Tuesday, 30 March 2021

March 31, 2021

500 years ago
1521


Religion
Ferdinand Magellan and 50 of his men came ashore to present-day Limasawa to participate in the first Catholic mass in the Philippines.

400 years ago
1621


Died on this date
Philip III/II, 42
. King of Spain, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia, 1598-1621. King Felipe III of Spain and Filipe II of Portugal acceded to his thrones upon the death of his father Philip I/II. Felipe III/Filipe II reigned when the Spanish Empire was at its height; he achieved temporary peace with the Dutch, and military success during the early years of the Thirty Years' War, but he was criticized for relying too much on chief minister Francisco Gómez de Sandoval, 1st Duke of Lerma, and his kingdom was declared bankrupt in 1607. King Felipe III/Filipe II took ill after leaving Portugal in 1619, and never recovered. He died from a pulmonary embolism, two weeks before his 43rd birthday, as the result of prolonged immobilzation, and was succeeded by his son Felpe IV/Filipe III.

390 years ago
1631


Died on this date
John Donne, 59
. English clergyman and poet. Very Rev. Donne was born into a recusant Roman Catholic family, but eventually converted to Anglicanism. He was ordained an Anglican priest in 1615, and was Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral in London from 1621 until his death. Very Rev. Donne was known for his sermons, but was best known as the most prominent of the metaphysical poets, writing love poems, sonnets, religious poems, and satires.

350 years ago
1671


Died on this date
Anne Hyde, 34
. English royal family member. Miss Hyde, daughter of Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, met James, Duke of York, son of King Charles I, in the Netherlands, where he had fled after his father's execution in 1649. The couple were married in 1660, with Anne becoming Duchess of York and Albany. Anne converted from Anglicanism to Roman Catholicism soon after their marriage, and James later converted to Catholicism, which eventually led to the Glorious Revolution in 1688. The couple had eight children; six died in early childhood, but the survivors went on to become Queen Mary II and Queen Anne. Anne, Duchess of York and Albany died of breast cancer, 19 days after her 34th birthday. The Duke of York married Mary of Modena, a Roman Catholic, two years later, and acceded to the throne as King James II in 1685, but was deposed in the Glorious Revolution in 1688.

270 years ago
1751


Died on this date
Frederick, Prince of Wales, 44
. U.K. royal family member. Frederick, the eldest but estranged son of King George II, was born in Hanover and was left there at the age of 7 in the care of his grand-uncle when his grandfather King George I and the future George II went to England upon George I's accession to the throne in 1714. Frederick didn't see his parents again until 1728, when he went to England the year after his father acceded to the throne; Frederick was created Prince of Wales in 1729. He was a patron of the arts and sciences, and was Chancellor of the University of Dublin from 1728 until his death. Prince Frederick married Augusta of Saxe-Gotha in 1736; the couple had nine children, the last of whom was born after Prince Frederick died of what may have been a pulmonary embolism. Prince Frederick was heir apparent to the throne, but when he died, that distinction was passed on to his eldest son, who acceded to the throne in 1760 as King George III.

260 years ago
1761


Disasters
The 1761 Lisbon earthquake struck off the Iberian Peninsula with an estimated magnitude of 8.5, six years after another earthquake had destroyed the city.

200 years ago
1821


Academia
McGill College (forerunner of McGill University) was granted a Royal charter.

170 years ago
1851


Born on this date
Francis Bell
. Prime Minister of New Zealand, 1925. Sir Francis, a member of the Reform Party, was the first native-born Prime Minister of New Zealand. He held various cabinet posts from 1912 until becoming Prime Minister on May 14, 1925, four days after the death of William Massey. Sir Francis held the office for just 16 days, declining the party's offer to continue, and was replaced by Gordon Coates. Sir Francis died on March 13, 1936, 18 days before his 85th birthday.

150 years ago
1871


Born on this date
Arthur Griffith
. Irish journalist and politician. Mr. Griffith founded the nationalist newspaper The United Irishman in 1899, and founded the political party Sinn Féin in 1905, serving as its president from 1911-1917. He represented East Cavan (1918-1921) and Cavan (1921-1922) in the Teachta Dála, and represented Fermanagh and Tyrone in the Northern Ireland Parliament (1921-1922), serving as Ireland's Minister for Home Affairs (1919-1921) and Minister for Foreign Affairs (1921-1922). Mr. Griffith led the Irish delegation at the negotiations that produced the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, and served as President of Dáil Éireann from January 10, 1922 until his death from a cerebral hemorrhage resulting from heart failure at the age of 51 on August 12, 1922.

130 years ago
1891


Born on this date
Victor Varconi
. Hungarian-born actor. Mr. Varconi, born Mihály Várkony began acting in silent films in his native country before appearing in films in Germany and Austria in the early 1920s. He became the first Hungarian to act in an American movie when he played a supporting role in Poisoned Paradise: The Forbidden Story of Monte Carlo (1924). Mr. Varconi played Pontius Pilate in The King of Kings (1927) and continued to have prominent roles in silent movies, but his Hungarian accent wasn't suited to American sound movies, and his roles diminished, although he appeared in movies until 1959. He and fellow Hungarian native Bela Lugosi appeared together in The Black Camel (1931). Mr. Varconi died of a heart attack on June 6, 1976 at the age of 85.

120 years ago
1901


Opera
Rusalka by Antonín Dvořák, with libretto by Jaroslav Kvapil, received its premiére performance at the National Opera House in Prague.

110 years ago
1911


Born on this date
Freddie Green
. U.S. musician. Mr. Green was a jazz guitarist who played with Count Basie's band from 1937 until his death on March 1, 1987, 30 days before his 76th birthday. Mr. Green also performed with artists such as Buck Clayton and Sarah Vaughan.

100 years ago
1921


Born on this date
Lowell Fulson
. U.S. musician. Mr. Fulson, aka Lowell Fulsom, was a guitarist and songwriter who was the most important figure in West Coast blues in the 1940s and '50s. He recorded seven songs which reached the top ten of the Billboard rhythm and blues singles chart, with Blue Shadows reaching #1 and its B-side, Low Society Blues, reaching #8 in 1950. Mr. Fulson died from complications of kidney disease, diabetes, and congestive heart failure on March 7, 1999, 24 days before his 78th birthday.

Peggy Rea. U.S. actress. Miss Rea was a character actress who appeared in numerous television programs from the 1950s through the 1990s, often in matronly roles. She played Jean Kelly in 51 episodes of the comedy series Grace Under Fire (1993-1998). Miss Rea died of heart failure on February 5, 2011 at the age of 89.

Defense
The Royal Australian Air Force was formed.

Hockey
NHL/PCHA
Stanley Cup
Finals
Ottawa Senators (NHL) 2 @ Vancouver Millionaires (PCHA) 3 (Best-of-five series tied 2-2)

90 years ago
1931

Died on this date
Knute Rockne, 43
. U.S. football coach. Mr. Rockne, a native of Norway, was head coach at the University of Notre Dame from 1918 until his death. He was credited with popularizing the forward pass. The Fighting Irish compiled a record of 105 wins, 12 losses, and 5 ties in 13 seasons under Mr. Rockne, and became an American institution. His teams won national championships in 1919; 1920; 1924; 1929; and 1930. Mr. Rockne, who was flying from Kansas City to Los Angeles to make a football movie, was killed along with six other people when their plane’s engines failed and it crashed in a pasture near Bazaar, Kansas. The biographical movie Knute Rockne, All American, starring Pat O’Brien, was released in 1940. Mr. Rockne was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a charter member in 1951.

Education
Quebec education secretary Athanase David presented an agreement on education of Jewish students in the province.

Disasters
An earthquake in Nicaragua destroyed Managua, killing 2,000 people.

80 years ago
1941


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): The Woodpecker Song--Kate Smith; Glenn Miller and his Orchestra (5th month at #1)

War
The Cuban government seized an Italian freighter as a "precautionary measure," while the crews of a German freighter and an Italian liner set fire to their ships in Costa Rican ports.

Diplomacy
Japanese Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka arrived in Rome to exchange personal greetings with Italian leaders.

German Minister to Yugoslavia Viktor von Heeren left Belgrade for Berlin; the Italian diplomatic colony also left.

Germany and Italy protested to the U.S. State Department against the seizure of their merchant ships.

Academia
City College of New York registrar John Kenneth Ackley was suspended pending a trial before the Board of Higher Education on charges that he was a member of the Communist Party.

Economics and finance
TNEC urged a "permanent decentralization" of economic and political power to safeguard democracy in a report to Congress based on its two-year investigation of corporations.

The U.S. Justice Department announced that a grand jury had indicted three of the country's largest drug manufacturers on charges of violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by fixing the price of insulin.

Labour
The U.S. National Defense Mediation Board announced the settlement of the Congress of Industrial Organizations Steel Workers Organizing Committee at Vanadium Steel Corporation's plant in Bridgeville, Pennsylvania.

