., told the Overseas Press Club in New York that a national emergency should be proclaimed, if necessary, to speed up defense preparations.

Diplomacy
A German businessman in Bulgaria filed legal charges against U.S. Minister to Bulgaria George Earle, claiming that Mr. Earle had hit him with a bottle.

World events
Venezuelan police raided a secret Communist radio station near Caracas.

Crime
A U.S. grand jury in Pittsburgh indicted 71 people under the postal law on charges of operating a lottery ring in eight eastern states with a total income of millions of dollars.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Reconstruction Finance Corporation bought $136,330,557 worth of state of Arkansas tax-exempt highway refunding bonds, because the 3½% interest rate demanded by a bank syndicate was considered too high.

Disasters
8 of 16 people aboard Eastern Air Lines Flight 21, a Douglas DC-3 flying from New York to Atlanta via Washington, were killed when the plane crashed while preparing to land at Candler Field in Atlanta. U.S. Representative William D. Byron (Democrat--Maryland) was among the dead, and Eastern Air Lines President Eddie Rickenbacker was seriously injured.

60 years ago
1951


On television tonight
Suspense, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Margin for Safety, starring Francis Bethencourt, Denholm Elliott, and Una O'Connor

War
Chinese Communist forces fell back under heavy U.S. pressure in east-central Korea between Hoengsong and Pangnim.

World events
The Czechoslovakian government announced the arrest of former Foreign Minister Vladimir Clementis in connection with an abortive pro-Western coup attempt. Gustav Husak, former head of he Slovak Board of Commissioners, was expelled from the Communist Party on the same charges.

Politics and government
The Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect when Minnesota became the 36th state to ratify it. It reads:

Amendment XXII
(The proposed amendment was sent to the states Mar. 21, 1947, by the Eightieth Congress. It was ratified Feb. 27, 1951.)

Section 1
[Limit to number of terms a president may serve.]

No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

Section 2
[Ratification.]

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.
Journalism
Armed thugs and police thwarted efforts by employees of the anti-Peronist Buenos Aires newspaper La Prensa to resume publication. One worker was killed and four injured in the assault.

Law
The American Bar Association House of Delegates, meeting in Chicago, approved the expulsion of Communists from the organization.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Office of Price Stabilization imposed a new price control system covering 200,000 retail items and affecting an estimated 233,000 retail stores.

50 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): The Green Leaves of Summer--The Brothers Four

#1 single in France (IFOP): Non, je ne regrette rien--Édith Piaf (7th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Pony Time--Chubby Checker
2 Calcutta--Lawrence Welk and his Orchestra
3 There's a Moon Out Tonight--The Capris
4 Surrender--Elvis Presley
5 Don't Worry--Marty Robbins
6 Dedicated to the One I Love--The Shirelles
7 Where the Boys Are--Connie Francis
8 Shop Around--The Miracles
9 Ebony Eyes--The Everly Brothers
10 Wheels--The String-A-Longs

Singles entering the chart were Please Love Me Forever by Cathy Jean and the Roommates (#71); Lonely Man by Elvis Presley (#84); Ja-Da by Johnny and the Hurricanes (#86); All of Everything by Frankie Avalon (#91); Bewildered by James Brown and the Famous Flames (#94); Won't Be Long by Aretha Franklin with the Ray Bryant Combo (#95); More than I Can Say by Bobby Vee (#96); Tunes of Glory by Mitch Miller with his Orchestra & Chorus (#97); A Lover's Question by Ernestine Anderson (#98); Cherry Berry Wine by Charlie McCoy (#99); and Battle of Gettysburg by Fred Darian (#100). Lonely Man was the B-side of Surrender, and was written for, but eventually cut from, the movie Wild in the Country (1961).

Diplomacy
Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru told his country’s parliament that he was opposed to any plan to reorganize the United Nations’ Secretary-General’s office "at the present moment," and that he approved continuation of the UN’s Congo operation.

Labour
The first congress of the Spanish Trade Union Organisation was inaugurated.

40 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in Rhodesia (Lyons Maid): I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Vent'anni--Massimo Ranieri (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (5th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (5th week at #1)

Australia's Top 10 (Go-Set)
1 The Pushbike Song--The Mixtures
2 My Sweet Lord--George Harrison
3 Knock Three Times--Dawn
4 I Think I Love You--The Partridge Family
5 Eleanor Rigby--Zoot
6 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
7 Band of Gold--Freda Payne
8 My Baby's Gone--Axiom
9 Lonely Days--Bee Gees
10 Gypsy Woman--Brian Hyland

Singles entering the chart were Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight by Creedence Clearwater Revival (#27); Rose Garden by Lynn Anderson (#33); Woodstock by Matthews Southern Comfort (#37); Throw a Little Loving My Way by Tadpole (#40); Your Song by Elton John (#49); The Prophet by Ronnie Burns (#53); Voodoo Chile by Jimi Hendrix (#54); San Bernadino by Christie (#57); When I'm Dead and Gone by McGuinness Flint (#59); and I Really Don't Want to Know/There Goes My Everything by Elvis Presley (#60).

