Thursday, 30 December 2010

January 1, 2011

1,010 years ago
1001


Europeana
Grand Prince Stephen I of Hungary was named the first King of Hungary by Pope Sylvester II.

360 years ago
1651

Britannica

Charles II was crowned King of England at Scone.

230 years ago
1781


War
In the Pennsylvania Line Mutiny of 1781, 1,500 soldiers of the 6th Pennsylvania Regiment under General Anthony Wayne's command rebelled against the Continental Army's winter camp in Morristown, New Jersey.

210 years ago
1801


Britannica
The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland was completed, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was proclaimed.

160 years ago
1851


World events
Liberal forces supporting Benito Juárez entered Mexico City.

Journalism
In Windsor, Canada West, Henry Walton Bibb, the son of a white father and Negro mother, published the first issue of Voice of the Fugitive, a journal for escaped American slaves.

Law
The Canadian government abolished primogeniture, where eldest son received the greater part of his deceased father's property; all property was divided equally among all children if there was no will.

130 years ago
1891


Born on this date
Charles Bickford
. U.S. actor. Mr. Bickford was a character actor in plays, movies, and television programs in a career spanning 56 years. He was nominated for Academy Awards for his supporting performances in The Song of Bernadette (1943); The Farmer's Daughter (1947); and Johnny Belinda (1948). Mr. Bickford died of pneumonia and a blood infection on November 9, 1967 at the age of 76.

110 years ago
1901


Australiana
The British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, and Western Australia federated as the Commonwealth of Australia, with Edmund Barton appointed as the first Prime Minister.

Africana
The Southern Nigeria Protectorate was established within the British Empire.

100 years ago
1911


Born on this date
Basil Dearden
. U.K. movie director and screenwriter. Mr. Dearden, born Basil Dear, wrote several screenplays before directing more than 40 movies and television programs from 1939-1974. His directing credits included Dead of Night (1945); The Captive Heart (1946); Sapphire (1959); Victim (1961); and Khartoum (1966). Mr. Dearden died on March 23, 1971 at the age of 60, after being seriously injured in a car accident.

Hank Greenberg. U.S. baseball player and executive. Mr. Greenberg was a first baseman and outfielder with the Detroit Tigers (1930, 1933-1941, 1945-1946) and Pittsburgh Pirates (1947), batting .313 with 331 home runs and 1,274 runs batted in in 1,394 games. He led the American League in home runs four times and in runs batted in four times. Mr. Greenberg is probably best remembered for hitting 58 home runs in 1938, falling two short of the major league record for a single season set by Babe Ruth of the New York Yankees in 1927. Mr. Greenberg helped the Tigers win the World Series in 1935 and the AL pennant in 1940, but entered the United States Army in May 1941 and wasn't discharged until midway through the 1945 season, when he helped the Tigers win another World Series. Mr. Greenberg was the general manager of the Cleveland Indians from 1949-1957 and the Chicago White Sox from 1959-1961. He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1956. Mr. Greenberg was the first popular Jewish star in American team sports, and was inducted into the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame in 1979; Jewish American Hall of Fame in 1991; and National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame in 1996. He died on September 4, 1986 at the age of 75.

90 years ago
1921


Died on this date
Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, 64
. Chancellor of the German Empire, 1909-1917. Mr. Bethmann-Hollweg, who wasn't affiliated with any party, held several cabinet posts before tking office as Chancellor in July 1909. He pursued a policy of détente with Britain, but was unsuccessful, and in his support for Austro-Hungarian action against Serbia in 1914, he tampered with the text of a message from Britain, and was upset by the U.K.'s declaration of war following Germany's violation of Belgium's neutrality. Mr. Bethmann-Hollweg gradually lost power and was forced to resign in July 1917. In 1919 he asked the Allies to place him on trial insead of Kaiser Wilhelm II if anyone should be held responsible for the origin of the war. Mr. Bethmann-Hollweg caught a cold shortly after Christmas 1920, which developed into pneumonia.

70 years ago
1941


Radio
The news division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and Radio-Canada was founded, headed by Dan McArthur, with Lorne Greene appointed as the first announcer in the new national news service.

War
The British Royal Air Force bombed Bremen for 3½ hours. South African Prime Minister Jan Christaan Smuts predicted that the United States would enter the European war in order to save Britain from defeat. U.S. Senator Arthur Vandenberg (Republican--Michigan) was quoted as saying that he would back President Franklin D. Roosevel't policies, "even though I know it is bound to lead us into war," if the United States first exhausted all avenues of peace.

Defense
The National Herrerista Party withdrew its opposition to construction of Pan-American defense bases in Uruguay.

Economics and finance
The French government in Vichy announced a provisional budget of approximately 40 billion francs for the next four months.

The U.S. Federal Reserve presented Congress with a monetary plan to forestall inflation and improve monetary organization.

Americana
The U.S. Census Bureau announced that the population of the United States in 1940 was 131,669,275, a gain of nearly 9 million since 1930.

Football
NCAA
Cotton Bowl
Texas A&M 13 Fordham 12

Orange Bowl
Mississippi State 14 Georgetown 7

Rose Bowl
Stanford 21 Nebraska 13

Sugar Bowl
Boston College 19 Tennessee 13

60 years ago
1951


War
Communist Chinese and North Korean forces began a major drive on Seoul, breaking through South Korean lines on the right flank of the U.S. 8th Army.

Politics and government
The Legislative Council, the appointed Upper House of the New Zealand Parliament, ceased to exist.

France granted independence to the Saar, but maintained its economic union with the coal-mining and steel-manufacturing district.

Haiti announced a ban on the pro-Communist Peasants and Workers Movement and the Popular Socialist Party.

Popular culture
The Israeli government upheld a ban on the use of the German language in concerts and other public performances.

Football
NCAA
Cotton Bowl @ Dallas
Tennessee 20 Texas 14

Rose Bowl @ Pasadena
Michigan 14 California 6

Orange Bowl @ Miami
Clemson 15 Miami (Florida) 14

Sugar Bowl @ New Orleans
Kentucky 13 Oklahoma 7

50 years ago
1961


Television
CJCH-TV, owned by a group of Nova Scotians headed by Finlay Macdonald, began broadcasting on Channel 5 in Halifax. It was an independent station, and became one of CTV's original stations when that network began broadcasting on October 1, 1961.

Transportation
The Canadian Pacific Railway created the Soo Line Railroad Company by amalgamating the Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad Company, the Wisconsin Central Railroad Company, and the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railroad Company.

Energy
The British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority was created to absorb all the power companies in British Columbia except for the CPR-owned West Kootenay Power and Light Company.

Economics and finance
A provincial hospital insurance plan went into effect in Quebec.

Football
AFL
Championship
Los Angeles 16 @ Houston 24

George Blanda completed 16 of 31 passes for 301 yards and 3 touchdowns to lead the Oilers to the first American Football League championship over the Chargers before 32,183 fans at Jeppesen Stadium. Ben Agajanian kicked field goals of 38 and 22 yards to give the Chargers a 6-0 lead after the 1st quarter, but Mr. Blanda threw 17 yards to Dave Smith for the game’s 1st touchdown at 3:51 of the 2nd quarter. Mr. Blanda converted and added an 18-yard field goal almost 5 minutes later to give the Oilers a 10-6 lead. Mr. Agajanian kicked a 27-yard field goal with 5 seconds left to cut Houston’s lead at halftime to 10-9. Mr. Blanda connected with Bill Groman on a 7-yard touchdown pass, which Mr. Blanda converted, to give the Oilers a 17-9 lead. The Chargers struck back with a long drive culminating in a 2-yard touchdown rush by Paul Lowe, converted by Mr. Agajanian, to make the score 17-16 in favour of Houston after 3 quarters. The Oilers scored the only points of the 4th quarter on an 88-yard touchdown pass from Mr. Blanda to Billy Cannon, converted by Mr. Blanda. The deepest penetration after that by the Los Angeles offense was to the Houston 22-yard line, but the Chargers lost the ball on downs. Mr. Cannon rushed 18 times for 50 yards and led all receivers with 128 yards on 3 receptions. Mr. Lowe led all rushers with 21 carries for 165 yards. Los Angeles quarterback Jack Kemp completed 21 of 41 passes for just 171 yards and 2 interceptions. It was the Chargers’ last game representing Los Angeles; they moved to San Diego in the off-season.