Deportation procedures against Australian-born CIO leader Harry Bridges began in San Francisco.

75 years ago
1946


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Rum and Coca-Cola--The Andrews Sisters (2nd month at #1)

Died on this date
John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort, 59
. U.K. military officer and politician. Viscount Gort served with the British Expeditionary Force in France in World War I--winning the Victoria Cross in 1918--and commanded the force in the first year of World War II; the force was evacuated from Dunkirk in 1940. He served as Governor of Gibraltar (1941-1942); Governor of Malta (1942-1944); and High Commissioner for Palestine and High Commissioner for Trans-Jordan (1944-1945). Viscount Gort died of liver cancer.

Politics and government
In Greece's first parliamentary elections in 10 years, the right-wing Greek Populist Party won a majority of 200 seats, as leftists boycotted the elections.

The moderate leftist cabinet of Socialist Prime Minister Achille van Acker took office in Belgium, with former Prime Minister Paul-Henri Spaak as Foreign Minister.

Social Democrats in the Western zones of Berlin rejected a merger with Communists, but voted for continued cooperation, while Soviet authorities prevented a vote in their zone.

Former Italian Prime Minisers Vittorio Orlando, Ivanoe Bonomi, and Francesco Nitti, along with philosopher Benedetto Croce, announced the formation of the right-wind Democratic Union.

Diplomacy
The U.S.S.R. paid the United Nations $1.7 million, its share of the UN's $25-million working capital fund.

Defense
The U.S. State, War, and Navy Departments announced that the Army and Navy Staff College would be reorganized as the National War College and would give courses in civilian subjects pertinent to national defense.

Medicine
The American Chemical Society awarded its Priestly Medal to Sir Ian Morris Heilbron of the United Kingdom for his work with penicillin and vitamins.

Health
The American Geographical Society announced plans for the compilation of an Atlas of Diseases to aid in the study of the relationship between environment and health.

Religion
The World Council of Churches established a loan fund to help rebuild church buildings destroyed in World War II.

70 years ago
1951


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Silver Dollar--Art Mooney and his Orchestra (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): If--Perry Como (Best Seller--4th week at #1; Disc Jockey--5th week at #1; Jukebox--1st week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Be My Love--Mario Lanza (5th week at #1)
2 If--Perry Como
3 My Heart Cries for You--Guy Mitchell
--Dinah Shore
--Vic Damone
--Jimmy Wakely
4 You’re Just in Love--Perry Como
5 The Tennessee Waltz--Patti Page
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Les Paul and Mary Ford
--Jo Stafford
6 Aba Daba Honeymoon--Debbie Reynolds and Carleton Carpenter
7 Mockin’ Bird Hill--Les Paul and Mary Ford
--Patti Page
8 A Penny a Kiss--Tony Martin and Dinah Shore
9 Would I Love You (Love You, Love You)--Patti Page
10 The Roving Kind--Guy Mitchell
--The Weavers

Singles entering the chart were Lonesome Gal by Dinah Shore (#25); Always You, with versions by Bobby Wayne; and Nat King Cole (#30); and Shenandoah Waltz, with versions by the Baron Eliot Octet; and Tommy Tucker and his Orchestra (#31).

Diplomacy
In a speech endorsed by the U.S. State Department, Republican Party foreign affairs adviser John Foster Dulles gave the "suggested" outlines of a peace treaty with Japan, including limitation of Japanese rule to the home islands, continued U.S. administration of the Ryukyu and Bonin islands and eventual Japanese membership in a Pacific defense alliance.

Defense
U.S. President Harry Truman ordered draft deferment of college students who had high scholastic standings or received high marks on special aptitude tests to be given by the government this spring and summer.

Technology
Remington Rand delivered the first UNIVAC I computer to the United States Census Bureau.

Economics and finance
U.S. Commerce Secretary Charles Sawyer told the Senate Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee that government sales of surplus World War II ships had been made to private groups with full knowledge that the transactions might lead to large profits and avoidance of federal taxes.

Swimming
NCAA championships @ Austin, Texas
Yale University won the national championship.

60 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Wooden Heart--Elvis Presley (2nd week at #1)

On television tonight
The Twilight Zone, on CBS
Tonight’s episode: Long Distance Call, starring Billy Mumy, Lili Darvas, and Philip Abbott

This was the sixth and last episode to be shot on videotape instead of film. The videotaped episodes were transferred to film for television broadcast, but were restored to their original format for release on videocassette and DVD.

50 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Hot Love--T. Rex (2nd week at #1)

Space
The satellite ISIS 2, a U.S.-Canada collaboration, was launched. Its mission was to study ionization in the atmosphere.

Crime
The court-martial jury that had convicted U.S. Army Lieutenant William Calley of murder two days earlier for his role in the 1968 massacre of civilians in the South Vietnamese hamlet of My Lai sentenced him to life imprisonment along with dismissal from the service and forfeiture of his pay and allowances, but he was to retain his status and pay until the case was reviewed by another command.

Terrorism
FLQ terrorist Paul Rose was sentenced in Montreal to life in prison for his role in the October 1970 kidnapping and murder of Quebec Labour Minister Pierre Laporte and the kidnapping of British Trade Commissioner James Cross.

Diplomacy
India introduced a resolution to the United Nations charging that the killing of rebels in Bangladesh by Pakistani soldiers "amounts to genocide."

Disasters
Four pilots on a Western Airlines training flight were killed when it crashed and burned on landing at Ontario, California.

40 years ago
1981


Died on this date
Enid Bagnold, 91
. U.K. authoress and playwright. Miss Bagnold wrote novels, plays, and poems in a career spanning more than 50 years. She was best known for the novel National Velvet (1935) and the play The Chalk Garden (1955). Miss Bagnold was married to Sir Roderick Jones, chairman of Reuters news service, from 1920 until his death in 1962.

Movies
After a one-day postponement because of the assassination attempt on U.S. President Ronald Reagan, the Academy Awards for 1980 were presented, with Ordinary People named Best Picture. Other Oscars included: Director--Robert Redford (Ordinary People); Actor--Robert De Niro (Raging Bull); Actress--Sissy Spacek (Coal Miner's Daughter); Supporting Actor--Timothy Hutton (Ordinary People); Supporting Actress--Mary Steenburgen (Melvin and Howard); Foreign Language Film--Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears.





Crime
The doctors treating U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who had been shot in Washington by John Hinckley the previous day, admitted that Mr. Reagan, who was making tremendous progress, had been in danger of losing his life immediately after the shooting. He had been having breathing problems, was having chest pains, was spitting up blood, and his blood pressure was low and falling. Mr. Reagan’s press secretary, James Brady, who had been shot in the head, was showing miraculous improvement; he was conscious and could move his right arm and leg, despite extensive damage to his brain tissue.

Terrorism
An Indonesian jet with 55 passengers and crew members aboard that had been held hostage at Bangkok for two days was rushed by Indonesian commandos, who killed four of the five hijackers and freed the hostages. The gun battle lasted three minutes.

30 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Unchained Melody--The Righteous Brothers (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Crazy--Seal (4th week at #1)

Austria's Top 10 (Ö3)
1 Joyride--Roxette
2 Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)--C & C Music Factory featuring Freedom Williams
3 Kränk di net--Jazz Gitti & her Disco Killers
4 Secret Love--Bee Gees
5 Crazy--Seal
6 No Coke--Dr. Alban
7 Unchained Melody--The Righteous Brothers
8 Hello Afrika--Dr. Alban featuring Leila K.
9 Sister Soul & Mr. Beat--Beat 4 Feet featuring Kim Cooper
10 3 A.M. Eternal (Live at the S.S.L.)--The KLF

Singles entering the chart were Do the Bartman by the Simpsons (#17); Mea Culpa Part II by Enigma (#21); Easier to Walk Away by Elton John (#28); and Auberge by Chris Rea (#30).

World events
Nearly 99% of voters in a referendum in the Soviet republic of Georgia supported the country's independence from the Soviet Union.

Politics and government
In the first multiparty national election since World War II, Albanian voters chose to stick with the ruling Workers’ (Communist) Party. The Workers’ Party won about two-thirds of the popular vote and a large majority in parliament. The opposition Democratic Party did well in urban areas, but rural voters backed the Communists.

Curling
Men's world championship @ Winnipeg Arena, Winnipeg
Final
Scotland 7 Canada 2

The David Smith rink, representing Scotland, stole a point in the 7th end and scored 3 points in the 8th to break the game open and defeat the Kevin Martin rink of Avonair Curling Club in Edmonton, representing Canada. Mr. Martin's rink had posted a 9-0 record in round robin play and had defeated Eigel Ramsfjell's Norweginan rink 5-3 in the semi-finals. Mr. Smith's rink had gone 7-2 in the round robin before defeating Steve Brown's American rink 4-2 in the semi-finals.