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Nothing Rhymed--Gilbert O'Sullivan (5th week at #1)
2 Du--Peter Maffray
3 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
4 Bridget the Midget--Ray Stevens
5 Hup Daar is Willem!--Ed en Willem Bever
6 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
7 Holy Holy Life--Golden Earring
8 Butterfly--Danyel Gerard
9 Mother--John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band
10 Silver Moon--Michael Nesmith & the First National Band

Singles entering the chart were Ard Die Heeft De Wereld Cup/Heya Ard Schenk/Ra ta ta by De Specials (#21); Huilen is Voor Jou te Laat by Klaas en Peter (#26); Chirpy, Chirpy, Cheep, Cheep by Lally Stott (#29); Proud Mary by Ike & Tina Turner (#31); Everybody Tries by the Rob Hoeke Rhythm & Blues Group (#32); Zomer in Zeeland by Saskia & Serge (#33); and Everything is Allright by Nanda (#34).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds (3rd week at #1)
2 Mama's Pearl--The Jackson 5
3 Knock Three Times--Dawn
4 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
5 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
6 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
7 Sweet Mary--Wadsworth Mansion
8 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
9 Mr. Bojangles--Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
10 Me and Bobby McGee--Janis Joplin

Singles entering the chart were What is Life by George Harrison (#66); No Love at All by B.J. Thomas (#68); Love's Lines, Angles and Rhymes by the 5th Dimension (#69); Soul Power (Part 1) by James Brown (#84); Ain't Got Time by the Impressions (#85); After the Fire is Gone by Conway Twitty and Loretta Lynn (#86); Bell Bottom Blues by Derek and the Dominoes (#91); Beginning to Feel the Pain by Mac Davis (#92); Don't Make Me Pay for His Mistakes by Z.Z. Hill (#94); One Man's Leftovers (Is Another Man's Feast) by 100 Proof Aged in Soul (#96); Wild World by the Gentrys (#97); and Celia of the Seals by Donovan (#98).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds (3rd week at #1)
2 Mama's Pearl--The Jackson 5
3 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
4 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
5 Sweet Mary--Wadsworth Mansion
6 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
7 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
8 Watching Scotty Grow--Bobby Goldsboro
9 Mr. Bojangles--Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
10 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed

Singles entering the chart were Tongue in Cheek by Sugarloaf (#78); Ain't Got Time by the Impressions (#86); One Man's Leftovers (Is Another Man's Feast) by 100 Proof Aged in Soul (#89); Tulsa by Billy Joe Royal (#91); Standing Here Wondering Which Way to Go by Marion Williams (#93); Give it to Me by the Mob (#94); Funky by the Chambers Brothers (#96); If it's Real What I Feel by Jerry Butler featuring Brenda Lee Eager (#97); Stop the World and Let Me Off by the Flaming Ember (#98); and Bad Water by the Raeletts (#99).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Record World)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds (2nd week at #1)
2 Mama's Pearl--The Jackson 5
3 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
4 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
5 Sweet Mary--Wadsworth Mansion
6 Mr. Bojangles--Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
7 Watching Scotty Grow--Bobby Goldsboro
8 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
9 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
10 Theme from Love Story--Henry Mancini, his Orchestra and Chorus

Singles entering the chart were What is Life/Apple Scruffs by George Harrison (#43); Another Day/Oh Woman, Oh Why by Paul McCartney (#53); What's Going On by Marvin Gaye (#82); Snow Blind Friend by Steppenwolf (#84); Soul Power by James Brown (#86); No Love at All by B.J. Thomas (#88); Bell Bottom Blues by Derek and the Dominoes (#89); Tulsa by Billy Joe Royal (#92); The Pushbike Song by the Mixtures (#93); Hot Pants by Salvage (#95); Do Me Right by the Detroit Emeralds (#96); and Maria (You were the Only One) by Jimmy Ruffin (#97).

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
2 Mr. Bojangles--Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
3 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
4 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
5 Watching Scotty Grow--Bobby Goldsboro
6 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
7 Sweet Mary--Wadsworth Mansion
8 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
9 Hang on to Your Life--The Guess Who
10 Mama's Pearl--The Jackson 5

Singles entering the chart were Oye Como Va by Santana (#60); What is Life by George Harrison (#85); Chairman of the Board by Chairmen of the Board (#87); A Stranger in My Place by Anne Murray (#94); Bed of Rose's by the Statler Brothers (#95); I was Wondering by the Poppy Family (#96); Rosaline by Russell Thornberry (#97); No Love at All by B.J. Thomas (#98); Sundown by Chilliwack (#99); and Just Seven Numbers (Can Straighten Out My Life) by the Four Tops (#100).

Calgary's Top 10 (Glenn's Music)
1 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson (4th week at #1)
2 Stay Awhile--The Bells
3 Theme from Love Story--Henry Mancini, his Orchestra and Chorus
4 I was Wondering--The Poppy Family
5 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
6 1900 Yesterday--Liz Damon's Orient Express
7 Born to Wander--Rare Earth
8 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
9 Fresh as a Daisy--Emitt Rhodes
10 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
Pick hit of the week: Woodstock--Matthews' Southern Comfort

Abominations
Doctors in the first Dutch abortion clinic (the Mildredhuis in Arnhem) started performing artificially-induced abortions.

30 years ago
1981


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): När vi två blir en--Gyllene Tider (12th week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Reality--Richard Sanderson (5th week at #1)

South Africa's Top 10 (Springbok Radio)
1 Can You Feel It--The Jacksons (2nd week at #1)
2 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
3 Passion--Rod Stewart
4 Lady--Kenny Rogers
5 Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre
6 I'm Alright--Kenny Loggins
7 Stop the Cavalry--Jona Lewie
8 Love on the Rocks--Neil Diamond
9 A Lot of Things--Peach
10 The Tide is High--Blondie

Singles entering the chart were Give Me Back My Love by Maywood (#14); Rome by Dschinghis Khan (#18); and De Do Do Do, De Da Da Da by the Police (#19).