40 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): A Song of Joy--Miguel Rios (12th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): If Those Lips Could Only Speak--Dermot Henry

South Africa's Top 10 (Springbok Radio)
1 Looky Looky--Giorgio (3rd week at #1)
2 Zanzibar--Wanda Arletti
3 Cracklin' Rosie--Neil Diamond
4 Look Out Here Comes Tomorrow--The Dealians
5 Indiana Wants Me--R. Dean Taylor
6 You Can Get it if You Really Want--Desmond Dekker
7 I Think I Love You--The Partridge Family
8 Woodstock--Matthews Southern Comfort
9 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
10 Paranoid--Black Sabbath

Singles entering the chart were Mango Mango by Tidal Wave (#19); and The Witch by the Rattles (#20).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKLG)
1 My Sweet Lord/Isn't it a Pity--George Harrison (4th week at #1)
2 Knock Three Times--Dawn
3 Immigrant Song--Led Zeppelin
4 One Less Bell to Answer--The 5th Dimension
5 Black Magic Woman--Santana
6 No Matter What--Badfinger
7 Lonely Days-- Bee Gees
8 Stoned Love--The Supremes
9 Stoney End--Barbra Streisand
10 Does Anybody Really Know What Time it Is?--Chicago

Singles entering the chart were I Really Don't Want to Know/There Goes My Everything by Elvis Presley (#28); Rose Garden by Lynn Anderson (#29); and If I were Your Woman by Gladys Knight & the Pips (#30).

On television tonight
The Interns, on CBS
Tonight’s episode: Changes

Died on this date
Luis Aparicio, Sr., 58
. Venezuelan baseball player, coach, and manager. Mr. Aparicio was a shortstop with seven different clubs in the National Baseball Series in 11 years from 1931-1945, and played in the Venezuelan Professional Baseball League with Navegantes del Magallanes (1946); Sabios de Vargas (1947-1952); and Gavilanes (1953). He was the first batter in VPBL history, singling and scoring the first run on January 12, 1946. Mr. Aparicio coached with Gavilanes after his playing career ended, founded the Rapiños de Occidente club in 1957, and managed Águilas del Zulia in their inaugural season in 1969-70. Mr. Aparicio died of a heart attack, and was inducted into the Venezuelan Baseball Hall of Fame in 2005. His son Luis, Jr. played shortstop in the American League from 1956-1973, and was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1984.

War
A three-day cease-fire in Vietnam ended amid reports that sporadic fighting had continued throughout the period.

Football
NCAA
Cotton Bowl @ Dallas
Notre Dame 24 Texas 11

Rose Bowl @ Pasadena
Stanford 27 Ohio State 17

Orange Bowl @ Miami
Nebraska 17 Louisiana State 12

Sugar Bowl @ New Orleans
Tennessee 34 Air Force 13

30 years ago
1981


Hit Parade
Austria's Top 10 (Ö3)
1 Woman in Love--Barbra Streisand
2 Angel of Mine--Frank Duval & Orchestra
3 Super Trouper--ABBA
4 Santa Maria--Oliver Onions
5 Some Broken Hearts Never Mend--Telly Savalas
6 What You're Proposing--Status Quo
7 The Tide is High--Blondie
8 Another One Bites the Dust--Queen
9 Santa Maria--Roland Kaiser
10 Johnny and Mary--Robert Palmer

Singles entering the chart were When You Ask About Love by Matchbox (#16); Passion by Rod Stewart (#18); and Arrival by Mike Oldfield (#19).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKLG)
1 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (4th week at #1)
2 Hungry Heart--Bruce Springsteen
3 Passion--Rod Stewart
4 The Tide is High--Blondie
5 I Got You--Split Enz
6 Wasn't That a Party--The Rovers
7 Looking for Clues--Robert Palmer
8 De Do Do Do, De Da Da Da--The Police
9 Every Woman in the World--Air Supply
10 More than I Can Say--Leo Sayer

Singles entering the chart were Time is Time by Andy Gibb (#18); and 9 to 5 by Dolly Parton (#20).

Literature
Obasan by Joy Kogawa, the first novel to trace the internment and dispersal of 20,000 Japanese Canadians from the West Coast during World War II, was published.

World events
The absence of Chinese Communist Party Chairman Hua Guofeng from a New Year’s reception stirred rumours that he had been forced to resign his post. Because the reception, given by the Central Committee, was unusual in that such affairs were usually sponsored by the government, it was believed that the celebration was held purposely without Chairman Hua as a signal to the Chinese people that he had been ousted.

Economics and finance
Greece was admitted into the European Economic Community as its 10th member.

Gasoline in Canada was first sold by the litre rather than the gallon.

Disasters
A fire in a recreation club killed 48 New Year's Eve celebrants in the northern Québec mining town of Chapais.

Football
NCAA
Cotton Bowl @ Dallas
Alabama 30 Baylor 2

Rose Bowl @ Pasadena
Michigan 23 Washington 6

Orange Bowl @ Miami
Oklahoma 18 Florida State 17

Sugar Bowl @ New Orleans
Georgia 17 Notre Dame 10

25 years ago
1986


Diplomacy
U.S. President Ronald Reagan and U.S.S.R. leader Mikhail Gorbachev exchanged New Year’s greetings in televised addresses. Mr. Reagan noted the "good beginning" toward better relations in the November 1985 summit, and he said that the American system was "founded on the belief in the sanctity of human life and the rights of the individual." Mr. Gorbachev said that the Soviet people cherished the idea of peace, having suffered so badly during World War II. He said that both nations had a "duty to all mankind" to create a climate conducive to the preservation of peace, and proposed that all nuclear weapons be banned by 2000.

Terrorism
Libyan leader Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi warned that any U.S. or Israeli attempt to retaliate for the December 27 raids on airports in Roe and Vienna would bring war to the Mediterranean Sea region.

Weather
It was a beautiful, sunny day in Vancouver, British Columbia.

Football
NCAA
Cotton Bowl @ Dallas
Texas A&M 36 Auburn 16

Rose Bowl @ Pasadena
UCLA 45 Iowa 28

Orange Bowl @ Miami
Oklahoma 25 Pennsylvania State 10

Sugar Bowl @ New Orleans
Tennessee 35 Miami (Florida) 7

20 years ago
1991


Abominations
The 7% Goods and Services Tax went into effect in Canada.

Canadiana
Oliver, British Columbia was incorporated as a town.

Hockey
NHL-U.S.S.R. exhibition
Moscow Dynamo 4 @ Toronto 7

This was the first appearance of a Soviet team at Maple Leaf Gardens. Harold Ballard, who had died the previous spring, had always refused to permit any team from the Soviet Union to play there as long as he owned the Maple Leafs.



Football
NCAA
Cotton Bowl @ Dallas
Miami (Florida) 46 Texas 3

Rose Bowl @ Pasadena
Washington 46 Iowa 34

Orange Bowl @ Miami
Colorado 10 Notre Dame 9

Sugar Bowl @ New Orleans
Tennessee 23 Virginia 22

10 years ago
2001


Died on this date
Ray Walston, 86
. U.S. actor. Mr. Walston was best known as the star of the television comedy series My Favorite Martian (1963-1966) and as a member of the cast of the dramatic series Picket Fences (1992-1996).

Canadiana
The Ontario cities of Hamilton and Sudbury officially merged with their suburban municipalities to create new megacities. Sudbury, now Greater Sudbury, was the only one to change its name.

Diplomacy
The Palestinian National Authority expressed concerns about Middle East peace plan principles set forth by U.S. President Bill Clinton on December 23 and already accepted by Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak. The plan provided for Palestinian control over the Gaza Strip; Arab neighbourhoods in East Jerusalem; and 95% of the West Bank, with partial control of Jerusalem’s Temple Mount. The PNA feared these principles would not produce a viable state; objected to provisions allowing for annexation of Israeli settlements in the West Bank; and protested that the plan would forego the right of return for Palestinians who had become refugees following the formation of the nation of Israel in 1948 and subsequent wars.

Law
Despite a January 1 deadline, hundreds of thousands of Canadians didn’t register guns in their possession, and now possessed the weapons illegally, making it impossible to legally purchase ammunition.

Business
Air Canada and Canadian Airlines International Limited officially merged.

December 31, 2010

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Mike Matson!

1,140 years ago
870


War
West Saxon forces led by Æthelwulf, Ealdorman of Berkshire defeated invading Vikings in the Battle of Englefield. The Vikings were driven back to Reading, East Anglia, and many Danes were killed.

500 years ago
1510


Died on this date
Bianca Maria Sforza, 38
. Holy Roman Empress, 1508-1510. Bianca Maria, the daughter of Duke Galeazzo Maria Sforza of Milan, became Queen consort of Germany and Archduchess upon her marriage to King Maximilian I of Germany in 1494, and became Empress consort upon his election in 1508. The marriage was unhappy, and Bianca Maria lived with her own court in the Tyrol until her death in Innsbruck.

410 years ago
1600


Business
The British East India Company was chartered by Queen Elizabeth I.

350 years ago
1660


Franciana
King James II of England was named Duke of Normandy by King Louis XIV of France.

340 years ago
1670


World events
The English naval expedition of Rear-Admiral Sir John Narborough left Corral Bay, Chile, having surveyed the coast and lost four hostages to the Spanish.

290 years ago
1720


Born on this date
Charles Edward Stuart
. Scottish claimant to the throne of England. "Bonnie Prince Charlie," the grandson of King James II of England (King James VII of Scotland), was born in Rome, where his father Jame Stuart, pretender to the throne, had a residence. Charles led a French-backed uprising in 1745 to establish his father on the throne of England, but was defeated in the Battle of Culloden in 1746, and fled to the Isle of Skye and eventually to continental Europe, where he spent the rest of his life, except for a secret visit to London in 1750, where he apparently converted from Roman Catholicism to Anglicanism by taking Anglican communion, thus indicating his willingness to reign as a Protestant. After James Stuart's death on January 1, 1766, Charles became the claimant to the English throne as Charles III. He died of a stroke on January 30, 1788, 30 days after his 67th birthday.