Hockey
NHL
Montreal 1 @ Quebec 4

25 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Ridin' Low--L.A.D.

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Lemon Tree--Fool's Garden (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Children--Robert Miles (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Scotland (OCC): The X-Files--Mark Snow

20 years ago
2001


Died on this date
Clifford Shull, 85
. U.S. physicist. Dr. Shull was awarded a share of the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter."

World events
Before dawn, Serbian police and security forces attempted to arrest former President Slobodan Milosevic at his home in Belgrade. The arrest, for allegations of corruption while in office, was unrelated to his indictment by an international tribunal for war crimes. His supporters, fearing an attempt to arrest him, had massed at his compound. At 2 A.M., 100 or more police officers appeared at the compound, joined at 2:30 A.M. by special forces units. A Yugoslav army unit also barred access to the compound for a while. Shots were exchanged by the authorities and by bodyguards and armed supporters of Mr. Milosevic in the compound, with two police officers wounded. The standoff continued throughout the day.

Economics and finance
Canada’s softwood lumber deal with the United States expired. U.S. companies immediately began asking Washington to establish anti-dumping and countervailing duties against Canadian products.

Basketball
NCAA
Men's Championship @ Minneapolis
Semi-finals
Duke 95 Maryland 84
Arizona 80 Michigan State 61

Duke overcame a 22-point deficit to advance to the final. Michigan State was the defending national champion.







10 years ago
2011


Died on this date
Mary Greyeyes, 90
. Canadian soldier. Private Greyeyes, a native of Muskeg Lake Cree Nation, Saskatchewan, sreved with the Canadian Women's Army Corps from 1942-1946, becoming the first Canadian Indian woman to join the Canadian Armed Forces. She died in Vancouver.

Gil Clancy, 88. U.S. boxing trainer and broadcaster. Mr. Clancy worked with boxers such as Emile Griffith, Muhammad Ali, George Foreman, Joe Frazier, and Oscar De La Hoya. He was a colour commentator on boxing telecasts in the 1980s and '90s, and won the Sam Taub Award in 1983 for excellence in boxing broadcasting journalism. Mr. Clancy was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1993.

March 30, 2021

210 years ago
1811


Born on this date
Robert Bunsen
. German chemist. Mr. Bunsen co-discovered the elements caesium and rubidium, and invented the Bunsen burner. He died on August 16, 1899 at the age of 88.

180 years ago
1841


Economics and finance
The National Bank of Greece was founded in Athens.

160 years ago
1861


Science
British chemist Sir William Crookes published his discovery of thallium using flame spectroscopy.

125 years ago
1896


Died on this date
Charilaos Trikoupis, 63
. Prime Minister of Greece, 1875, 1878, 1880, 1882-1885, 1886-1890, 1892-1893, 1893-1895. Mr. Trikoupis was first elected to the Hellenic Parliament in 1865. He opposed royal privilege in selecting Prime Ministers, but after he formed the New (or Modernist) Party and won a plurality in Parliament, King George I reluctantly named him Prime Minister. Mr. Trikoupis achieved parliamentary reforms, including the introduction of non-confidence motions into the constitution, but Greece was beset by political instability, and Mr. Trikoupis was frequently in and out of office as Prime Minister. During his 1892-1893 government, he declared the country bankrupt. Mr. Trikoupis declined to run for office in 1895 and moved to Cannes; his party was resoundingly defeated in that year's election. He was involuntarily nominated for a seat in Parliament in 1896 and was elected, but he remained in Cannes, where he died.

120 years ago
1901


Law
The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that marriages of Roman Catholics performed by Protestant clergymen were valid.

100 years ago
1921


Died on this date
Frank Bancroft, 74
. U.S. baseball manager. Mr. Bancroft managed seven major league teams (1880-1902), compiling a record of 375-333-10. He led the Providence Grays to the first World Series championship in 1884. Mr. Bancroft died of neuritis.

90 years ago
1931

On the radio

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Richard Gordon and Leigh Lovell, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Adventure of Shoscombe Old Place

80 years ago
1941


War
French shore batteries in Algeria opened fire on a British naval squadron after it halted a French convoy of four merchant ships proceeding from Casablanca to Oran. Armed U.S. Coast Guardsmen seized 35 Danish, 28 Italian, and 2 German merchant vessels in Atlantic, Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Mediterranean ports under the 1917 Espionage Act after 26 of the Italian ships and one of the German vessels were sabotaged by their crews. 1940 Republican Party U.S. presidential candidate Wendell Willkie warned in a radio address that if the Axis won the European War, the United States would become an armed camp and lose its own liberties.

World events
Local press in Guayaquil, Ecuador charged that Japs who controlled petroleum concessions near Esmeralda were engaging in anti-government activities and interfering in local politics.

Medicine
Dr. Frank Adair, chairman of the American Society for the Control of Cancer, reported a 30% increase in cures of operable breast cancer from 1920-1935.

Labour
Members of the Congress of Industrial Organizations Farm Equipment Workers voted in Chicago to end their two-month strike at four International Harvester Company plants and submit their dispute to the National Defense Mediation Board. The strike at the Bethlehem Steel plant in Johnstown, Pennsylvania was settled.

75 years ago
1946


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Oh! What it Seemed to Be--Frankie Carle and His Orchestra with Marjorie Hughes (Best Seller--3rd week at #1; Airplay--2nd week at #1; Juke Box--3rd week at #1; Honor Roll of Hits--4th week at #1)

War
The government of the Netherlands East Indies announced that Dutch and Indonesian leaders were close to agreement on Indonesian demands and that negotiations would be transferred to The Hague.

World events
U.S. occupation headquarters in Frankfurt announced the arrest of 800 Germans in the American and British zones of Austria and Germany in Operation Nursery, a campaign against efforts to revive the Hitler Youth organization.

The government of Ecuador suppressed a revolutionary plot believed to be led by former dictator General Alberto Enriquez.

Space
Dr. Donald Menzel of Harvard University presented a theory explaining the energy production of giant red stars in terms of nuclear fusion.

Opera
The Metropolitan Opera Guild announced that a poll of 123,000 fadio listeners showed there favourite operas to be Aida; Carmen; La Traviata; Hansel and Gretel; and Boris Goudenov.

Labour
The American Federation of Labor reported a membership of 6,931,221 and a treasury of $2,087,021 as of August 31, 1945.

Sport
In the first official Thames River Boat Race since 1939, the University of Oxford defeated Cambridge University by 3 lengths.

Swimming
NCAA championships @ New Haven, Connecticut
Ohio State University won the national championship.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Finals
Boston 3 @ Montreal 4 (OT) (Montreal led best-of-seven series 1-0)

Rocket Richard scored 9:08 into overtime to give the Canadiens their win over the Bruins at the Montreal Forum.

70 years ago
1951


On the radio
Hear it Now, hosted by Edward R. Murrow, on CBS

Tonight's program included more news about the hearings of the U.S. Senate Crime Investigating Committee.

Diplomacy
The United Nations Security Council voted over Indian opposition to renew attempts to gain an Indian-Pakistani agrement on demilitarization of Kashmir preparatory to a plebiscite on the territory's status. India announced that it would not submit to compulsory UN arbitration, claiming its security was involved in Kashmir.

Law
South Africa's Group Areas Act, which divided the country on a racial basis, became effective in Cape Province, Transvaal, and Orange Free State. It empowered the Interior Ministry to proclaim areas for exclusive ownership or occupation by white, black, or coloured people.

Crime
The U.S. Senate indicted 12 underworld figures, including Frank Costello and Joe Adonis, for contempt of Congress in refusing to answer questions before the Senate Crime Investigating Committee.

Politics and government
U.S. Army General Lucius Clay resigned as special assistant to Defense Mobilization Director Charles Wilson in order to resume his position as chairman of the Continental Can Company.

Following transfers of powers from the Canadian federal government to the provinces, Quebec's Union Nationale government of Premier Maurice Duplessis abolished the Federal Rent Board to make way for the Provincial Rent Board.

Economics and finance
The U.S. National Production Authority postponed a ban on the use of aluminum in many civilian products, scheduled to begin April 1, for 30 days at the request of the Senate Small Business Committee.

60 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (Lever Hit Parade): Surrender--Elvis Presley

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): Wooden Heart--Elvis Presley (2nd week at #1)

On television tonight
The Untouchables, starring Robert Stack, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Testimony of Evil



At the movies
One Eyed Jacks, directed by Marlon Brando, and starring Mr. Brando, Karl Malden, Katy Jurado, and Pina Pellicer, opened in theatres. It was Mr. Brando's only film as a director.





Space
The mission of Transit III-B-Lofti--two unseparated U.S. satellites that had been gathering data for a navigational satellite system, geodetic measurements, and radio transmission--ended. The satellites had been launched on February 21 from Cape Canaveral, Florida atop a single rocket, but they failed to separate as planned, and went into an elliptical orbit of Earth instead on near-circular orbits. The radio transmitters operated, but the quality of the data was hurt by the elliptical orbit.