Personal
This blogger began a job as a busboy/waiter at Mr. Mike’s Steak House in Edmonton for the minimum wage of $3.50 per hour.

Diplomacy
British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher continued her visit to Washington, declaring that the free world was counting on the U.S. administration of President Ronald Reagan to restore faith in the U.S. dollar. She cautioned Mr. Reagan not to be too quick to accept a Soviet proposal for a summit between himself and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev.

Protest
More than one million people marched through the centre of Madrid in support of King Juan Carlos of Spain and in condemnation of the attempted coup by members of the Civil Guard several days earlier.

Religion
Pope John Paul II departed Anchorage and flew back to Rome, ending his tour of east Asia and Alaska.

Economics and finance
It was announced that U.S. President Ronald Reagan had decided on an additional budget cut of $10 billion-$13 billion to achieve his goal of reducing the growth of federal spending and to offset the budgetary miscalculation on spending in the next fiscal year.

Business
Chrysler Corporation reported a loss of $1.71 billion for 1980, the largest loss in American corporate history. Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors lost a combined total of $4.06 billion in 1980.

25 years ago
1986


Politics and government
Jean Chretien, who had been a Liberal Party Member of Parliament in Canada since 1963 and had served in various ministries as a cabinet minister under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, resigned his seat in the House of Commons, saying that he wanted to enter private life and spend more time with his family. His resignation came less than three weeks after a feud with Liberal leader John Turner over the election of a party president in Quebec.

Disasters
The presidential commission investigating the January 28 explosion of the U.S. space shuttle Challenger, which had killed all seven astronauts aboard, continued hearing testimony. Robert Claysher, a vice-president of Rockwell International, manufacturer of the shuttle, testified that he had notified NASA, "Rockwell can not assure that it is safe to fly." Rockwell had been concerned that ice on the launch pad and other structures would fall off during liftoff and damage the shuttle. Arnold Aldrich, director of the shuttle program at the Kennedy Space Center, testified that NASA engineers had concluded that ice would not damage the shuttle on launch. Commission chairman William Rogers said that NASA had abandoned "good judgement and common sense" in dealing with safety problems.

20 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Crazy--Seal (3rd week at #1)

On television tonight
The Wonder Years, on ABC
Tonight’s episode: Buster

War
The first U.S. military convoy entered Kuwait City. Iraq agreed to a cease-fire in the Gulf War, and agreed to almost all of the allies’ terms. U.S. President George Bush announced at 9 P.M. Eastern Standard Time that, "Kuwait is liberated, Iraq’s army defeated. Our military objectives are met," and that the allies would cease fire at midnight EST. Iraq informed the United Nations that it would accept the 12 Security Council resolutions against it, which included payment of reparations. The cease-fire took effect only 100 hours after the beginning of the ground war. Total allied combat fatalities were listed at 141. Estimates of Iraqis killed and injured numbered as high as 100,000, and the allies held 175,000 prisoners. It was the first war that Canada fought in without incurring a single fatality.

Scandal
The U.S. Senate Ethics Committee reported on its investigation of the so-called "Keating Five,"--U.S. Senators Alan Cranston (Democrat--California); Dennis DeConcini (Democrat--Arizona); Donald Riegle (Democrat--Michigan); John Glenn (Democrat--Ohio); and John McCain (Republican--Arizona)--who were suspected of improper activities on behalf of Charles Keating, chairman of the failed Lincoln Savings and Loan Association in California, the 1989 collapse of which had cost the U.S. government $2 billion. The report found "substantial credible evidence" of misconduct by Sen. Cranston. The committee said that Sen. Cranston or his staff members had on at least four occasions contacted regulators on Mr. Keating’s behalf in close juxtaposition to receiving or soliciting money from Mr. Keating. Sen. Cranston faced the possibility of disciplinary action by the Senate, but the committee issued only mild reprimands to the other four Senators.

Hockey
NHL
Edmonton 2 @ Calgary 4

10 years ago
2001


Crime
Police in Seattle used tear gas to break up a rampage of vandalism by Mardis Gras "celebrants." 70 people were injured.

Economics and finance
George W. Bush delivered his first major address as President of the United States, speaking to a joint session of Congress. He strongly advocated his 10-year $1.6-trillion tax cut, contending that budget surpluses would permit this cut plus additional funding of his education reforms and a prescription drug benefit for old people. Democratic Party Senator Tom Daschle (South Dakota) and Representative Dick Gephardt (Missouri) argued that the U.S. could not afford Mr. Bush’s tax cut, and advocated a tax cut of about half as much, and less weighted toward the wealthy.

Saturday, 26 February 2011

February 26, 2011

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Fats Domino!

150 years ago
1861


Born on this date
Ferdinand I
. Czar of Bulgaria, 1908-1918; Knyaz of Bulgaria, 1887-1908. Ferdinand I, a German prince of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry, was elected Knyaz (ruling prince) of Bulgaria by the Grand National Assembly. He proclaimed Bulgaria's de jure independence from the Ottoman Empire on October 5, 1908, and assumed the title of Czar. Bulgaria sided with the Central Powers in World War I, and in an effort to save the monarchy, Ferdinand abdicated in favour of his son Boris III on October 3, just two days short of 10 years as Czar. Ferdinand I lived the rest of his life in exile in Coburg, Germany, and died on September 10, 1848 at the age of 87.

110 years ago
1901

Died on this date
Chi-hsui; Hsu Cheng-yu
. Chinese rebels. Leaders of the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, the two were beheaded.