220 years ago
1790


Journalism
Efimeris, the oldest Greek newspaper of which issues still survive, was published for the first time.

180 years ago
1830


Born on this date
Isma'il Pasha
. Khedive of Egypt and Sudan, 1863-1879. Isma'il Pasha, the grandson of Ottoman Governor of Egypt Muhammad Ali Pasha, succeeded his uncle Said I, and secured Ottoman and international recognition for his title of Khedive (Viceroy) in preference to Wāli (Governor), which had been used by his predecessors. Khedive Isma'il Pasha initiated political, economic, and educational reforms in an attempt to modernize Egypt into a European rather than an African state. He established an assembly of delegates, oversaw construction of the Egyptian portion of the Suez Canal, and conducted an unsuccessful war against Ethiopia. In 1879, Khedive Isma'il Pasha gave into a nationalist uprising led by Colonel Ahmed Urabi, and dissolved the government. Britain and France insisted on the restoration fo their ministers to office, and were successful in pressuring Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II to depose the Khedive; he was replaced by his son Tewfik Pasha. Isma'il Pasha went into exile in Italy, but was eventually allowed by Sultan Abdülhamid to retire to his Palace of Emirgan, where he remained virtually a state prisoner until his death on March 2, 1895 at the age of 64, which reportedly resulted from trying to guzzle two bottles of champagne in one draft.

150 years ago
1860


Born on this date
Joseph S. Cullinan
. U.S. oil magnate. Mr. Cullinan worked with Standard Oil for 13 years before founding the J.S. Cullinan Company in Texas in 1900. He co-founded The Texas Company in 1902, serving until 1913 as president of the company, which became Texaco Incorporated in 1959. Mr. Cullinan died on March 11, 1937 at the age of 66.

Transportation
Canada's first railway tunnel opened in Brockville, Canada West with the passage of a wood-burning locomotive and two coaches; engineered by Samuel Keefer in 1854, the tunnel connected the harbour with the Grand Trunk Railway station.

140 years ago
1870


Born on this date
Tommy Connolly
. U.K.-born U.S. baseball umpire. Mr. Connolly, a native of Manchester, emigrated to the United States with his family in 1885, and soon became interested in baseball. He umpired in the New England League (1894-1897) and moved up to the National League in 1898. Unhappy with NL President Nicholas Young's reluctance to back up the league's umpires, Mr. Connolly resigned early in the 1900 season, and joined the American League when the AL began operating as a major league in 1901. He worked in the AL for the next 30 years, establishing a reputation as the league's best umpire. Mr. Connolly was removed from field duty in June 1931 by American League President Will Harridge, who was concerned about the quality of the league's umpires. Mr. Connolly was made the AL's supervisor of umpires, holding that position in 1954, coming out of retirement to work in one game in 1932. He worked 4,770 regular season major league games in 35 yers (1898-1932), and 45 World Series games in 8 years. Mr. Connolly was inducted into the Honor Rolls of Baseball in 1946; with Bill Klem of the National League, he was one of the first two umpires inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1953. Mr. Connolly died on April 28, 1961 at the age of 90.

130 years ago
1880


Born on this date
George Marshall
. U.S. military officer and politician. General of the Army Marshall was Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1939-1945 under Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman, and was largely responsible for organizing the U.S. military buildup and coordinating Allied activities in Europe and the Pacific during World War II. He served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Truman from 1947-1949, and became known for the Marshall Plan, a program of economic aid to Western European countries that has been credited with preventing the recipients from turning to Communism, and led to Gen. Marshall being awarded the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize. Gen. Marshall served as Secretary of Defense under President Truman from 1950-1951. He died on October 16, 1959 at the age of 78.

100 years ago
1910


Born on this date
Carl Dudley
. U.S. film director and producer. Mr. Dudley was known for directing and producing short travelogues from 1943-1963, including the 30-film series This World of Ours (1950-1955) and the Cinerama feature South Seas Adventure (1958). He died in Hong Kong on September 2, 1973 at the age of 62.

Died on this date
John Moisant, 42
. U.S. aviator. Mr. Moisant, the son of French-Canadian parents who had emigrated to the United States, moved with his brothers to El Salvador in 1896 and bought sugarcane plantations, using the income to lead his future aviation adventures and two failed revolutions and coup attempts against Salvadoran President General Fernando Figueroa in 1907 and 1909. Mr. Moisant began designing airplanes in France in 1909 and flying in 1910, returning to the United States to become the 13th registered pilot in the U.S.A. He participated in several competitive events, including the 1910 Michelin Cup near Harahan, Louisiana, in which he was killed when he was thrown from his plane when it was hit by a gust of wind, fell 25 feet to the ground, and landed on his head, breaking his neck.

Arch Hoxsey, 26. U.S. aviator. Mr. Hoxsey studied at the Wright Brothers' school and began flying in 1910. On October 11, he took former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt as a passenger at St. Louis, making Mr. Roosevelt the first American President to fly in a plane. Mr. Hoxsey set an altitude record of 11,474 feet on December 26, 1910, but was killed in Los Angeles in a crash from 7,000 feet while trying to break his record.

70 years ago
1940


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): The Woodpecker Song--Kate Smith; Glenn Miller and his Orchestra (2nd month at #1)

Married on this date
U.S. actress Bette Davis and Boston businessman Arthur Farnsworth were married at a ranch in Rimrock, Arizona.

War
In his New Year's proclamation to the German armed forces, German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler declared: "The year 1941 will bring consummation of the greatest victory in our history."

Politics and government
In contrast to Mr. Hitler's message, New Year's messages from the Japanese government were gloomy. Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka said, "I fear the coming year will prove most tragic and unfortunate for all mankind."

Defense
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt characterized as "silly" a suggestion that the United States accept British islands in the Atlantic Ocean in exchange for material aid.

Scandal
Howard Hopson, 58, who had obtained control of Associated Gas and Electric Company in 1922 for $48,000 and had built it into a billion-dollar utilities empire, was convicted by a U.S. federal jury in New York on 17 counts of defrauding investors of nearly $20 million.

Labour
Ford Motor Company appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court from a lower court ruling upholding a National Labor Relations Board order that the company cease "unfair" labour practices. Ford accused the board of "bias and prejudice."

60 years ago
1950


Died on this date
Karl Renner, 80
. Chancellor of Austria, 1918-1920, 1945; President of Austria, 1945-1950. Mr. Renner, a member of the Social Democratic Workers' Party, sat in the Reichsrat from 1896 until its dissolution in November 1918. He became known as the "Father of the Republic" for leading the first government of German-Austria and the First Austrian Republic after World War I. Mr. Renner was President of the National Council from 1931-1933, but his party was outlawed under the Fascist regime of Engelbert Dollfuss in 1934. Mr. Renner welcomed the Anschsluss by Nazi Germany in 1938, but his offer to help the regime was declined, and he stayed out of politics during World War II. He served as Chancellor of a Soviet-installed provisional government from April 27-December 20, 1945, but Western Allies regarded it as a Soviet puppet government. Mr. Renner took office as President on December 20, 1945, and was in office when he died, 17 days after his 80th birthday. He was succeeded as President by Theodor Körner.

Literature
The New York Herald Tribune listed Joy Street by Francis Parkinson Keyes as the best-selling fiction book, and Kon-Tiki by Thor Heyerdahl as the best-selling non-fiction book.

War
A heavy Chinese Communist artillery barrage north of Seoul broke a New Year's Eve calm on the Korean front.

Defense
Joseph and Stewart Alsop reported in the New York Herald Tribune that "official" estimates claimed that the U.S.S.R. had an atomic bomb stockpile of about 24 bombs, would have nearly 50 in another year, and "well over 100" at the end of two years. They said that current Soviet A-bomb output was about two per month.

Commander-in-Chief of the United Nations Command General Douglas MacArthur said that Japan may have to rearm against the threat of "international lawlessness."

50 years ago
1960


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Are You Lonesome To-night?/I Gotta Know--Elvis Presley (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy: What a Sky (Su nel cielo)--Nico Fidenco

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Ramona--Blue Diamonds

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Mirror): It’s Now or Never--Elvis Presley (9th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Are You Lonesome To-night?--Elvis Presley (6th week at #1)
2 Wonderland by Night--Bert Kaempfert and his Orchestra
--Louis Prima
--Anita Bryant
3 Exodus--Ferrante and Teicher
--Mantovani and his Orchestra
4 Last Date--Floyd Cramer
5 Will You Love Me Tomorrow--The Shirelles
6 A Thousand Stars--Kathy Young with the Innocents
7 North to Alaska--Johnny Horton
8 Rubber Ball--Bobby Vee
9 You're Sixteen--Johnny Burnette
10 Many Tears Ago--Connie Francis

Singles entering the chart were All in My Mind by Maxine Brown (#85); Utopia by Frank Gari (#89); Oh, How I Miss You Tonight by Jeanne Black (#90); Willie by Bill Black's Combo (#92); Stand by Me by Little Junior Parker (#93); There's a Moon Out Tonight by the Capris (#94); Please Come Home for Christmas by Charles Brown (#96); Looking Back by Dinah Washington (#97); Is There Something on Your Mind by Jack Scott (#99); Gee Baby by Joe & Ann (#100); C'est Si Bon (It's So Good) by Conway Twitty (also #100); and How to Handle a Woman by Johnny Mathis (also #100). Looking Back was the other side of We Have Love, charting at #74.