Diplomacy
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was signed in New York City; it went into effect on August 8, 1975.

U.S. President John F. Kennedy announced the selection of the National Advisory Council for the Peace Corps. Vice President Lyndon Johnson was named chairman and U.S. Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas was named honourary chairman.

50 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Kvällstoppen): Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland (Swiss Hitparade): Butterfly--Danyel Gérard (6th week at #1)

Politics and government
Quebec Civil Service Minister Jean-Paul L'Allier tabled the government's salary policy for negotiations with the public sector.

Boxing
Herschel Jacobs (25-17-2) scored a technical knockout over former world light heavyweight champion Harold Johnson (76-11) at 24 seconds of the 3rd round in a heavyweight bout at Sunnyside Garden, Queens, New York. The fight, which was stopped because of cuts, was the last for Mr. Johnson, 42, who had begun boxing professionally in 1946.

40 years ago
1981


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Antmusic--Adam and the Ants (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Ruby no Yubiwa--Akira Terao

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Johnny & Mary--Robert Palmer

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Fade to Grey--Visage (4th week at #1)

Died on this date
DeWitt Wallace, 91
. U.S. publisher. Mr. Wallace and his wife Lila co-founded Reader's Digest in 1922.

Crime
U.S. President Ronald Reagan and his press secretary James Brady were wounded when shot by John Hinckley in Washington.











Movies
Because of the assassination attempt on U.S. President Ronald Reagan, the presentation of the Academy Awards for 1980 was postponed until the following night.

Politics and government
The Newfoundland Court of Appeals ruled that the federal government of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau did not have the right to change the constitution unilaterally.

30 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Australian Music Report): Sucker DJ (A Witch for Love)--Dimples D. (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Se Stiamo Insieme--Riccardo Cocciante (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): The Grease Megamix--John Travolta & Olivia Newton-John (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Because I Love You--Stevie B (The Postman Song)

#1 single in France (SNEP): Wind of Change--Scorpions (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (CIN): The One and Only--Chesney Hawkes

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Liefde Voor Muziek--Raymond v/h Groenewoud (3rd week at #1)
2 Do the Bartman--The Simpsons
3 The Grease Megamix--John Travolta & Olivia Newton-John
4 Joyride--Roxette
5 (I Wanna Give You) Devotion--Nomad featuring Mc Mikee Freedom
6 Unfinished Sympathy--Massive
7 Crazy--Seal
8 Papa--Stef Bos
9 3 A.M. Eternal (Live at the S.S.L.)--The KLF
10 Rescue Me--Madonna

Singles entering the chart were Losing My Religion by R.E.M. (#20); Highwire by the Rolling Stones (#21); I'm Going Slightly Mad by Queen (#24); Here We Go by C+C Music Factory presents Freedom Williams and Zelma Davis (#33); Halvu - Høkers Aller Landen Verenigt U by Normaal (#36); Meisjes by Rob Zorn (#37); and In de Tijd Van de Rock 'n' Roll by John Spencer (#40).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Coming Out of the Dark--Gloria Estefan
2 One More Try--Timmy -T-
3 This House--Tracie Spencer
4 Hold You Tight--Tara Kemp
5 I've Been Thinking About You--Londonbeat
6 Someday--Mariah Carey
7 You're in Love--Wilson Phillips
8 Sadeness Part 1--Enigma
9 Get Here--Oleta Adams
10 Signs--Tesla

Singles entering the chart were How Much is Enough by the Fixx (#70); Crazy by Daisy Dee (#83); What Comes Naturally by Sheena Easton (#85); Love Me Forever or Love Me Not by Trilogy (#86); Walking in Memphis by Marc Cohn (#87); and Going Through the Motions by Aftershock (#94).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Coming Out of the Dark--Gloria Estefan
2 Someday--Mariah Carey
3 One More Try--Timmy -T-
4 This House--Tracie Spencer
5 Hold You Tight--Tara Kemp
6 You’re in Love--Wilson Phillips
7 I’ve Been Thinking About You--Londonbeat
8 State of the World--Janet Jackson
9 All the Man that I Need--Whitney Houston
10 Get Here--Oleta Adams

Singles entering the chart were Losing My Religion by R.E.M. (#76); Step On (’91 Remix) by Happy Mondays (#79); What Comes Naturally (#86) by Sheena Easton; Word of Mouth by Mike + the Mechanics (#87); Another Like My Lover by Jasmine Guy; Here I Am (Come and Take Me) by UB40 (#89); and Wrap My Body Tight by Johnny Gill (#100).

Canada’s Top 10 (RPM)
1 Someday--Mariah Carey (3rd week at #1)
2 All This Time--Sting
3 Coming Out of the Dark--Gloria Estefan
4 Waiting for Love--Alias
5 You’re in Love--Wilson Phillips
6 Wicked Game--Chris Isaak
7 Rescue Me--Madonna
8 Joyride--Roxette
9 Waiting for that Day--George Michael
10 I’ve Been Thinking About You--Londonbeat

Singles entering the chart included I Will Be Here by Steve Winwood (#79); Call Me and I’ll Be There by Rita MacNeil (#87); If You Lean on Me by Colin James (#88); and Word of Mouth by Mike + the Mechanics (#99).

War
Iraqi government forces recaptured Kirkuk from Kurdish rebels, and hundreds of thousands of Kurds were reported fleeing to the mountains.

Hockey
NHL
Quebec 3 @ Montreal 4

Basketball
NCAA
Men’s championship semi-finals @ Hoosier Dome, Indianapolis
Duke 79 Nevada at Las Vegas 77

Christian Laettner scored 18 points to lead the Blue Devils to an upset win, ending the Runnin’ Rebels’ winning streak at 45 games, and advancing to the final against the University of Kansas Jayhawks.



25 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): One of Us--Joan Osborne (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (VRT): Con te partirò--Andrea Bocelli (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Wallonia (Ultratop 40): Children--Robert Miles (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France (SNEP): Children--Robert Miles (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Captain Jack--Captain Jack

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Firestarter--The Prodigy

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Because You Loved Me--Céline Dion (2nd week at #1)
2 Nobody Knows--The Tony Rich Project
3 Sittin' Up in My Room--Brandy
4 Down Low (Nobody Has to Know)--R. Kelly featuring Ronald Isley
5 Not Gon' Cry--Mary J. Blige
6 Ironic--Alanis Morissette
7 One Sweet Day--Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men
8 Missing--Everything But the Girl
9 Follow You Down/Til I Hear it from You--Gin Blossoms
10 Lady--D'Angelo

Singles entering the chart were Sweet Dreams by La Bouche (#63); Amish Paradise by "Weird Al" Yankovic (#65); One for the Money by Horace Brown (#92); and Soul Food by Goodie Mob (#95).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Always Be My Baby--Mariah Carey
2 Because You Loved Me--Céline Dion
3 Nobody Knows--The Tony Rich Project
4 Ironic--Alanis Morissette
5 Down Low (Nobody Has to Know)--R. Kelly (featuring Ronald Isley and Ernie Isley)
6 Sittin' Up in My Room--Brandy
7 Til I Hear it from You/Follow You Down--Gin Blossoms
8 Lady--D’Angelo
9 Not Gon' Cry--Mary J. Blige
10 Real Love--The Beatles

Singles entering the chart were Always Be My Baby; Real Love; Count on Me by Whitney Houston and CeCe Winans (#35); Renee by Lost Boyz (#65); Release Me by Angelina (#68); Give Me One Reason by Tracy Chapman (#76); Funkorama by Redman (#79); Can't Get You Off My Mind by Lenny Kravitz (#88); and Have I Never by Few Good Men (#89).

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 4 @ Edmonton 3

20 years ago
2001


War
Six Palestinians were killed and 100 wounded in new clashes with Israeli forces. Palestinians participated in mass demonstrations against Israeli attacks.

Baseball
First baseman Paul Konerko's error on Devon White's ground ball with 2 out in the bottom of the 8th inning allowed Rafael Belliard to score the winning run to complete a 2-run rally as the Milwaukee Brewers edged the Chicago White Sox 5-4 in a spring training game before a sellout crowd of 41,544 fans in the first game ever played at Miller Park in Milwaukee.



Monday, 29 March 2021

March 29, 2021

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Alexandra Duenas Mejia!

1,020 years ago
1001


Born on this date
Sokkate
. King of Pagan, 1038-1044. Sokkate, a son of King Nyaung-u Sawrahan, acceded to the throne upon the death of his elder brother Kyiso. He was killed on August 11, 1044 at the age of 43 in single combat with Anawrahta, who succeeded him and went on to found the Pagan Empire, the first kingdom to unify the regions of what is now Myanmar.