70 years ago
1941


War
The United Kingdom announced the first clash between British and German motorized patrols in Libya. Japan presented a "final mediation plan" for settlement of the border dispute between Thailand and French Indochina. U.S. Senator Burton K. Wheeler (Democrat--Montana) challenged the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt to let the American people vote on the issue of American entry into the European war.

Society
The Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano reported that the Congregation of the Holy Office had placed the German book Race, Culture and Christianity by P. Koltz on the list of forbidden works for advocating compulsory sterilization and euthanasia for the unfit.

Scandal
U.S. Justice Department official Maurice Milligan reported that the special Washington grand jury investigating alleged violations of federal election laws during the 1940 campaign returned no indictments.

Business
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission officials Gerhard Gesell and Ernest Howe reported that the tremendous assets of the insurance companies were available only for big business.

60 years ago
1951


Literature
The novel From Here to Eternity by James Jones was published in New York by Charles Scribners' Sons.

Diplomacy
Reports from India said that General Ngaboo, a Tibetan official captured by Chinese Communist forces at Chamdo in eastern Tibet, had gone to Peking to negotiate with the Chinese Communist government on Tibet's future.

Israel and the United States concluded negotiations for a technical aid agreement.

Politics and government
Sultan Mohammed V of Morocco agreed to French demands that he withdraw support from nationalist politicians in his cabinet and administration, who wanted complete independence from France.

Italian Communist Party leader Palmiro Toglatti returned to Rome from Moscow.

Labour
The U.S. Supreme Court invalidated a Wisconsin law prohibiting public utility strikes and requiring conpulsory arbitration of such disputes, ruling that it conflicted with the Taft-Hartley Act.

50 years ago
1961


Died on this date
Mohammed V, 51
. Sultan of Morocco, 1927-1953, 1955-1957; King of Morocco, 1957-1961. Mohammed V acceded to the throne upon the death of his father Yusef. He helped to protect Jews during World War II, and supported Moroccan nationalism after the war. On August 20, 1953 Sultan Mohammed was forced into exile in Corsica by French forces that were occupying Morocco. He returned from exile on November 16, 1955 and was again recognized as Sultan after active opposition to the French protectorate. Mohammed successfully negotiated Morocco’s independence from France in 1956, and took the title of King in 1957. He died after unspecified surgery, and was succeeded by his son Hassan II.

Space
The mission of the Soviet satellite Sputnik 7, launched on February 4, ended. Meanwhile, the Communist Party newspaper Pravda published a picture of the probe Venera 1, launched toward Venus from Sputnik 8 on February 12, describing the probe as a heavily-instrumented airtight cylindrical body with two bulges containing scientific equipment and chemical battery blocks. Exclusive of four aerials and solar batteries, it was 80 inches long and 41 inches in diameter. It was stated that equipment aboard Venera 1 was turned on and off by radio command from the ground and that measurements were radioed to large new aerials set up at various sites of the "outer space radio communications centre" of the U.S.S.R.

40 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Knock Three Times--Dawn

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (5th week at #1)

South Africa's Top 10 (Springbok Radio)
1 No Matter What--Badfinger
2 Knock Three Times--Dawn
3 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
4 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
5 Look Out Here Comes Tomorrow--The Dealians
6 Gypsy Woman--Brian Hyland
7 Mango Mango--Tidal Wave
8 See Me, Feel Me--The Who
9 Mendocino--Michael Holm
10 Sailing--Fuzz

Singles entering the chart were Immigrant Song by Led Zeppelin (#17); and A Summer Prayer for Peace by the Archies (#18).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKLG)
1 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson (2nd week at #1)
2 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
3 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
4 Stay Awhile--The Bells
5 Watching Scotty Grow--Bobby Goldsboro
6 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
7 Put Your Hand in the Hand--Ocean
8 Amazing Grace--Judy Collins
9 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
10 Temptation Eyes--The Grass Roots

Singles entering the chart were Oh What a Feeling by Crowbar (#25); Cried Like a Baby by Bobby Sherman (#26); One Toke Over the Line by Brewer and Shipley (#29); and Free by Chicago (#30).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKVN)
1 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
2 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
3 Watching Scotty Grow--Bobby Goldsboro
4 Woodstock--Matthews' Southern Comfort
5 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
6 Me and Bobby McGee--Janis Joplin
7 Born to Wander--Rare Earth
8 Hang on to Your Life--The Guess Who
9 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
10 Amazing Grace--Judy Collins

Singles entering the chart were Eighteen by Alice Cooper (#26); What is Life by George Harrison (#27); Whole Lotta Love by King Curtis and the Kingpins (#28); Oye Como Va by Santana (#29); and Put Your Hand in the Hand by Ocean (#30).

Edmonton's Top 10 (CJCA)
1 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson (4th week at #1)
2 Bridget the Midget (The Queen of the Blues)--Ray Stevens
3 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
4 Wild World--Cat Stevens
5 Stay Awhile--The Bells
6 Knock Three Times--Dawn
7 Put Your Hand in the Hand--Ocean
8 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
9 Your Song--Elton John
10 Mother--John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band

On television tonight
The Interns, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Heart Trouble

Diplomacy
United Nations Secretary-General U Thant signed the UN proclamation of the vernal equinox as Earth Day.

Defense
The Canadian government of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau began a program to raise the percentage of Francophones in the Canadian Armed Forces to at least 28%.

Crime
The U.S. Army ordered a court-martial for Colonel Oran K. Henderson, former commander of the 11th Brigade, Americal Division, on charges of failing to conduct a "proper and thorough" investigation of the alleged massacre of civilians in the South Vietnamese hamlet of My Lai on March 16, 1968. The legal action against Col. Henderson, on specific charges of dereliction of duty; failure to obey regulations; making a false statement; and false swearing, made him the only officer to be tried, out of 14 originally accused of suppressing information about the incident. The Army at the same time announced that charges had been dropped against Captain Dennis H. Johnson, one of the original 14 officers charged. Capt. Johnson had been accused of failure to obey regulations while attached to an intelligence unit.