#1 single in Vancouver (CFUN): Calendar Girl--Neil Sedaka (2nd week at #1)

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKWX)
1 Wonderland by Night--Bert Kaempfert and his Orchestra
(3rd week at #1) --Anita Bryant
2 Calendar Girl--Neil Sedaka
3 Are You Lonesome To-night?--Elvis Presley
4 Doll House--Donnie Brooks
5 Lonely Teenager--Dion
6 Rubber Ball--Bobby Vee
7 North to Alaska/The Mansion You Stole--Johnny Horton
8 Corinna, Corinna--Ray Peterson
9 Lovey Dovey--Buddy Knox
10 Flamingo Express--The Royaltones

Singles entering the chart were The Mansion You Stole; Calcutta by Lawrence Welk and his Orchestra (#21); Your Other Love by the Flamingos (#35); Cool Operator by Sandy Nelson (#38); and (Ghost) Riders in the Sky by the Ramrods (#40).

On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Carleton Hobbs and Norman Shelley, on BBC Home Service
Tonight’s episode: The Valley of Fear

Died on this date
C.D. Howe, 74
. U.S.-born Canadian politician. Clarence Decatur Howe, a native of Waltham, Massachusetts, moved to Halifax as a young man to become a professor at Dalhousie University. He then became wealthy as an engineer, and settled in Port Arthur, Ontario, where he was elected to the House of Commons as a member of the Liberal Party in 1935. Prime Minister Mackenzie King named him to the cabinet as Minister of Railways and Canals and Minister of Marine; eventually, Mr. Howe became Minister of Transport. Upon the beginning of World War II and the re-election of the Liberal government in 1940, Mr. King named Mr. Howe Minister of Munitions and Supply, with the job of mobilizing all Canadian resources toward the war effort. It was in this portfolio that Mr. Howe spearheaded the transformation of the basis of Canada’s economy from agriculture to industry; he’s been credited with paving the way for Canada to have one of the world’s highest standards of living. As the war moved toward its conclusion, Prime Minister King, afraid that Mr. Howe might decide to leave politics, named him Minister of Reconstruction and Supply. When the government, now led by Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent, decided in 1951 that Canada needed to rearm while participating in the Korean War, Mr. Howe was given a new portfolio, and became Minister of Defence Production. A bitter debate in Parliament in 1955 and 1956 over building a pipeline to transport natural gas from Alberta to the United States turned many people against the Liberals, and they were narrowly defeated in the federal election of 1957. Mr. Howe was among the defeated, losing his seat in Port Arthur to Co-operative Commonwealth Federation candidate Douglas Fisher. He died of a heart attack, 15 days before his 75th birthday.

Defense
In a statement issued with President Dwight Eisenhower’s approval, the U.S. State Department warned that the United States "would take the most serious view of any intervention in Laos by the Chinese Communists or Viet Minh (North Vietnam) armed forces or others in support of the Communist Pathet Lao, who are in rebellion against the Royal Laotian government." The statement said that the U.S. was consulting its South East Asia Treaty Organization allies about the Laos situation.

40 years ago
1970


Hit parade
#1 single in France (IFOP): J'habite en France--Michel Sardou

Edmonton's top 10 (CJCA)
1 My Sweet Lord/Isn’t it a Pity--George Harrison (2nd week at #1)
2 Knock Three Times--Dawn
3 I Think I Love You--The Partridge Family
4 Sing High, Sing Low--Anne Murray
5 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
6 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
7 Most of All--B.J. Thomas
8 Domino--Van Morrison
9 For the Good Times--Ray Price
10 Black Magic Woman--Santana

Died on this date
Cyril Scott, 91
. U.K. poet and composer. Mr. Scott was a highly-regarded pianist who composed about 400 works, including two symphonies, three operas, three piano concertos, and numerous orchestral, vocal, and chamber works. He was an occultist who wrote prose and poetry advocating alternative diet and medical practices.

World events
The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation reduced the death sentences of two Soviet Jews--who had been convicted of plotting to hijack a plane to escape to Israel--to 15 years in a labour camp. The court reduced the prison sentences of three of the other nine convicted conspirators.

Disasters
All 90 aboard were reported dead after a Soviet Aeroflot airliner crashed on takeoff from Leningrad.

A chartered French plane carrying 30 members of an Algerian soccer team to Mahon, Spain was lost after sending distress signals 65 miles off Algeria in the Mediterranean Sea.

30 years ago
1980


Died on this date
Raoul Walsh, 93
. U.S. actor and director. Mr. Walsh, born Albert Edward Walsh, acted in silent movies in the 1910s and '20s, and began his directing career while still acting. His best-known performance was as John Wilkes Booth in The Birth of a Nation (1915). Mr. Walsh directed The Thief of Bagdad (1924) and other silent films, and was supposed to direct and act in In Old Arizona (1928), but lost his right eye in a car accident while driving on location, ending his acting career. He continued his career as a director with movies such as The Big Trail (1930), and numerous films for Warner Brothers Pictures starring Humphrey Bogart, James Cagney, and Errol Flynn, such as The Roaring Twenties (1939); They Died with Their Boots On (1941); and White Heat (1949). Mr. Walsh died of a heart attack.

Marshall McLuhan, 69. Canadian media scholar. Born in Edmonton, raised in Winnipeg, and resident in Toronto, Dr. McLuhan coined the term "global village" and became famous for his phrase "The medium is the message" and variations thereof. His best-known book was Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964). Dr. McLuhan made a memorable cameo appearance as himself in the movie Annie Hall (1977). He died in Toronto, 15 months after suffering a stroke.

Politics and government
Connecticut Lieutenant Governor William O’Neill was sworn in as the state’s Governor, replacing Ella Grasso, who had been the first woman elected governor of a state without having a politician-husband as predecessor. Ms. Grasso had decided to resign after being diagnosed with liver cancer.

25 years ago
1985


Died on this date
Rick Nelson, 45
. U.S. musician. The son of bandleader Ozzie Nelson and his wife Harriet Hilliard Nelson, Eric Hilliard Nelson began acting on his parents’ radio show at the age of 9 and remained with the program when it moved to television in 1952. He had his first hit record, the two-sided hit I’m Walkin’/A Teenager’s Romance in 1957. Poor Little Fool reached #1 on the Billboard Best Seller and Hot 100 charts in 1958, and Travelin’ Man (1961) hit #1 on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1961. From 1957-1964 Mr. Nelson had 26 top-40 hits on the Billboard pop chart, 17 of which reached the top 10. 11 of his singles were records that had both sides in the top 40. He also showed promise as an actor with fine performances in the movies Rio Bravo (1959) and The Wackiest Ship in the Army (1960). After the hits diminished, Mr. Nelson began writing and performing his own songs, and was a pioneer in the genre known as country-rock with albums such as Bright Lights and Country Music (1966). He returned to the top 40 singles chart in late 1969-early 1970 with She Belongs To Me, and had a major comeback hit with Garden Party, which reached #6 on the Billboard Hot 100 and #1 in the RPM 100 Singles chart in Canada in the fall of 1972. Mr. Nelson was on his way to a New Year’s Eve engagement in Dallas when a fire began in the cabin of the vintage DC-3 carrying him and his band, and the plane crashed while making a forced landing in DeKalb, Texas. Mr. Nelson, his fiancee, and five members of his band were killed.

Radio
Springbok Radio, South Africa’s first commercial radio station, went off the air for the last time, ending more than 35 years of broadcasting.

Economics and finance
The failure of a bank in Brooklyn, New York brought the number of bank failures for the year in the United States to 120.

The U.S. dollar ended 1985 well below the record levels set in March. The decline against other currencies had been slow during the summer and greater in the fall.