560 years ago
1461

War
The forces of Edward of York defeated Lancastrian forces commanded by Henry Beaufort, Duke of Somerset in the Battle of Towton, resulting in Edward taking the throne as King Edward IV of England, replacing Henry VI and bringing a temporary stop to the Wars of the Roses.

190 years ago
1831


War
Husein Gradaščević set out toward Travnik with 4,000 men, leading the Great Bosnian uprising against the Ottoman Empire.

180 years ago
1841


Academia
St. Mary's College, a Jesuit liberal arts institution in Halifax, was granted a charter by the government of Nova Scotia, while Queen's College, a liberal arts college in Horton founded by Baptists in 1838, became Acadia College.

150 years ago
1871


Britannica
Royal Albert Hall in London was opened by Queen Victoria.

120 years ago
1901


Transportation
The Skippers Bridge over the Shotover River near Queenstown, New Zealand opened.

110 years ago
1911


Died on this date
Alexandre Guilmant, 74
. French composer. Mr. Guilmant was organist at la Trinité church in Paris (1871-1901) and co-founded the Schola Cantorum in Paris, teaching there from 1894 until his death. He wrote more than 90 works, mainly for organ. Mr. Guilmant died 17 days after his 74th birthday.

Defense
The M1911 .45 ACP pistol became the official U.S. Army sidearm.

80 years ago
1941


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Amapola (Pretty Little Poppy)--Jimmy Dorsey and His Orchestra with Bob Eberly and Helen O'Connell

On the radio



Radio
The North American Radio Broadcasting Agreement went into effect at 3 A.M. local time, regulating the bandplan of mediumwave AM broadcasting; more than 1,000 of the 1,300 stations under the agreement shifted their frequencies.

War
British Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy forces defeated those of the Italian Regia Marina off the Peloponnesian coast of Greece in the Battle of Cape Matapan, sinking three cruisers and two destroyers.

Defense
Secret U.K.-U.S.A. military staff talks ended in Washington after producing a war plan for concentrating on Germany in the event of war with Japan.

World events
Germany ordered her nationals to leave the Yugoslavian province of Serbia as a new government moved to end Croatian opposition. Polish sourced in London reported that the Gestapo had started a new wave of terror in Poland; the sources reported that 3,000 prisoners had died in the Oswiecim concentration camp, and that 85% of Krakow's Jews had been forced to leave the city.

Protest
Syrian Arabs demanded immediate elections for the creation of a representative governing council, and called a general strike.

Society
Dr. Edwin Nicholson, a scouting camp master, declared that through the method of emotional conditioning and indoctrination, Boy Scout training tended to encourage youths to accept the status quo and become subservient to the will of others.

Labour
5,000 Congress of Industrial Organizations United Auto Workers membes voted to continue their 67-day strike at Allis-Chalmers depsite the U.S. government's order to return to work.

Swimming
NCAA
The University of Michigan won its eighth consecutive championship.

Basketball
NCAA
Men's championship
Final
Wisconsin 39 Washington State 34

75 years ago
1946


Scandal
The Royal Commission investigating Soviet espionage in Canada named five more suspects who had been detained, and charged that Vitali Pavlov, U.S.S.R. Consul in Canada, was a leading agent of the Soviet secret police force NKVD in Ottawa.

Politics and government
Under a new constitution, Gold Coast became the United Kingdom's first African colony to have a majority of elected Africans in its legislature.

Academia
Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México, one of Mexico's leading universities, was founded.

Health
UNRRA officials in Shanghai reported epidemics of cholera, bubonic plague, smallpox, meningitis, and mass hunger in China.

Energy
The French Constituent Assembly voted to nationalize the electric and gas industries.

Economics and finance
Former New York City Mayor Fiorello La Guardia accepted the appointment as Director-General of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA).

U.S. Army General Lucius Clay, Deputy Military Governor in Germany, reduced the food ration in the U.S. zone of occupation to 1,275 calories per day.

Labour
The U.S. House of Representatives passed and sent to the Senate the conference-approved version of the Lea bill aimed at curbing labour practices--especially the power of American Federation of Musicians President James Petrillo--in the communications industry. The Senate approved the Russell amendment to the minimum wage bill, calling for the inclusion of farm labour costs in computing parity prices for farm products.

70 years ago
1951


Theatre
The King and I by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, directed by John Van Druten, and starring Yul Brynner and Gertrude Lawrence, opened at the St. James Theatre on Broadway in New York.

Movies
The Academy Awards for 1950 were presented at the RKO Pantages Theatre in Hollywood. The winners included Best Picture--All About Eve; Director--Joseph L. Mankiewicz (All About Eve); Actor--Jose Ferrer (Cyrano de Bergerac); Actress--Judy Holliday (Born Yesterday); Supporting Actor--George Sanders (All About Eve); Supporting Actress--Josephine Hull (Harvey).

Crime
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted and sentenced to death for passing U.S. atomic secrets to the U.S.S.R.

Defense
The Council of Ministers of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization closed its seventh annual conference in Bangkok with a communiqué stating that if "there continues to be an active military attempt to obtain control of Laos, members of SEATO are prepared, within the terms of the treaty, to take whatever action may be appropriate in the circumstances." It said SEATO noted "with grave concern the continued offensive by rebel elements in Laos who are continuing to be supplied and assisted by Communist powers in...disregard of the Geneva accord." U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk had unsuccessfully sought a stronger resolution committing SEATO to fight if necessary to prevent a Communist takeover of Laos. It was reported that the U.S. administration of President John F. Kennedy, in a private diplomatic communication to the Soviet Union, had given a sharper warning.

Diplomacy
The People's Republic of China announced the conclusion of a pact with the U.S.S.R. for the passage of railroad trains across the Manchurian-Siberian border.

Soviet authorities rejected a U.S.-U.K. protest against the previous day's incident when East Berlin police had fired upon a busload of U.S. soldiers and civilians when the bus ignored their orders to stop.

Politics and government
The U.S. Senate extended the life of the Senate Crime Investigating Committee for 30 days to give it time to file a final report.

60 years ago
1961


Politics and government
The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified; it reads:

Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


50 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Knock Three Times--Dawn

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Shiretoko Ryojō--Tokiko Kato (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Chirpy Chirpy Cheep Cheep--Middle of the Road (2nd week at #1)

Crime
U.S. Army Lieutenant William Calley was convicted of murder at a court-martial for his role in the March 16, 1968 massacre of civilians in the South Vietnamese hamlet of My Lai.

Charles Manson and three members of his "family" were sentenced to death in the gas chamber in California for the murders of actress Sharon Tate and eight other people in Los Angeles in 1969.

World events
India asked United Nations Secretary-General U Thant to "help stop the massacre of unarmed people" in Pakistan. East Pakistan had declared its independence three days earlier, taking the name Bangladesh.

Diplomacy
Yugoslavian President Marshal Josip Broz Tito met with Pope Paul VI during a formal state visit to Italy, thus becoming the first Communist leader ever to officially meet the Roman Catholic pontiff.

Ralph E. Collins was appointed as the first Canadian Ambassador to the People's Republic of China.

Boxing
Former world heavyweight champion Floyd Patterson (49-7-1) scored a technical knockout of Roger Russell (11-9-2) at 1:29 of the 9th round at Philadelphia Arena.



40 years ago
1981


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Woman--John Lennon (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Fade to Grey--Visage

Died on this date
Eric Williams, 69
. Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, 1962-1981. Dr. Williams was a historian specializing in slavery in the Caribbean, with his best-known work being Capitalism and Slavery (1944). He founded the People's National Movement in 1956, which achieved success in that year's election, which enabled him to become Chief Minister. He held that office until 1959, and was Premier of Trinidad and Tobago (1959-1962) until the nation achieved its independence from British rule. Mr. Williams then served as Trinidad and Tobago's Prime Minister until his death; he was succeeded by George Chambers.

Weather
Edmonton received its first rain of the year.

Terrorism
Hijackers holding an Indonesian jet at the Bangkok airport shot and wounded an American hostage when he tried to escape. 55 passengers and crew members remained on the plane. The hijackers were demanding that Indonesia release 20 political prisoners, but they raised the number to 80, then 84.

Track and field
Dick Beardsley of the United States and Inge Simonsen of Norway crossed the tape together as they led 6,700 participants in the first London Marathon.



Hockey
NHL
Montreal 0 @ Quebec 4

Jacques Richard scored his 50th goal of the season to help the Nordiques shut out the Canadiens at Le Colisee.

30 years ago
1991


Died on this date
Lee Atwater, 40
. U.S. political adviser. Mr. Atwater was a political strategist with the Republican Party who was known for his exploitation of emotional wedge issues in election campaigns, and was often effective. He was best known for managing the 1988 U.S. presidential campaign of then-Vice President George Bush, and using advertisements to portray Democratic Party candidate Michael Dukakis as soft on crime. The campaign was successful, and Mr. Atwater was named chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1989. He collapsed at a breakfast on March 5, 1990, and was diagnosed with a brain tumour. During his last months, Mr. Atwater converted to Roman Catholicism and apologized to people who had been hurt by his actions.