Politics and government
The first convention of the Parti québécois opened in Quebec City.

Disasters
A flood that swept through Rio de Janeiro killed more than 130 people and left thousands homeless.

30 years ago
1981


Died on this date
Howard Hanson, 84
. U.S. composer. Mr. Hanson was a Neo-Romantic composer who wrote seven symphonies, as well as orchestral, choral, and other works. His Symphony No. 4 (1943) won the Pulitzer Prize, but his Symphony No. 2 "Romantic" (1930) is his most famous work. Mr. Hanson directed the Eastman School of Music (1924-1964), and founded the Eastman-Rochester Orchestra in 1939.

Diplomacy
British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher paid her first visit to U.S. President Ronald Reagan at the White House, where she said that the two leaders were determined "to sweep away the restrictions that hold back enterprise."

Economics and finance
After being informed that his advisers had underestimated the growth of federal spending for fiscal 1982, U.S. President Ronald Reagan ordered further cuts in his proposed budget of $3 billion-$6 billion.

Protest
450 students occupied the rector’s offices at a teachers’ college in Olsztyn, Poland, protesting inadequate accommodations.

Religion
Pope John Paul II met with atomic bomb victims and conducted mass in Nagasaki before departing for Anchorage, Alaska, where he conducted mass and met with clergy.

Hockey
NHL
Minnesota 1 @ Boston 5

Rick Middleton scored 2 goals and 2 assists to help the Bruins beat the North Stars at Boston Garden. The teams combined for 409 minutes in penalties--205 for Minnesota, 197 for Boston--in setting a National Hockey League record for a single game that stood for 23 years. The eventual winning goal was scored by Jean Ratelle in the 1st period; it was his 491st and last regular season NHL goal.



25 years ago
1986


At the movies
Fellow bad-movie buff Michael Martin and I went to see Revolution, one of the biggest turkeys of the 1980s. The film played in just one theatre in Edmonton for one week. We were two of eight people at the screening we attended. John Dodd went on opening night to review it for the Edmonton Journal, and he was the only person there. So few people went to see Revolution during its Edmonton run that the staff weren’t bothering to clean the theatre afterward. I don’t think more than 50 people saw Revolution during that week (and in its one-weekend second run many months later).

World events
Having accepted U.S. President Ronald Reagan's offer of exile, former Philippines President Ferdinand Marcos, along with his family and supporters--90 people in all--travelled to Clark Air Force Base and then to Guam, before flying on to Hawaii. Incoming Philippines President Corazon Aquino named a 17-member cabinet. Salvador Laurel, who had been named Premier the previous day, had the foreign ministry added to his duties.

Defense
In an address to the nation, U.S. President Ronald Reagan said that his military buildup was threatened "by those who would quit before the job is done." In response, House of Representatives Majority Leader Jim Wright (Democrat--Texas) said that Democrats had always favoured a strong defense, but that they disagreed over "the amount of debt that we are willing to place upon the backs of our children."

Literature
Robert Penn Warren was named the first official poet laureate of the United States. Congress had created the honour in 1985, essentially equating it with the former position of poetry consultant to the Library of Congress. Mr. Warren was the only writer to win Pulitzer Prizes for both poetry (1958--Promises: Poems 1954-1956) and fiction (1947--All the King’s Men). He was selected for the position of poet laureate by Daniel Boorstin, the Librarian of Congress.

Economics and finance
Canadian Finance Minister Michael Wilson tabled a budget for 1986-1987 that raised taxes and reduced government spending in an effort to trim the nation’s deficit.

Disasters
Four NASA managers testified before the presidential commission investigating the January 28 explosion of the U.S. space shuttle Challenger that they had not pressured engineers from rocket parts manufacturer Morton Thiokol Inc. to present a positive launch recommendation, and said they had not considered the assessment by the engineers to be valid.

20 years ago
1991


War
Kuwait City was liberated by the allies after 208 days of Iraqi occupation.

Politics and government
Republican Party candidate J. Fife Symington III defeated Democratic party candidate Terry Goddard 52%-48% in a runoff election to become Governor of Arizona. Neither candidate had obtained the required majority of votes necessary to win in the November 1990 election.

Economics and finance
Canadian Finance Minister Michael Wilson tabled the budget for 1991-1992 to the House of Commons, describing it as "the most difficult" of the seven budgets he had presented. Though total government spending was increased by 5.1% from the previous year, the budget would restrain public servant wages; raise cigarette taxes; increase unemployment insurance premiums; and squeeze federal payments to the provinces. Mr. Wilson projected that the federal budget deficit would be limited to $30.5 billion, the same as the previous fiscal year.

10 years ago
2001


Diplomacy
U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell continued his visit to the Middle East with meetings with Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and Saudi Arabian foreign minister Prince Saud al-Faisal. In Kuwait, Mr. Powell, former U.S. President George H.W. Bush, and U.S. General Norman Schwarzkopf participated in a ceremony observing the 10th anniversary of the liberation of Kuwait City from Iraqi occupation in the Gulf War.

Crime
The three-man international war crimes tribunal meeting at The Hague sentenced Dario Kordic, an ally of the late Croatian President Franjo Tudjman, and Mario Cerkez, a former brigade commander of Croatians in Bosnia, to 25 years and 15 years in prison, respectively, for crimes against humanity. The charges related to the killings of hundreds of Muslims in central Bosnia in 1992 and 1993.