20 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Ai wa Katsu (愛は勝つ)--Kan (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Justify My Love--Madonna (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Sadeness Part I--Enigma (8th week at #1)

Died on this date
George Allen, 72
. U.S. football coach. After years in the college ranks, Mr. Allen joined the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League as an assistant coach in 1957, moving on to the Chicago Bears in 1958 under head coach George Halas. Mr. Allen masterminded the defense that gave up an average of 10 points per game as the Bears won the NFL championship in 1963. He became head coach of the Los Angeles Rams in 1966; from 1966-1970 the Rams compiled a regular season record of 49-17-4, but were unable to get past the first round of the playoffs. Mr. Allen was fired after the 1970 season and was promptly hired to be the head coach of the Washington Redskins, where he served from 1971-1977. Mr. Allen’s teams in Washington were known as the "Over-the-Hill Gang" because of his habit of trading away draft choices for proven veterans. The Redskins’ best season under Mr. Allen was 1972, when they led the National Football Conference with a record of 11-3, and won the NFC championship, only to lose 14-7 to the undefeated Miami Dolphins in the 1973 Super Bowl. Mr. Allen rejoined the Rams as head coach in 1978, but was fired after just two pre-season games. He joined CBS as a commentator on football telecasts. Mr. Allen joined the Montreal Alouettes of the Canadian Football League as general manager after the 1981 season, but departed after just a few weeks in which he accomplished nothing except large long-distance telephone bills. In 1983 Mr. Allen was head coach of the Chicago Blitz in the first season of the United States Football League, where he compiled a 12-6 record before losing in the first round of the playoffs. In 1984 he became head coach of the Arizona Wranglers when the owners of the Wranglers and the Blitz swapped the two franchises almost completely. In 1984 the Wranglers were 10-8, and won two playoff games to become Western Conference champions before losing 23-3 to the Philadelphia Stars in the USFL championship game. Mr. Allen left coaching after that, but returned in 1990 as head coach at California State University, Long Beach. He led CSULB to its first winning record in many years, but died six weeks after the last game. CSULB won the game and the players awarded Mr. Allen a Gatorade shower, but he procrastinated in changing out of wet clothes, and his health declined until he died of ventricular fibrillation. According to his son George, the heart arryhtmia, and not the Gatorade shower, was the cause of death.

Vasily Lazarev, 62. U.S.S.R. physician and cosmonaut. Dr. Lazarev became a military physician upon graduating from high school in 1951, qualified as a fighter pilot in 1954, participated in stratospheric balloon flights in 1962, and became a cosmonaut in 1966. He commanded the two-man Soyuz 12 mission in 1973 and the aborted Soyuz 18a mission in 1975, suffering injuries in the hard landing of the latter from which he never fully recovered, leading to his dismissal from military service and the cosmonaut corps on medical grounds in 1985.

Economics and finance
The Dow Jones Industrial Average ended 1990 at 2,633.66, down 119.54 points, or 4.3%, for 1990.

Chess
Gary Kasparov of the U.S.S.R. retained his world championship against countryman and former world champion Anatoly Karpov. Mr. Kasparov won 4 games to Mr. Karpov’s 3, with 17 draws. The final score of the match was 12.5-11.5 for Mr. Kasparov. Mr. Kasparov’s victory earned him U.S.$1.7 million and a diamond-studded sculpture valued at $1 million. Mr. Karpov took home $1.3 million.



20 years ago
2000


Died on this date
Alan Cranston, 86
. U.S. politician. Mr. Cranston, a Democrat, represented California in the United States Senate (1969-1993), serving as his party's whip (1977-1991) and chairman of the Senate Veterans Affairs Committee (1977-1981, 1987-1983).

José Greco, 82. Italian-born U.S. dancer and choreographer. Mr. Greco, born Costanzo Greco Bucci, moved to New York City with his family at the age of 10. He popularized flamenco dancing on stage and screen in the 1940s and '50s, and died eight days after his 82nd birthday.

Football
NFL
AFC Wild Card Playoff
Denver 3 @ Baltimore 21



NFC Wild Card Playoff
Tampa Bay 3 @ Philadelphia 21



December 30, 2010

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Michael Nesmith, Davy Jones, and and Gladys Lucy Pomazongo Levano!

550 years ago
1460


Died on this date
Richard of York, 49. English royal family member. Richard was a great-grandson of King Edward III. He served under King Henry VI, and served as Protector of the Realm from 1454-1455 after King Henry suffered a complete nervous breakdown. Richard of York became a rival claimant to the throne, and was killed while fighting Lancastrian forces in the Battle of Wakefield.

War
Lancastrian forces loyal to King Henry VI of England defeated Yorkist troops in the Battle of Wakefield, and killed Richard of York.

120 years ago
1890


Born on this date
Adolfo Ruiz Cortines
. 47th President of Mexico, 1952-1958. Mr. Ruiz, a member of the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) (Institutional Revolutionary Party), served as Governor of Veracruz from 1944-1948, and was elected President in 1952. Mr. Ruiz's presidency included economic, educational, and health reforms, and women were allowed to vote in presidential elections. Mr. Ruiz died on December 3, 1973, 27 days before his 83rd birthday.

War
The day after the Wounded Knee Massacre, the Drexel Mission Fight took place in South Dakota between the 7th U.S. Cavalry, aided by the 9th Cavalry, and Lakota warriors.

100 years ago
1910


Born on this date
Paul Bowles
. U.S. author and composer. Mr. Bowles wrote poetry, short stories, and novels, and was best known for the novel The Sheltering Sky (1949). He composed works for piano and incidental music for the theatre. Mr. Bowles died on November 18, 1999 at the age of 88.

70 years ago
1940


At the movies
Mr. & Mrs. Smith, directed by Alfred Hitchcock, and starring Carole Lombard and Robert Montgomery, received a sneak preview screening in New Rochelle, New York, with the director in attendance.



Died on this date
C. Harold Wills, 62
. U.S. automotive engineer and executive. Mr. Wills began working with Henry Ford in 1899, and was the chief contributor to the design of the Model T. He left Ford Motor Company in 1919, and founded and led the automotive firm Wills Sainte Claire, which was in business from 1921-1927. Mr. Wills died shortly after suffering a stroke.

War
Associated Press estimated the total of dead, wounded, and missing for the first 15 months of the European war at 3-4 million.

Defense
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was reported by the White House to be "tremendously pleased" by the response to his radio address the night before, urging complete aid to the United Kingdom. U.S. Senator D. Worth Clark (Democrat--Idaho) said that Mr. Roosevelt's address was "a trick speech, calculated to lead the American people into war and ruin." Sen. Burton K. Wheeler (Democrat--Montana) criticized "warmongers," opposed aid to Britain that might involve the United States in War, and offered an eight-point peace program.

Politics and government
Representative Ramon Vina of the National Herrerista Party, which opposed the establishment of Pan-American bases in Uruguay, tried to shoot Socialist Rep. Emilio Frugoni on the floor of the Chamber of Representatives in Montevideo during a debate on the bases.

The National Student Federation of America voted to withdraw from the American Youth Congress, which it had helped to found, because of the AYC's alleged radical tendencies.

Transportation
California’s first freeway, the Arroyo Seco Parkway connecting Los Angeles and Pasadena, was officially opened.

60 years ago
1950


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Goodnight Irene--Gordon Jenkins and his Orchestra and the Weavers (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): The Tennessee Waltz--Patti Page (Best Seller--1st week at #1); The Thing--Phil Harris (Disc Jockey--5th week at #1; Jukebox--2nd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 The Tennessee Waltz--Patti Page
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Les Paul and Mary Ford
--Jo Stafford
2 Harbor Lights--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Ray Anthony and his Orchestra
--Bing Crosby
3 The Thing--Phil Harris
4 Thinking of You--Don Cherry
--Eddie Fisher
5 A Bushel and a Peck--Perry Como and Betty Hutton
--Margaret Whiting and Jimmy Wakely
6 All My Love (Bolero)--Patti Page
--Percy Faith and his Orchestra
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Bing Crosby
7 Nevertheless (I’m in Love with You)--Paul Weston and his Orchestra
--The Mills Brothers
--Ralph Flanagan and his Orchestra
--Ray Anthony and his Orchestra
8 Patricia--Perry Como
9 Orange Colored Sky--Nat "King" Cole and Stan Kenton
10 Oh, Babe!--Kay Starr
--Louis Prima and Keely Smith

Singles entering the chart that week were Roving Kind (#29), with versions by Guy Mitchell; and the Weavers; and Silver Bells by Margaret Whiting and Jimmy Wakely (#34).

Movies
The Motion Picture Herald annual poll of theatre audiences named John Wayne as the most popular actor of the year, followed by Bob Hope, Bing Crosby, Betty Grable, and James Stewart.

War
In the biggest jet plane dogfight of the Korean War to date, 40 Soviet MiG-15s and 15 U.S. F-86 Sabres clashed over northwestern Korea near Manchuria. The U.S. Air Force reported two MiGs damaged.

Diplomacy
Pakistani Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan refused to attend a British Commonwealth conference in London until he was promised that the meeting would try to settle the dispute between Pakistan and India over the status of Kashmir.

Economics and finance
The Hungarian governemnt instructed all ministries to work out emergency programs within the next 30 days to accelerate industrial growth and the development of substitutes for imported raw materials and to provide strict economy in all branches of production.

U.S. President Harry Truman's Council of Economic Advisers issued a 31-page annual report, pronouncing the nation's economy essentially sound, but urging immediate action on wage and price controls, a broader tax program, and fixing the size of military requirements.

Baseball
The Baseball Writers Association of New York named New York Giants' second baseman Eddie Stanky as the major league player of the year. He batted .300 with 8 home runs and 51 runs batted in in 152 games, leading the National League in bases on balls (144); beig hit by a pitch (12); and on-base percentage (.460) in 1950.