Politics and government
British Columbia Premier Bill Vander Zalm said he would step down when his Social Credit party chose a new leader; he was being investigated for improper real estate dealings relating to the sale of his family's Fantasy Gardens to a Taiwanese billionaire.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the index of leading economic indicators had increased 1.1% in February, ending a six-month decline.

25 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): California Love--2Pac featuring Dr. Dre

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Aon Focal Eile--Richie Kavanagh (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Bill Goldsworthy, 51
. Canadian-born U.S. hockey player. Mr. Goldsworthy played right wing with the Boston Bruins (1964-67); Minnesota North Stars (1967-76); New York Rangers (1976-77); Indianapolis Racers (1977-78); and Edmonton Oilers (1978-79), scoring 541 points on 283 goals and 258 assists in 771 regular season NHL games and 37 points on 18 goals and 19 assists in 40 playoff games, and 12 goals and 12 assists in 49 regular season WHA games and 1 goal and 1 assist in 2 playoff games. Mr. Goldsworthy played for Team Canada in the 1972 series vs. the U.S.S.R., scoring a goal and an assist in 3 games. His best season was 1973-74, when he scored 48 goals and 26 assists, and was known for the "Goldy shuffle" dance after scoring. Heavy drinking contributed to a decline in his hockey abilities, and combined with sexual promiscuity to lead to his death from AIDS.

Politics and government
Leaders of Sierra Leone's military government transferred power to a democratically-elected government led by President Alhaji Ahmad Tejan Kabba of the People's Party, following a runoff election in March and a cease-fire between the forces of then-President Julius Maada Bio and anti-government rebels.

Basketball
NBA
Utah 105 @ Vancouver 91

The Grizzlies set a National Basketball Association record with their 21st consecutive loss, falling to the Jazz at Pacific Coliseum.

20 years ago
2001


Died on this date
John Lewis, 80
. U.S. musician. Mr. Lewis was a jazz pianist, composer, and arranger who had a performing career spanning more than 50 years. He was best known as the founder and director of the Modern Jazz Quartet, which performed from 1952-1974 and 1981-1997. Mr. Lewis died after a long battle with prostate cancer.

Saturday, 27 March 2021

March 28, 2021

780 years ago
1241


Died on this date
Valdemar II, 70
. King of Denmark, 1202-1241. Valdemar "the Conqueror" acceded to the throne upon the death of his elder brother Knud VI. He achieved military victories in the first two decades of his reign, and spent the rest of his life instituting legal and economic reforms, including instituting the feudal system. King Valdemar II was succeeded on the throne by his son Erik IV.

400 years ago
1621


Born on this date
Heinrich Schwemmer
. German composer. Mr. Schwemmer wrote vocal works, especially sacred songs for weddings and funerals. He died on May 31, 1696 at the age of 75.

220 years ago
1801

War
The Treaty of Florence was signed, ending the war between the French Republic and the Kingdom of Naples.

150 years ago
1871


Born on this date
Willem Mengelberg
. Dutch conductor and composer. Mr. Mengelberg was a pianist and composer before beginning his lengthy career as a conductor. He was best known as principal conductor of the Concertgebouw Orchestra in Amsterdam (1895-1945), famous for his performances of the works of Beethoven, Brahms, Mahler, and Richard Strauss, although he was criticized for neglecting Dutch composers. Mr. Mengelberg was also the musical director of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra (1922-1928), and made recordings with both orchestras. He was on friendly terms with the Nazis during their occupation of the Netherlands during World War II. After the war, Mr. Mengelberg was banned from conducting in the Netherlands for life, a ban that was reduced to six years. He went into exile in Switzerland, and died there on March 21, 1951, a week before his 80th birthday and two months before the expiration of his exile order.

Politics and government
The Paris Commune was formally established.

140 years ago
1881


Born on this date
Martin Sheridan
. Irish-born U.S. athlete. Mr. Sheridan, representing the United States, won the gold medal in the discus throw in the Summer Olympic Games in 1904 and 1908 and in the Intercalated Games in 1906. In the 1908 Olympics he also won the gold medal in Greek discus and the silver medal in the standing long jump. In the 1906 Intercalated Games he won the gold medal in the shot put and silver medals in standing high jump, standing long jump, and stone throw. Mr. Sheridan was an early casualty of the influenza epidemic, and died on March 27, 1918, the day before his 37th birthday.

Died on this date
Modest Mussorgsky, 42
. Russian composer. Mr. Mussorgsky's best-known compositions were the opera Boris Godunov (1869/1874); the tone poem Night on Bald Mountain, aka Night on the Bare Mountain (1867); and the piano suite Pictures at an Exhibition (1874). He drank himself to death, a week after his 42nd birthday.

100 years ago
1921


Born on this date
Dirk Bogarde
. U.K. actor. Sir Dirk, born Derek van den Bogaerde, was a popular leading man in British films from the 1950s through the '70s, perhaps best known for starring in the series of comedies beginning with Doctor in the House (1954). He was nominated for five BAFTA Awards, winning for his starring performances in The Servant (1963) and Darling (1965). Sir Dirk died of a pulmonary embolism on May 8, 1999 at the age of 78, several years after suffering a stroke.

Harold Agnew. U.S. physicist and politician. Dr. Agnew helped build Chicago Pile-1, the world's first nuclear reactor, and joined Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1943. He flew as a scientific observer on the mission that saw the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Dr. Agnew, a Democrat, was a state senator in New Mexico (1955-1961) while continuing his work as Los Alamos. He was Scientific Adviser to the NATO Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) (1961-1964), and director of Los Alamos National Laboratory (1970-1979) before serving as president and chief executive officer of General Atomics (1979-1985). Dr. Agnew died of leukemia on September 29, 2013 at the age of 92.

Hockey
NHL/PCHA
Stanley Cup
Finals
Ottawa Senators (NHL) 3 @ Vancouver Millionaires (PCHA) 2 (Ottawa led best-of-five series 2-1)

80 years ago
1941


Died on this date
Virginia Woolf, 59
. U.K. author. Regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the 20th century, Mrs. Woolf wrote books which included Jacob’s Room (1922); Mrs. Dalloway (1925); To the Lighthouse (1927); Orlando (1928); and A Room of One’s Own (1929). She had suffered mental breakdowns, and drowned herself in the Ouse River because she feared having another breakdown from which she might not recover.

Marcus Hurley, 57. U.S. basketball player and cyclist. Mr. Hurley played basketball at Columbia University (1904-1908), earning All-American honours in each of his first three seasons, and as the team's captain, leading Columbia to the first national championship in 1908. He won gold medals in the ¼ mile, ⅓ mile, ½ mile, and mile, and a bronze medal in the 2 mile competition at the 1904 Olympic Games in St. Louis.

War
British Admiral Andrew Browne Cunningham led the Royal Navy in the destruction of three major Italian heavy cruisers and two destroyers in the first day of the Battle of Cape Matapan in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Crete.

Politics and government
Peter II took the oath as King of Yugoslavia, pledging to defend the independence of the state and the integrity of the nation. Germany reportedly demanded that the new government state its position on the Axis pact.

Diplomacy
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt sent congratulations to King Peter II of Yugoslavia, expressing the hope that U.S.-Yugoslav relations may be mutually beneficial. Mexico announced that it had approved the entry applications of former King Carol of Romania and Madame Magda Lupescu.

Movies
Actor Cary Grant, a native of England living in California, announced that he would donate his entire salary from his next film, The Man Who Came to Dinner, to British war relief.

Scandal
Retired U.S. federal circuit court judge J. Warren Davis, 74, was indicted in Philadelphia on charges of accepting bribes from former film producer William Fox and Mr. Fox's attoprney in a 1936 bankruptcy proceeding.

Exploration
The U.S. Antarctic Service Expedition left for the United States after nearly two years in the South Pole region.

Labour
Under the protection of 500 policemen and special deputies, 2,000 men returned to work at the Allis-Chalmers plant in answer to a U.S. government order. The strike at the Bethlehem, Pennsylvania plant of Bethlehem Steel Corporation wa settled after the company promised to continue negotiations with the Congress of Industrial Organizations Steel Workers Organizing Committee, but a new strike began at the company's plant in Johnstown, Pennsylvania.

75 years ago
1946


Died on this date
Chick Fullis, 45
. U.S. baseball player. Charles Fullis was a center fielder and leadoff hitter with the New York Giants (1928-1932); Philadelphia Phillies (1933-1934); and St. Louis Cardinals (1934, 1936), batting .295 with 12 home runs and 167 runs batted in in 590 games. His best season was 1933, when he batted .309 with 200 hits, and led the National League in plate appearances (698); at bats (647); singles (162); and outfield putouts (410). Mr. Fullis batted .400 (2 for 5) in 3 games with the Cardinals as they defeated the Detroit Tigers 4 games to 3 in the 1934 World Series. Eye trouble forced his retirement.