Politics and government
The Israeli Labour Party’s governing body voted to join a unity government.

Friday, 25 February 2011

February 25, 2011

360 years ago
1651


Politics and government
Charles de Saint-Étienne de La Tour regained his position as Governor of Acadia.

170 years ago
1841


Born on this date
Pierre Auguste Renoir
. French painter and sculptor. Initially known as an Impressionist, Mr. Renoir achieved great fame for his paintings of women, children, and summer landscapes. Among his most celebrated paintings are Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881); Dance at Bougival (1883); and Bather (1917–18). Mr. Renoir died on December 3, 1919 at the age of 78.

Died on this date
Philip Pendleton Barbour, 57
. U.S. politician. Mr. Barbour, a member of the Democratic-Republican and Democratic Parties, represented Virginia's 11th District in the United States House of Representatives from 1814-1825 and 1827-1830, and served as Speaker of the House from 1821-1823. He was an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1836 until his death, which occurred from a coronary thrombosis during arguments presented by former U.S. President John Quincy Adams in the case of the slave ship Amistad. Justice Barbour advocated for a strict reading of the Constitution and limitations on federal government power.

150 years ago
1861


Scandal
James Tibbits, with support from Albert J. Smith, introduced a motion in the New Brunswick House of Assembly to establish a committee to investigate the Crown Lands Office. Charles Fisher was blamed for the resulting scandal and removed from council.

130 years ago
1881


Born on this date
Alexei Rykov
. U.S.S.R. politician. Mr. Rykov joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1898; after it split into the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks, he joined the Bolsheviks, and participated in the 1905 revolution. He was one of the more moderate members of the Bolsheviks who seized power in 1917, and held various offices in the regime, most notably Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (Premier) of Russia (1924-1929) and the Soviet Union (1924-1930). Mr. Rykov served as People's Commissar of Communications on the Council of People's Commissars (1931-1937), but fell afoul of Josef Stalin, and was executed on March 15, 1938, 18 days after his 57th birthday, and two days after being convicted of treason in a show trial.

William Z. Foster. U.S. labour leader and politician. Mr. Foster, born William Edward Foster, joined the Socialist Party of America in 1901; he worked with the Industrial Workers of the World and was a union organizer in the national steel strike of 1919, joining the Communist Party USA during the 1920s. Mr. Foster was General Secretary of the party (1929-1932), resigning after suffering a heart attack. He returned as Chairman of the Communist Party USA (1945-1957), faithfully parroting the party line coming from the U.S.S.R. Mr. Foster was indicted for subversive activity under the Smith Act in 1948, but wasn't tried because he was in poor health. He died in Moscow on September 1, 1961 at the age of 80.

110 years ago
1901


Born on this date
Zeppo Marx
. U.S. comedian, actor, and inventor. Herbert Marx was the youngest of the Marx Brothers comedy team. He joined their stage act in 1918, replacing Gummo, who was drafted into the U.S. Army and preferred a role behind the scenes in show business. Zeppo was reportedly as funny as any of the other brothers when required to replace one, but otherwise played the role of a bland romantic lead and comic foil. He appeared in their first five films, but left after Duck Soup (1933), and, like Gummo, became a theatrical agent. Zeppo also invented several devices, including a wristwatch that monitored the pulse rate of cardiac patients and gave off an alarm if the heartbeat became irregular. He was the last surviving Marx brother, and died of lung cancer on November 30, 1979 at the age of 78.

Vince Gair. Australian politician. Mr. Gair was a member of the Labour Party when he represented South Brisbane in the Queensland Parliament (1932-1960), holding several offices and serving as Premier (1952-1957). Conflict with labour unions led to the defeat of Mr. Gair's government and expulsion from the Labour Party, so he and two dozen defectors formed the Queensland Labour Party, which he led until it merged with the Democratic Labour Party in 1962. Mr. Gair went into federal politicsm and represented Queensland in the Senate (1965-1974), where he was known for his strong anti-Communist stand. In 1974, Mr. Gair accepted an appointment as Australian Ambassador to Ireland in an attempt by Prime Minister Gough Whitlam to gain a majority of seats for the Labour Party in the upcoming federal election. Mr. Whitlam's plan was foiled by Queensland Premier Joh Bjelke-Petersen. Mr. Gair proved unfit for diplomacy, and was recalled on January 21, 1976; he died on November 11, 1980 at the age of 79.

Business
J.P. Morgan incorporated U.S. Steel Corporation, the first billion-dollar corporation in the world.

90 years ago
1921

Abominations

The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, with a Moscow-directed Communist government led by Georgian Bolshevik Filipp Makharadze, was established when the Red Army entered the capital city of Tbilisi after the Georgian army had been defeated and had fled the country. On July 21, 2010, the Georgian government declared February 25 to be Soviet Occupation Day to recall the event.

70 years ago
1941


War
British forces in Italian Somaliland captured Mogadishu. U.S. Senator Burton K. Wheeler (Democrat--Montana) declared that the United Kingdom expected the United States to get into the European war between April and June 1941 through the "back door" of the Orient.

Diplomacy
Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King announced that Leighton McCarthy had been appointed as Canada's Ambassador to the United States.

U.K. Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden and General Sir John Dill arrived in Turkey for discussions on a possible German attack on Greece.

Japanese Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka said he believed that the white race must cede Oceania to the Asiatics.

Defense
The Supreme Soviet voted a 26% increase in Russia's military budget, and doubled the peasants' income tax to pay for arms production and defense measures.