50 years ago
1960


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): It's Now or Never--Elvis Presley (9th week at #1)

War
The Laotian government of Premier Prince Boun Oum asked the United Nations for aid against a reported invasion of Laos by troops from the Communist countries of North Vietnam and China. Vientiane radio had broadcast a communiqué stating that several battalions of North Vietnamese troops had entered Laos.

40 years ago
1970


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Grandad--Clive Dunn

On television tonight
Rod Serling’s Night Gallery, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The House, starring Joanna Pettet; Certain Shadows on the Wall, starring Louis Hayward, Rachel Roberts, Agnes Moorehead, and Grayson Hall

Died on this date
Sonny Liston, 38 (?)
. U.S. boxer. Charles Liston, 24th of 25 children of an Arkansas sharecropper, was illiterate, became a criminal while a youth, and learned to box in the penitentiary at Jefferson City, Missouri. He was controlled by organized crime figures, but earned a world heavyweight title fight after an impressive string of victories. A fearsome presence and a devastating puncher, Mr. Liston won the title on September 25, 1962 by knocking out defending champion Floyd Patterson in just 2 minutes and 6 seconds of the 1st round. A rematch on July 22, 1963 lasted just 4 seconds longer. Mr. Liston lost the title on February 25, 1964 in his next defense, failing to come out of his corner to begin the 7th round against brash young Cassius Clay, who then promptly announced that he preferred to be known as Muhammad Ali. Mr. Liston’s reputation was further tarnished in the rematch on May 25, 1965, when he was knocked out at 1:42 of the 1st round in the rematch. He was widely accused of taking a dive, although films clearly showed Mr. Ali delivering a short punch directly to Mr. Liston’s chin. Mr. Liston attempted a comeback, running up a string of wins over unheralded opponents, until he was knocked out by former sparring partner Leotis Martin on December 6, 1969. Mr. Liston’s final fight was a 9-round technical knockout of Chuck Wepner in New Jersey on June 29, 1970, giving him a professional record of 50-4. Mr. Liston, who spent his last years in Las Vegas, died while his wife Geraldine was away visiting relatives, and she discovered his body when she arrived home on January 5, 1971. The date of death was estimated in part from a stack of newspapers outside the front door. Mr. Liston died of an apparent drug overdose, although it was said that he wasn’t a drug user. He was reportedly working as an enforcer for unsavoury characters in Las Vegas. Whatever the truth, Sonny Liston took many secrets with him to the grave, as The Ring magazine stated in its April 1971 issue.

World events
Facing threats of violence by Basque separatists because of death sentences handed to 6 defendants in a court-martial, Spanish dictator Francisco Franco defused the situation by commuting the death sentences to 30-year prison sentences.

Disasters
A coal mine explosion in Hyden, Kentucky killed 38 miners.

25 years ago
1985


Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the index of leading economic indicators had increased 0.1% in November. The administration of President Ronald Reagan predicted that real growth in the U.S. economy would be 4% in 1986.

20 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Ice Ice Baby--Vanilla Ice (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Sadeness Part I--Enigma (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Sadeness Part I--Enigma (3rd week at #1)

Diplomacy
In response to demands and threats from Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, the Moldavian parliament said that it would review a law that made Moldavian the republic’s official language, and also agreed not to form a special defense force in Moldavia.

10 years ago
2000


Died on this date
Julius J. Epstein, 91
. U.S. screenwriter. Mr. Epstein, his twin brother Philip, and Howard Koch won an Academy Award for their screenplay for Casablanca (1942). Julius Epstein also received Oscar nominations for his screenplay adaptations for Four Daughters (1938); House Calls (1978); and Reuben, Reuben (1983).

Terrorism
A series of bombs exploded in various places in Metro Manila within a period of a few hours, killing 22 and injuring about 100.

Football
NFL
AFC Wild Card Playoff
Indianapolis 17 @ Miami 23 (OT)



NFC Wild Card Playoff
St. Louis 28 @ New Orleans 31





Tuesday, 28 December 2010

December 29, 2010

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Christine Gotaas!

840 years ago
1170

Died on this date
Thomas Becket, 52
. English clergyman; Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170. Mr. Becket, who had quarrelled with King Henry II over matters involving church and state, was murdered in his cathedral by four knights acting on orders of the king.

460 years ago
1550


Died on this date
Bhuvanaikabahu VII, 82
. King of Kotte, 1521-1550. Bhuvanaikabahu VII acceded to the throne of Kotte, a kingdom in present-day Sri Lanka, upon the death of his father Vijayabahu VII. He was regarded as a weak king, dependent on help from the Portuguese to protect him from the attempts of his brother Mayadunne to depose him. King Bhuvanaikabahu was a Buddhist who resisted Portuguese attempts to convert him to Roman Catholicism, and was assassinated on the orders of either Maydunne or Viceroy Alfonso de Noronha. Bhuvanaikabahu VII was succeeded on the throne by his grandson Dharmapala.

210 years ago
1800


Born on this date
Charles Goodyear
. U.S. chemist and engineer. Mr. Goodyear was best known for developing vulcanized rubber, for which he received a U.S. patent in 1844. He lost a court battle in England in 1855 over a British patent for vulcanized rubber. He travelled to New York to see his dying daughter, and collapsed and died himself on July 1, 1860 at the age of 59, after finding out that she was already dead. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company was founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling and named after Mr. Goodyear.

150 years ago
1860


Defense
The British Royal Navy frigate HMS Warrior was launched; with her combination of screw propeller, iron hull and iron armour, she rendered all previous warships obsolete.

130 years ago
1880


Died on this date
Tuhiata
. N.Z. criminal. Tuhiata murdered artist Mary Dobie, 29, in Opunake on November 25, 1880. He confronted Miss Dobie, who thought he was going to rob her, and strangled her when she threatened to report him to the English authorities. The killing of a white woman by a Māori outraged the settler community, and the jury at Tuhiata's trial took less than half an hour to convict him of murder. He was hanged at Terrace Gaol in Wellington.

120 years ago
1890


War
Almost 200 Sioux Indian men, women, and children were shot by members of the U.S. 7th Cavalry in a massacre at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. It was the last major action in the various U.S. Indian wars.

Albertana
The Town of Lethbridge was incorporated.

100 years ago
1910


Politics and government
Liberal candidate Marcellin Robert defeated "oppositionist" candidate Henri Hébert 1,507-862 in a Quebec provincial by-election in the riding of Saint-Jean. The by-election was necessitated by the death of former Premier Félix-Gabriel Marchand.

Transportation
The Canada and Gulf Terminal Railway became the first rail line to reach the Lower St. Lawrence region as its station opened in Matane, Quebec.

80 years ago
1930


On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Richard Gordon and Leigh Lovell, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Reigate Puzzle

Politics and government
Sir Muhammad Iqbal, president of the All-India Muslim League, delivered a presidential address in Allahabad in which he encouraged the creation of a "state in northwestern India for Indian Muslims," introducing the two-nation theory and outlining a vision for the creation of Pakistan.

70 years ago
1940

On the radio

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Missing Three-Quarter

Movies
The New York Film Critics Circle named its award winners for 1940, which included: Best Picture--The Grapes of Wrath; Best Director--John Ford (The Grapes of Wrath); Best Actor--Charlie Chaplin (The Great Dictator); and Best Actress--Katharine Hepburn (The Philadelphia Story).

War
In the Second Great Fire of London, the German Luftwaffe fire-bombed London, killing almost 200 civilians. The United Kingsom announced that an unidentified German "powerful surface warship" had been routed in the North Atlantic Ocean on December 25 by the British cruiser Berwick.

Defense
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared in a "fireside chat" radio broadcast that the United States must become the "arsenal of democracy," and that full aid must be given to the United Kingdom on a war basis. He added that no threats by dictators could weaken American determination to give Britain all the aid she needed.

Law
Mexican President Manuel Avila Camacho sent a bill to the Chamber of Deputies granting amnesty for political offenders during the recent presidential election campaign.

Labour
Congress of Industrial Organizations United Auto Workers President R.J. Thomas said that the U.S. War Department contract awarded to Ford Motor Company for 1,500 scout cars would "seriously undermine the morale of labor engaged in defense work."

Football
NFL
All-Star Game @ Los Angeles
Chicago Bears 28 NFL All-Stars 14

Sid Luckman won the quarterbacking duel over Sammy Baugh of the Washington Redskins as the champion Bears defeated the All-Stars at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum.

60 years ago
1950


On the radio
Hear it Now, hosted by Edward R. Murrow, on CBS

Tonight's program included news about the Korean War.

Theatre
The Rose Tattoo by Tennessee Williams received its premiere performance in Chicago. Mr. Williams revised the play before it opened on Broadway in New York on February 3, 1951.

World events
Aden's eastern state of Mukalla was placed under martial law after nationalist rioters attacked the sultan's palace guard.

Politics and government
The South Korean cabinet, expressing confidence that Seoul's defenses would hold, decided to remain in the city.