Diplomacy
The U.S.S.R. supported a United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration Council vote to continue aid to refugees without the consent of their governments in return for a UNRRA commitment to facilitate repatriation.

U.S. President Harry Truman expressed unequivocal support for Secretary of State James Byrnes' actions in the dispute at the United Nations over the presence of Soviet troops in Iran.

Defense
U.S. President Truman set up a 10-man military braintrust to plan national defense, and nominated Generals George Marshall, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight Eisenhower, and Hap Arnold, and Admirals Leahy, Chester Nimitz, King, and William Halsey for permanent five-star rank.

Energy
The U.S. State Department released the Acheson–Lilienthal Report, outlining a plan for the international control of nuclear power.

Politics and government
The U.S. House of Representatives approved a resolution to start contempt proceedings against Dr. Edward barsky, chairman of the joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, for refusing to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee.

Labour
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that a record 21.5 million man-days had been lost in February because of strikes.

70 years ago
1951


Literature
Seven Decisions that Shaped History, a behind-the-scenes account of World War II diplomacy by former U.S. Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles, was published in New York by Harper.

War
The Battle of Mạo Khê in Vietnam concluded with French Union forces, led by General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, inflicting a defeat on Việt Minh forces commanded by General Võ Nguyên Giáp.

World events
East Berlin policed fired upon a busload of U.S. soldiers and civilians returning from a sightseeing tour of the Soviet sector when the bus ignored their orders to stop.

Diplomacy
French President Vincent Auriol arrived in New York to begin the first U.S. visit of a French chief of state.

Health
Panelists at a meeting in New York of the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness reported that 800,000 Americans were going blind from glaucoma without knowing it.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Office of Price Stabilization ordered a new price control system limiting price increases for most foodstuffs.

60 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in Norway (VG-lista): Romantica--Robertino (2nd week at #1)

On television tonight
Alfred Hitchcock Presents, on NBC
Tonight's episode: A Woman's Help, starring Geraldine Fitzgerald, Scott McKay, and Antoinette Bower

Politics and government
Quebec Premier Jean Lesage named René Lévesque as the province's Minister of Natural Resources.

Disasters
A four-engine Czechoslovak Airlines Ilyushin-18 turbo-prop plane exploded in midair, crashed and burned near Russelbach, West Germany, killing all 52 people aboard.

50 years ago
1971


Died on this date
Robert Hunter, 84
. U.S. golfer. Mr. Hunter was a member of the American team that won the gold medal at the 1904 Olympic Games in St. Louis, and won the national collegiate championship in 1910 while at Yale University.

Politics and government
National Party candidate Ramón Ernesto Cruz Uclés was elected President of Honduras, taking 52.62% of the vote to 47.38% for Liberal Party candidate Jorge Bueso Arias. The two parties had agreed before the election to evenly divide the congressional seats between tham at 32 each, with the deciding seat going to the winner of the presidential election, who was entitled to a seat.

Golf
A week after winning the Greater Jacksonville Open, Gary Player won the National Airlines Open at Miami, Florida, taking first prize money of $40,000.

40 years ago
1981


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Sarà perché ti amo--Ricchi e Poveri

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Stars on 45--Stars on 45 (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland: More and More--Joe Dolan

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): This Ole House--Shakin' Stevens

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): This Ole House--Shakin' Stevens

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 In the Air Tonight--Phil Collins (2nd week at #1)
2 Don't Stop the Music--Yarbrough & Peoples
3 Stars on 45--Stars on 45
4 Vienna--Ultravox
5 Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre
6 It's a Love Thing--The Whispers
7 All American Girls--Sister Sledge
8 Shine On--L-T-D
9 Leila--Dolly Dots
10 Rock this Town--Stray Cats

Singles entering the chart were Mister Sandman by Emmylou Harris (#22); Angel of Mine by Frank Duval & Orchestra (#30); Ik Heb 'n Truck Als M'n Woning by Henk Wijngaard (#31); You Better You Bet by the Who (#34); 9 to 5 by Dolly (#37); Marliese by Fischer-Z (#38); and Can You Feel It by the Jacksons (#39).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Rapture--Blondie
2 Woman--John Lennon
3 The Best of Times--Styx
4 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
5 Crying--Don McLean
6 Hello Again--Neil Diamond
7 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
8 Just the Two of Us--Grover Washington, Jr.
9 Kiss on My List--Daryl Hall & John Oates
10 What Kind of Fool--Barbra Streisand (Duet with Barry Gibb)

Singles entering the chart were Love You Like I Never Loved Before by John O'Banion (#72); Say You'll Be Mine by Christopher Cross (#74); Watching the Wheels by John Lennon (#77); What are We Doin' in Love by Dottie West (with Kenny Rogers) (#78); Bette Davis Eyes by Kim Carnes (#80); Jessie's Girl by Rick Springfield (#81); Blessed are the Believers by Anne Murray (#83); Lover by the Michael Stanley Band (#84); Unchained Melody by Heart (#85); Somebody Send My Baby Home by Lenny LeBlanc (#87); Shotgun Rider by Delbert McClinton (#89); and Don't Know Much by Bill Medley (#90).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Woman--John Lennon (2nd week at #1)
2 Rapture--Blondie
3 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
4 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
5 The Best of Times--Styx
6 Crying--Don McLean
7 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
8 Hello Again--Neil Diamond
9 Kiss on My List--Daryl Hall & John Oates
10 Treat Me Right--Pat Benatar

Singles entering the chart were Watching the Wheels by John Lennon (#71); Bette Davis Eyes by Kim Carnes (#72); Say You’ll Be Mine by Christopher Cross (#74); What are We Doin’ in Love by Dottie West (with Kenny Rogers) (#81); Jessie’s Girl by Rick Springfield (#85); I Loved ‘Em Every One by T.G. Sheppard (#87); Blessed are the Believers by Anne Murray (#88); Somebody Send My Baby Home by Lenny LeBlanc (#89); Lover by the Michael Stanley Band (#90); 96 Tears by Garland Jeffreys (#94); and Don’t Know Much by Bill Medley (#95).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Record World)
1 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
2 Woman--John Lennon
3 Rapture--Blondie
4 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
5 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
6 The Best of Times--Styx
7 Kiss on My List--Daryl Hall & John Oates
8 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
9 Crying--Don McLean
10 Just the Two of Us--Grover Washington, Jr.

Singles entering the chart were Watching the Wheels by John Lennon (#66); Say You'll Be Mine by Christopher Cross (#74); Love You Like I Never Loved Before by John O'Banion (#75); Bette Davis Eyes by Kim Carnes (#81); What are We Doin' in Love by Dottie West (with Kenny Rogers) (#82); and Lover by the Michael Stanley Band (#91).

Canada’s Top 10 (RPM)
1 Celebration--Kool & the Gang
2 Woman--John Lennon
3 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
4 Rapture--Blondie
5 The Best of Times--Styx
6 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
7 Wasn’t That a Party--The Rovers
8 A Little in Love--Cliff Richard
9 I Ain’t Gonna Stand for It--Stevie Wonder
10 Turn Me Loose--Loverboy

Singles entering the chart were I Missed Again by Phil Collins (#39); Ain’t Even Done with the Night by John Cougar (#43); The Party’s Over by Journey (#45); and Super Trouper by ABBA (#47).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CFUN)
1 Rapture--Blondie
2 Woman--John Lennon
3 Kiss on My List--Daryl Hall & John Oates
4 While You See a Chance--Steve Winwood
5 The Best of Times--Styx
6 Morning Train (Nine to Five)--Sheena Easton
7 A Little in Love--Cliff Richard
8 What Kind of Fool--Barbra Streisand (Duet with Barry Gibb)
9 Somebody's Knockin'--Terri Gibbs
10 You Better You Bet--The Who

Singles entering the chart were High School Confidential by Rough Trade (#23); I Missed Again by Phil Collins (#26); and Being with You by Smokey Robinson (#28).

Disasters
11 construction workers were killed and 27 injured when a condominium under construction collapsed in Cocoa Beach, Florida.

Hockey
NHL
Edmonton 4 @ Detroit 2
Chicago 2 @ Boston 5
Pittsburgh 4 @ New York Islanders 4
New York Rangers 6 @ Montreal 2
Calgary 5 @ Toronto 9
Buffalo 4 @ St. Louis 7
Minnesota 2 @ Los Angeles 3

30 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Rhythm of My Heart--Rod Stewart

Radio
Canadian External Affairs Minister Joe Clark said that the Department of External Affairs would operate Radio Canada International after the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation dropped funding, with a 50% cut in service.