Protest
In occupied Amsterdam, a general strike was declared in response to increasing anti-Jewish measures instituted by the Nazis.

Law
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt said that the pending Hobbs bill to permit wiretapping by federal officials in felony cases "goes entirely too far."

Religion
The U.S. Protestant Digest Associates awarded citations for combating racial and religious intolerance to U.S. Interior Secretary Harold Ickes; Ralph Ingersoll; Dr. Ruth Benedict; Rev. Samuel Howie; and Lester Granger.

Hockey
NHL
New York Rangers 2 @ Boston 0

The Rangers' shutout of the Bruins at Boston Garden ended the Bruins' league record unbeaten streak at 23 games.

60 years ago
1951


Diplomacy
A five-day World Peace Council congress in East Berlin, attended by delegates from 40 nations, ended with a demand that the U.S.A., U.S.S.R., U.K., France, and Communist China begin peace negotiations to allay "the growing danger of a third world war."

Defense
Press reports said that Western Allied officials were "deeply concerned" that the Communist campaign for the unification and "neutralization" of Germany was gaining considerable support among West Germans.

Sport
The first Pan American Games were officially opened in Buenos Aires by Argentine President Juan Perón and his wife Eva.

Golf
Marty Furgol shot a 3-under-par 69 in the final round to win the Houston Open with an 11-under-par total score of 277, 1 stroke ahead of Jack Burke, Jr. It was Mr. Furgol's first Professional Golfers' Association win.

50 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Rubber Ball--Bobby Vee

#1 single in Italy: 24.000 baci--Adriano Celentano (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Ramona--Blue Diamonds (9th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Mirror): Walk Right Back--The Everly Brothers

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Calcutta--Lawrence Welk and his Orchestra (3rd week at #1)
2 Shop Around--The Miracles
3 Will You Love Me Tomorrow--The Shirelles
4 Calendar Girl--Neil Sedaka
5 Exodus--Ferrante and Teicher
--[Mantovani & his Orchestra]
6 Wheels--The String-A-Longs
--[Billy Vaughn and his Orchestra]
7 Pony Time--Chubby Checker
8 There’s a Moon Out Tonight--The Capris
9 Where the Boys Are--Connie Francis
10 Emotions--Brenda Lee

Singles entering the chart were Surrender by Elvis Presley (#37); Once Upon a Time by Rochell and the Candles (#72); All of Everything by Frankie Avalon (#85); Let’s Go Again (Where We Went Last Night) by Hank Ballard and the Midnighters (#86); Theme From Tunes of Glory, with versions by Cambridge Strings and Singers and Mitch Miller and his Orchestra (#88); Little Miss Stuck-Up by the Playmates (#93); Top Forty, News, Weather and Sports by Mark Dinning (#94); The Second Time Around by Frank Sinatra (#99); Model Girl by Johnny Maestro (#100); Banned in Boston by Merv Griffin (also #100); and Sparklin’ Eyes by Dean Martin (also #100).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CFUN)
1 Surrender--Elvis Presley
2 Ebony Eyes--The Everly Brothers
3 Where the Boys Are--Connie Francis
4 Three Wheels on My Wagon--Dick Van Dyke
5 A Scottish Soldier (Green Hills of Tyrol)--Andy Stewart
6 Little Miss Stuck-Up--The Playmates
7 Model Girl--Johnny Maestro
8 Apache--Jorgen Ingmann and his Guitar
9 Wheels--The String-A-Longs
10 Top Forty, News, Weather and Sports--Mark Dinning

Singles entering the chart were The Touchables by Dickie Goodman (#34); Memphis by Donnie Brooks (#36); Green Grass of Texas by the Texans (#40); Searching for Love by the DeVilles (#41); Walk Right Back by the Everly Brothers (#44); Star-Crossed Lovers by Eddy and Teddy (#45); Mother-in-Law by Ernie K-Doe (#47); Ling-Ting-Tong by Buddy Knox (#48); Wild One by the Renowns (#49); and Orange Blossom Special by Billy Vaughn and his Orchestra (#50).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKWX)
1 A Scottish Soldier (Green Hills of Tyrol)--Andy Stewart
2 Surrender--Elvis Presley
3 Ebony Eyes--The Everly Brothers
4 Where the Boys Are--Connie Francis
5 The Touchables--Dickie Goodman
6 Apache--Jorgen Ingmann and his Guitar
7 Three Wheels on My Wagon--Dick Van Dyke
8 Wheels--The String-A-Longs
9 Good Time Baby--Bobby Rydell
10 Two--Del Erickson

Singles entering the chart were "D" in Love by Cliff Richard and the Shadows (#30); Stayin' In/More than I Can Say by Bobby Vee (#35); Honky Tonk (Part 2) by Bill Doggett (#36); Little Miss Stuck-Up by the Playmates (#37); The World is Waiting for the Sunrise by Don Gibson (#39); and Memphis by Donnie Brooks (#40).

On television tonight
The Roaring 20's, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Pie in the Sky

Space
The mission of the Soviet satellite Sputnik 8, which had been launched on February 12 in order to launch the probe Venera 1 toward Venus, ended when it burned up in Earth's atmosphere.

War
Congolese Premier Joseph Ileo demanded immediate United Nations action to halt the advance of the troops of Antoine Gizenga, who was recognized by more than 20 Communist and neutral nations as the leader of the "legitimate" government of the Congo. Mr. Gizenga’s troops had penetrated nearly 50% of the Congo. Sporadic clashes between troops of the central Congolese government and UN forces were reported.