Defense
The French National Assembly approved a record 740-billion franc increase in the country's military budget, to be financed by higher taxes.

Transportation
The last streetcar run in Calgary took place.

Medicine
Dr. Selman Wakeman conceded in Newark Superior Court that Dr. Albert Schatz was the co-discoverer of the antibiotic streptomyecin, and agreed to reach a financial settlement on division of royalties from sales of the drug.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Harry Truman signed a bill authorizing the use of $38 million in Marshall Plan funds for famine aid to Yugoslavia.

Business
U.S. President Truman signed a measure strengthening the Clayton Anti-Trust Act by barring business mergers that would lessen competition.

Labour
The U.S. Office of Defense Manpower announced plans to establish 13 regional manpower committees to handle problems of job turnover, absenteeism, and manpower shortages.

50 years ago
1960


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): I Love You--Cliff Richard and the Shadows

On television tonight
The Untouchables, starring Robert Stack, on ABC
Tonight's episode: The Tommy Karpeles Story



40 years ago
1970


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Kvällstoppen): Cracklin' Rosie--Neil Diamond (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland (Swiss Hitparade): San Bernadino--Christie (4th week at #1)

30 years ago
1980


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Sneaker Blues--Masahiko Kondō (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Woman in Love--Barbra Streisand (4th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Super Trouper--ABBA (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Tim Hardin, 39
. U.S. musician. Mr. Hardin was a singer-songwriter best known for writing the songs Reason to Believe and If I Were a Carpenter, both of which have been recorded by many artists. His only notable hit single as a performer came in the fall of 1969 with Simple Song of Freedom, a Bobby Darin composition (Mr. Darin’s version of If I Were a Carpenter had been a major hit in the fall of 1966). Mr. Hardin had a drug habit for many years and died of a heroin overdose, six days after his 39th birthday.

World events
Testimony and arguments concluded in the trial of Jiang Qing, widow of Chairman Mao Zedong and one of China’s "Gang of Four." She was hauled from the courtroom shouting, "I am prepared to die." The chief prosecutor had demanded a death sentence.

Oil
Libya and Indonesia announced price increases of US$3-$4 per barrel. It was widely believed that Algeria would not only raise its price to $41 per barrel, but would also maintain its surcharge of $3 per barrel, making the total price $44 per barrel. Nigeria raised its price $3 per barrel, to $40 per barrel.

25 years ago
1985


Terrorism
Libya’s official press agency praised the December 27 terrorist attacks on airports in Rome and Vienna, which had resulted in the deaths of 20 civilians, as heroic.

20 years ago
1990

Hit parade

#1 single in Australia (Australian Music Report): Unchained Melody--The Righteous Brothers (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Attenti Al Lupo--Lucio Dalla

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): I've Been Thinking About You--Londonbeat (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Sadeness Part I--Enigma

#1 single in France (SNEP): Petit Frank--François Feldman

#1 single in the U.K. (CIN): Saviour's Day--Cliff Richard

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40)
: Ice Ice Baby--Vanilla Ice (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard)
: Because I Love You (The Postman Song)--Stevie B (4th week at #1)

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Justify My Love--Madonna
2 Because I Love You (The Postman Song)--Stevie B
3 Impulsive--Wilson Phillips
4 Tom’s Diner--D.N.A. featuring Suzanne Vega
5 High Enough--Damn Yankees
6 Love Will Never Do (Without You)--Janet Jackson
7 Sensitivity--Ralph Tresvant
8 From a Distance--Bette Midler
9 I’m Your Baby Tonight--Whitney Houston
10 The First Time--Surface

Singles entering the chart were It Never Rains (In Southern California) by Tony! Toni! Tone! (#54); Go for It! (Heart and Fire) by Joey B. Ellis and Tynetta Hare (#63); Don’t Hold Back Your Love by Daryl Hall John Oates (#66); I've Been Waiting for You by Guys Next Door (#76); One More Try by Timmy -T- (#79); Caroline by Concrete Blonde (#85); and Pick Up the Pace 1990 by Young M.C. (#88).

Politics and government
A week after taking office as President of Poland, Lech Walesa named economist Jan Krzysztof Bielecki as Premier.

10 years ago
2000


Weather
A blanket of snow and temperatures as low as -13C. disrupted life in the United Kingdom.

Politics and government
U.S. President-elect George W. Bush named four more nominees for his cabinet: Tommy Thompson--Secretary of Health and Human Services; Gale Norton--Secretary of the Interior; Rod Paige--Secretary of Education; Anthony Principi; Secretary of Veterans’ Affairs. All appointees were subject to approval by the United States Senate.

Economics and finance
The technology-heavy NASDAQ composite index stood at 2,470.52, a 39% decline from a year earlier. The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 10,786.85, a 6.2% decline during 2000. The Standard & Poor’s 500-stock index declined 10.1% to 1,320.28.

The U.S. unemployment rate for November was reported as 4.0%; consumer prices had increased 0.2% in November, while producer prices were unchanged. The index of leading economic indicators had declined 0.6% in November, while the gross domestic product for the fourth quarter of 2000 was growing at an annual rate of 1.0%. For the entire year, consumer prices had risen 3.4% and producer prices had risen 3.6%. The GDP had grown 5.0% for the year.

December 28, 2010

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Heather Pick!

290 years ago
1720


Society
The British Lords of Trade proposed to deport the Acadians from Nova Scotia, although the expulsion did not commence until 35 years later (1755 - 1763).

175 years ago
1835


War
Osceola led his Seminole warriors in Florida into the Second Seminole War against the United States Army.

140 years ago
1870


Born on this date
Charles Bennett
. U.K. runner. Mr. Bennett, the "Shapwick Express," was the first British track athlete to win an Olympic gold medal, winning in the men's 1500-metre run and the 5000-metre team race at the 1900 Olympic Games in Paris, while taking a silver medal in the 4000-metre steeplechase. He die don March 9, 1949 at the age of 78.

120 years ago
1890


War
A band of Sioux Indians led by Big Foot, who had fled to the badlands, were captured by the U.S. 7th Cavalry and brought to Wounded Knee creek in South Dakota.

100 years ago
1910


Born on this date
Billy Williams
. U.S. singer. Mr. Williams was lead singer of the gospel group the Charioteers (1930-1950), with time out for service in the U.S. Army during World War II. He then formed the Billy Williams Quartet, achieving a dozen charted singles from 1951-1959. His most successful recording was I'm Gonna Sit Right Down and Write Myself a Letter (1957), which reached #3 on the Billboard singles chart and sold over a million copies. Mr. Williams suffered from diabetes in later years, and died of a heart attack on October 12, 1972 at the age of 61.

75 years ago
1935


Died on this date
Clarence Day, 61
. U.S. author. Mr. Day was best known for his memoir Life with Father (1935), which was published shortly before his death from pneumonia.

70 years ago
1940


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Frenesi--Artie Shaw and his Orchestra (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Christian Deetjan, 77
. U.S. physician. Dr. Deetjan, a pioneer in X-ray treatment who had lost fingers and a forearm in 1930 as a result of his work, died in Baltimore from burns received during research.

War
It was reported that Germany had massed more than a division of troops in Romania within 13 miles of the Yugoslavian border. The Japanese government denied that one of its ships had shelled Nauru; Australian sources speculated that the ship concerned was a disguised German raider. A vote of confidence in the cabinet of Prime Minister Hussein Sirri Pasha by the Egyptian parliament barred the way to Egypt's active participation in the European war.

Defense
According to a preliminary audit by the United States Treasury, the United Kingdom would have no cash left to pay for U.S. arms and munitions by the early autumn of 1941. A Gallup Poll reported that 60% of American voters now favoured aiding Britain even at the risk of war, as compared with 36% in May 1940.

Edward Stettinius of the U.S. National Defense Advisory Commission reported that there were no serious shortages in aluminum supplies.

Universal military training was established in Ecuador, beginning in January 1941 with pre-military instruction in all schools, colleges, and universities.

World events
The Guatemalan government of President Jorge Ubico announced that 12 people who had tried to start a rebellion on December 24 at Fort Metamoros had been executed this day by firing squads.

Law
The American Student Union in New York accused the U.S. administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt with attempting to sabotage progressive legislation and civil liberties under the guise of national defense.

Science
University of California professors Joseph Kaplan and Dr. S.M. Ruben described a new device called a "cosmic Jacob's ladder" which provided them with evidence that the upper atmosphere contains helium.

Labour
A U.S. House of Representatives committee which had spent 17 months investigating the National Labor Relations Board urged its complete reorganization to eliminate those employees who had shown bias and a partisan attitude as well as those who had indicated opposition to "the American system of government."

Football
NCAA
Blue-Gray Game @ Montgomery, Alabama
North 14 South 12

60 years ago
1950


Married on this date
U.S. actor Henry Fonda married Susan Blanchard, stepdaughter of lyricist Oscar Hammerstein II.

War
The U.S.A. told the U.S.S.R. in a note that it would not wai much longer for Soviet cooperation on a Japanese peace treaty and would not accept terms barring American troops from Japan.