Boxing
Gaspar Ortega (58-21-2) won a 10-round unanimous decision over Benny "Kid" Paret (34-9-3) in a middleweight bout at Olympic Auditorium in Los Angeles.

40 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in France (IFOP): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (7th week at #1)

Diplomacy
600 delegates from Jewish groups from many nations, gathered in Brussels to "affirm solidarity with our Jewish brothers in the Soviet Union," urged Soviet leaders to permit Jewish citizens to leave for Israel or allow them to practice their religion freely in the U.S.S.R.

Crime
Chapin Scott Paterson, an American citizen, hijacked a US Boeing 747 en route to Vancouver, British Columbia; he was turned over to the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation the same day.

Hockey
NHL
Vancouver 3 @ Boston 8

Boston left wing Johnny Bucyk, centre Ed Westfall, and defenceman Ted Green scored 3 goals in 20 seconds in their win over the Canucks at Boston Garden, beating the National Hockey League record of 3 goals in 21 seconds by Billy Mosienko of the Chicago Black Hawks against the New York Rangers in 1952. The Bruins' record still stands as a team record for the fastest 3 goals, while Mr. Mosienko still holds the individual record.



30 years ago
1981


Hit parade
Vancouver's Top 10 (CKLG)
1 Woman--John Lennon
2 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
3 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
4 A Little in Love--Cliff Richard
5 Turn Me Loose--Loverboy
6 The Tide is High--Blondie
7 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
8 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon
9 The Winner Takes it All--ABBA
10 The Best of Times--Styx

Singles entering the chart were Crying by Don McLean (#11); Hello Again by Neil Diamond (#14); and (Ghost) Riders in the Sky by the Outlaws (#20).

Music
The Grammy Awards for 1980 were presented at Radio City Music Hall in New York. Christopher Cross became the first artist to win all four general-field awards: Record of the Year and Song of the Year (Sailing); Album of the Year (Christopher Cross); and Best New Artist.



Religion
Pope John Paul II became the first world leader to visit the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki since they had been struck by atomic bombs in August 1945. While in Nagasaki, the pontiff asked that Vatican aides examine the possibilities of opening diplomatic relations with and resuming pastoral work in China.

Environment
An international meeting of conservationists and animal traders began in New Delhi, to discuss restrictions on the international traffic in endangered animals and plants. The discussion centred on revision of the lists of those species whose exports were controlled. The discussion especially centred on parrots and whales. Naturalists favoured putting all parrots, rather than just a few species, on one list or the other; they also wanted to end all commercial whaling.

Economics and finance
The United States Labor Department reported that consumer prices had risen 0.7% in January.

Disasters
15 people were killed and 53 injured when a series of earthquakes hit Athens and the surrounding area.

Hockey
NHL
Philadelphia 2 @ Edmonton 6
New York Islanders 4 @ Calgary 11

25 years ago
1986


World events
Corazon Aquino was sworn in as President of the Philippines, while embattled incumbent Ferdinand Marcos held his own inauguration ceremony while preparing to flee the country.

Politics and government
The 27th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party opened in Moscow with 5,000 Soviet delegates and thousands of visitors from 113 countries in attendance. U.S.S.R. leader Mikhail Gorbachev opened the congress with a 5½-hour speech.

Diplomacy
During his address to the Soviet Communist Party Congress, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev found some encouragement in U.S. President Ronald Reagan’s arms control plan, but complained that it was swamped with various links and conditions that would prevent disarmament solutions. Mr. Gorbachev hinted that he would not attend another summit conference with Mr. Reagan unless there was some progress on arms control issues.

Economics and finance
Without mentioning former Sovier leader Leonid Brezhnev by name, Mr. Gorbachev, in his address to the Communist party congress in Moscow, charged that extreme economic difficulties had begun to build up under the previous leadership during the 1970s. While declaring that there would be no retreat from the basic tenets of Communism, Mr. Gorbachev called for "radical reform" of economic management, including more autonomy for local farm and plant managers and less interference from central planners.

The United States Labor Department reported that the consumer price index had risen 0.3% in January.

Disasters
Engineers with rocket parts manufacturer Morton Thiokol Inc. testified before the presidential commission investigating the January 28 explosion of the U.S. space shuttle Challenger that NASA officials had pressured them to present a positive launch recommendation despite their opposition to a launch. One engineer, Brian Russell, said that "we were in the position of having to prove it was unsafe, instead of the other way around."

20 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Oh! Yeah!/Love Story wa Totsuzen ni--Kazumasa Oda (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): 3 A.M. Eternal--The KLF (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Beinhart--Torfrock (5th week at #1)

War
28 soldiers--including three women--were killed and 90 injured when a Scud missile struck a U.S. barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Hours later, Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein ordered his forces to withdraw from Kuwait. Roads leading to Basra were jammed with retreating Iraqi forces. U.S. Marines bombed the road north of Kuwait City.

Terrorism
U.K. Director of Public Prosecution Alan Green announced that the Birmingham Six, convicted in 1975 in connection with Irish Republican Army bombings of two pubs in Birmingham in November 1974 that had killed 21 people, could be free within weeks because their convictions could no longer be considered safe and satisfactory.

Football
CFL
Harry Ornest sold the Toronto Argos to American rare coin speculator Bruce McNall, hockey star Wayne Gretzky, and entertainer John Candy.

10 years ago
2001


Diplomacy
U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell met with King Abdullah of Jordan in Amman, and then met separately with Israeli Prime Minister-elect Ariel Sharon and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. Messrs. Sharon and Arafat were adamant that violence must end before peace talks could take place.