Defense
U.S. President Harry Truman rejected former President Herbert Hoover's proposal to limit U.S. defenses to the Western Hemisphere as an attempt to revive isolationism.

Politics and government
U.S. Representative Adolph Sabath (Democrat--Illinois) completed a record 43 years, 9 months, and 25 days of continuous congressional service.

Journalism
Time magazine's choice for Man of the Year was "The U.S. Fighting Man," the first time the magazine had cited a symbol instead of an individual.

Medicine
The U.S. Army reported the successful use in Korea of iso-levomethadone, a synthetic drug which relieved pain as effectively as morphine and could easily be mass-produced.

Economics and finance
The People's Republic of China retaliated against the U.S. economic embargo by seizing all American assets in China, estimated by a U.S. Commerce Department official as less than $100 million.

The U.S. Federal Reserve Board ordered an increase in bank reserve requirements as an anti-inflation measure designed to withdraw $2 billion from circulation.

The U.S. government took complete control of natural rubber under a National Production Authority order making the General Services Administration the nation's sole importer and distributor of the product.

50 years ago
1960


At the movies
Where the Boys Are, directed by Henry Levin, and starring Dolores Hart, George Hamilton, Yvette Mimieux, Jim Hutton, Barbara Nichols, Paula Prentiss, and Connie Francis, opened in theatres.



40 years ago
1970


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): A Song of Joy--Miguel Rios (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Kyōto no Koi--Yūko Nagisa (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Te Quiero, Te Quiero--Nino Bravo (2nd week at #1)

World events
The military tribunal in Spain trying 16 Basque nationalists handed down harsh verdicts, including death sentences for six of the accused. Three of the six were sentenced to death by firing squad twice (wouldn’t once be enough?). Sentences for the others ranged from 12 to 70 years, but one of the female defendants was acquitted. The verdicts and sentences provoked protests and pleas for mercy from around the world, and Basque guerrillas threatened retaliation if the death sentences were carried out.

Terrorism
Three suspects in the October 17 murder of Quebec Labour Minister Pierre Laporte--Paul Rose, 27; his brother Jacques, 23; and Francis Simard, 23--were captured in a Quebec farmhouse, having earlier eluded police in Montreal. The three were associated with the Front de Liberation du Quebec (FLQ).

War
U.S. Defense Secretary Melvin Laird, in a year-end review, revealed that U.S. combat deaths in Vietnam had dropped to a five-year low. Almost-complete figures for 1970 showed 4,180 combat deaths, more than 10,000 fewer than in 1968, and less than half the number killed in 1969. U.S. wounded for 1970 numbered 30,425--slightly more than in 1966, but much below the numbers from 1967-1969. Mr. Laird said that U.S. air attacks had declined 36% from 1969 and 48% from 1968.

Diplomacy
After almost four months of debate in the cabinet, Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir announced that Israel would return to the Middle East peace talks under the auspices of United Nations mediator Gunnar Jarring.

30 years ago
1980


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Angel of Mine--Frank Duval & Orchestra (3rd week at #1)

War
The day after leftist guerrillas had begun an offensive against government troops in northern El Salvador, the commander of the Salvadoran army reported that he had the situation in hand.

Diplomacy
The government of Mexico announced its plans to cancel two fishing treaties between itself and the United States. The first was a 1976 agreement that gave the U.S. a quota for snapper and grouper caught in Mexican Gulf and Pacific waters, which would be terminated in one year. The second was a 1977 treaty that permitted Mexico a squid allocation of the eastern seaboard of the United States, which would be cancelled within six months of the delivery of the notice. This notice--which was delivered to the U.S. State Department on December 29--was seen as a blow to efforts to produce a treaty between the countries on the more important tuna fishing industry. Mexico and the U.S. had been engaged in a "tuna war" since a July embargo on tuna imports from Mexico was imposed by the U.S.A.

The U.S.S.R. delivered a formal protest to Iran asking for the Iranian government to make repairs to and to beef up security around the Soviet embassy in Tehran. The day before, Afghans living in Iran had broken into the embassy’s compound to protest on the first anniversary of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The formal protest message from the U.S.S.R. did not note that the protesters were Afghans.

Politics and government
John Agyekum Kufuor won a runoff election to become the new President of Ghana, ending Jerry Rawlings’ 19 years in power. Mr. Rawlings, who had twice seized power and led a harsh military regime before turning to democracy, was constitutionally barred from running again. Mr. Kufuor, the candidate of the New Patriotic Party, received 56.9% of the vote to 43.1% for National Democratic Congress candidate John Atta Mills.

Medicine
An announcement issued by a group of researchers at the University of Utah reported that they had kept a calf alive for 32 weeks with a man-made heart, and requested permission to implant a similar device in a human being. A university panel was set up to review the possibility of the human implant. The artificial heart, it was thought, could be used to keep a heart patient alive long enough for surgeons to locate another human heart to be used in a transplant operation.

Television
Britain’s Independent Broadcasting Authority announced that the contract for "breakfast television" had been awarded to the new company TV-am.

Football
NFL
NFC Wild Card Playoff
Los Angeles 13 @ Dallas 34



AFC Wild Card Playoff
Houston 7 @ Oakland 27



25 years ago
1985


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Election Day--Arcadia (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Nikita--Elton John (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Nikita--Elton John (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Thank You Very Much Mr Eastwood--Dermot Morgan

#1 single in the U.K.: Merry Christmas Everyone--Shakin' Stevens

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Say You, Say Me--Lionel Richie (2nd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Say You, Say Me--Lionel Richie (2nd week at #1)
2 Party All the Time--Eddie Murphy
3 Alive and Kicking--Simple Minds
4 Broken Wings--Mr. Mister
5 That’s What Friends are For--Dionne and Friends (with Elton John, Gladys Knight & Stevie Wonder)
6 Small Town--John Cougar Mellencamp
7 Election Day--Arcadia
8 Separate Lives--Phil Collins and Marilyn Martin
9 Talk to Me--Stevie Nicks
10 Perfect Way--Scritti Politti

Singles entering the chart were Sara by Starship (#59); Own the Night by Chaka Khan (#78); Secret Lovers by Atlantic Starr (#85); Don't Say No Tonight by Eugene Wild (#89); and Baby Talk by Alisha (#90).

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 Say You, Say Me--Lionel Richie (2nd week at #1)
2 Everything in My Heart--Corey Hart
3 Broken Wings--Mr. Mister
4 Separate Lives--Phil Collins and Marilyn Martin
5 We Built This City--Starship
6 Tarzan Boy--Baltimora
7 That’s What Friends are For--Dionne and Friends (with Elton John, Gladys Knight & Stevie Wonder)
8 Live is Life--Opus
9 Election Day--Arcadia
10 Sun City--Artists United Against Apartheid

Singles entering the chart were Kyrie by Mr. Mister (#75); Conga by Miami Sound Machine (#87); If I Was by Midge Ure (#89); Somebody Somewhere by Platinum Blonde (#91); He'll Never Love You (Like I Do) by Freddie Jackson (#92); and Didn't You Kill My Brother? by Alexei Sayle (#95).

Defense
The United States tested an X-ray laser, a component of the Strategic Defense Initiative anti-missile defense system, by detonating a hydrogen bomb under the Nevada desert. An X-ray laser would convert the energy released by a nuclear explosion into a burst of X-rays.

Transportation
The SkyTrain light rail transit system began operating in the metro Vancouver, British Columbia area.

Football
NFL
AFC Wild Card Playoff
New England 26 @ New York Jets 14



20 years ago
1990


Died on this date
Kiel Martin, 46
. U.S. actor. Mr. Martin, born Kiel Mueller, was best known for playing Detective J.D. LaRue in the television series Hill Street Blues (1981-1987). This blogger remembers him from The Edge of Night in the late 1970s. Mr. Martin died of lung cancer.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department said that the index of leading economic indicators had declined 1.2% in November. The index had now dropped for five consecutive months, with a decline of three straight months generally regarded as indicating a recession.

10 years ago
2000


Terrorism
Passengers aboard a British Airways jumbo jet screamed in terror when a man burst into the cockpit and sent the plane into a steep dive during a night flight from London to Nairobi. Several passengers subdued and bound the 27-year-old Kenyan intruder as he attacked the pilot. The co-pilot regained control of the plane after a 3,000-foot descent.

Politics and government
U.S. President-elect George W. Bush named Donald Rumsfeld as his choice for Secretary of Defense. Mr. Rumsfeld had held the position in the administration of President Gerald Ford from 1975-1977.

Americana
The United States Census Bureau put the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000 at 281,421,906, a 13.2% increase from 1990. On the basis of unadjusted state figures, as required by law, there would be eight states gaining seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, and 10 states losing seats. California, already the most populous state, had added 4,111,627 residents, more than any other state. Nevada had the highest rate of gain, 66.3%. North Dakota had the smallest total increase--3,400--and the lowest rate of increase--0.5%. The District of Columbia’s population declined 5.7%.

Business
U.S. retail chain Montgomery Ward & Co., a century-old company, announced that it would cease to operate, closing 250 stores and ending employment for 28,000 workers.