Protest
More than 100,000 supporters of Russian President Boris Yeltsin took to the streets in Moscow despite U.S.S.R. President Mikhail Gorbachev’s ban on demonstrations in Moscow.

War
A Shiite leader in Iraq said that the Shiites were still conducting guerrilla warfare against government forces.

Law
Former U.S. President broke with the views of the National Rifle Association and delivered a speech at George Washington University in which he endorsed the so-called Brady Bill, currently before Congress, that would require a seven-day waiting period for the purchase of a handgun, during which law enforcement personnel could check on the background of the purchaser. The bill was named after Mr. Reagan’s press secretary, James Brady, who had been seriously wounded in the assassination attempt on Mr. Reagan 10 years earlier.

Disasters
A coroner’s jury voted 9-2 to return a verdict of accidental death in the 1989 collapse of the grandstand at the Hillsborough stadium in Sheffield, England that resulted in the deaths of 96 people.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 3 @ Chicago 5

25 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Firestarter--The Prodigy

#1 single in Denmark (Nielsen Music Control & IFPI): Spaceman--Babylon Zoo (9th week at #1)

Crime
The Shamgar Commission issued its final report into the November 4, 1995 assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. It was critical of the internal security service Shin Bet for putting the Prime Minister at risk and ignoring threats to his life from Jewish extremists.

Hockey
NHL
Florida 2 @ Pittsburgh 3

Jaromir Jagr scored his 60th goal of the season to help the Penguins beat the Panthers at Civic Arena. He and Mario Lemieux, with 64 goals, were the first teammates to score 60 or more goals in a season since Wayne Gretzky (73) and Jari Kurri (71) of the Edmonton Oilers in 1984-85. Mr. Jagr also set a league record for most points by a European player in one NHL season, with 140.

20 years ago
2001


Died on this date
Moe Koffman, 72
. Canadian musician. Mr. Koffman, a native of Toronto, was a jazz flautist, saxophonist, composer, arranger, and bandleader whose public career spanned more than 50 years, leading his own band and performing with other bands, such as the Boss Brass. He performed on countless recording sessions as well as television programs and commercials. Mr. Koffman's best-known recording was The Swinging Shepherd Blues, a hit single in Canada, the U.S.A., and U.K. in 1958. He died of cancer in Orangeville, Ontario.

Terrorism
A suicide bomber killed two Israeli teenagers as they waited for a school bus in Jerusalem. In immediate retaliation, Israeli helicopter gunships attacked the bases and camps of the personal security forces of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat.

10 years ago
2011


Died on this date
Wenche Foss, 93
. Norwegian actress and singer. Miss Foss appeared in plays, movies, and television programs in a career spanning 65 years. She was a mezzo-soprano who sang in operettas and musicals. Miss Wenche died in her sleep after several months of illness.

March 27, 2021

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Denise Best and Beth Nyambura!

220 years ago
1801


Born on this date
Alexander Barrow
. U.S. politician. Mr. Barrow, a Whig, spent several years in the Louisiana House of Representatives before reperesenting the state from 1841 until his death on December 29, 1846 at the age of 45. He was the older half-brother of Washington Barrow, who represented Tennessee in the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate.

170 years ago
1851


Born on this date
Ruperto Chapí
. Spanish composer. Mr. Chapí wrote a symphony, as well as choral and chamber works, but was best known for his many operas and zarzuelas (traditional Spanish works alternating between spoken and sung scenes). He co-founded Sociedad General de Autores y Editores (Spanish Society of Authors and Publishers) in 1893, and died on March 25, 1909, two days before his 58th birthday.

Vincent d'Indy. French composer and teacher. Mr. d'Indy wrote more than 100 works, including three symphonies, symphonic poems, and instrumental and choral works. He co-founded the Schola Cantorum de Paris in 1894, and taught there and at the Paris Conservatoire until his death on December 2, 1931 at the age of 80.

150 years ago
1871


Born on this date
Heinrich Mann
. German-born author. Mr. Mann, the older brother of novelist Thomas Mann, was also a novelist. He was best known for Der Untertan (1905) and Professor Unrat (1905), the latter of which was adapted into the movie Der Blaue Engel (The Blue Angel) (1930). He was one of the public figures who signed the "Urgent Call for Unity" in 1932, asking German voters to reject the Nazi Party. Mr. Mann fled Germany shortly after the Nazis came to power in 1933, moving first to France, and eventually settling in the United States. He died in Santa Monica, California on March 11, 1950, 16 days before his 79th birthday and several months before he was scheduled to move to East Germany to become president of the German Academy of Arts.

Piet Aalberse. Dutch politician. Mr. Aalberse, a member of the Catholic People's party and then the Roman Catholic State Party, represented Almelo in the House of Representatives from 1903-1916 and served as the Netherlands' first Minister of Labour (1918-1922) and Minister of Labour, Trade and Industry (1922-1925). He later led the Catholic group in the House of Representatives, and was Speaker of the House from 1936-1937 before ending his career as a member of the Council of State from 1937-1946. Mr. Aalberse died on July 5, 1948 at the age of 77.

Sport
Scotland defeated England 2 tries and a goal to 1 try in the first international rugby football match, before 4,000 fans at Raeburn Place in Edinburgh.

140 years ago
1881


Born on this date
Arkady Averchenko
. Russian author. Mr. Averchenko was a liberal satirist whose work was published in about 20 books. He fled Russia in November 1920, and settled in Prague in 1922. Mr. Averchenko took ill after an eye operation and died on March 12, 1925, 15 days before his 44th birthday.

130 years ago
1891


Born on this date
Lajos Zilahy
. Hungarian writer. Mr. Zilahy wrote several dozen novels, including the trilogy A Dukay család (1949-1965). He also wrote plays and screenplays, directing the filmed versions of some of his works at the film studio he founded. Mr. Zilahy oppsoed both Fascism and Communism, and fled into exile in the United States in 1947. He died in Serbia on December 1, 1974 at the age of 83.

120 years ago
1901


Born on this date
Erich Ollenhauer
. German politician. Mr. Ollenhauer joined the Social Democratic Party (SPD) in 1929, but fled Germany after the Nazis came to power in 1933. He returned to Germany in 1946, and was first elected to the Bundestag in 1949. Mr. Ollenhauer led the SPD from 1952 until his death from a pulmonary embolism on December 14, 1963 at the age of 62.

Eisaku Satō. Prime Minister of Japan, 1964-1972. Mr. Satō entered the Diet in 1949 as a member of the Liberal Party, which merged with the Japan Democratic Party in 1955 to form the Liberal Democratic Party. Mr. Satō became Prime Minister upon the resignation of Hayato Ikeda; he decided not to seek a fourth term and retired shortly after negotiating the return of Okinawa to Japan from United States control. He was awarded a share of the 1974 Novel Peace Prize "for his renunciation of the nuclear option for Japan and his efforts to further regional reconciliation." Mr. Satō died on June 3, 1975 at the age of 74, 15 days after suffering a severe stroke.

Carl Barks. U.S. cartoonist. Mr. Barks had a career spanning six decades, but was best known as an animator with Disney Studios and a writer and artist with Disney comic books from the mid-1930s through the mid-'60s. He wrote and drew the first Donald Duck stories in comic books, and created Duck family characters such as Scrooge McDuck. Mr. Barks was inducted into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame as a charter member in 1987, and died at the age of 99 on August 25, 2000, after a long battle with leukemia.

100 years ago
1921


Born on this date
Fletcher Markle
. Canadian-born director, screenwriter, and producer. Mr. Markle, a native of Winnipeg, began his career in radio in Canada before moving to the United States in the mid-1940s, working in radio, television, and cinema as writer, director, or producer in a career spanning 30 years. His movies included Jigsaw (1949) and The Incredible Journey (1963), and he was host and then producer of the Canadian documentary television program Telescope (1963-1973). Mr. Markle and actress Mercedes McCambridge were married from 1950-1962, and they formed Cubano Productions in 1956 to produce feature films and content for independent television; they were intending to produce a series titled Tonight in Havana, starring Ricardo Montalban, but the series doeesn't seem to have been made. Mr. Markle died of heart failure in Pasadena, California on May 23, 1991 at the age of 70.

Harold Nicholas. U.S. dancer. Mr. Nicholas and his older brother Fayard comprised perhaps the most famous tap dancing duo in history, performing on stage and screen for more than 60 years. He appeared, with his brother or as a solo performer, in movies such as Stormy Weather (1943); The Pirate (1948); and The Five Heartbeats (1991). Mr. Nicholas died from heart failure on July 3, 2000 at the age of 79.

Phil Chess. Polish-born U.S. record producer. Mr. Chess, born Fiszel Czyż, moved to Chicago with his family in 1928. His brother Leonard became a partner in Aristocrat Records in 1946; Phil joined in 1950 and the company became known as Chess Records, specializing in rhythm and blues artists such as Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, Bo Diddley, and Chuck Berry. Phil Chess died on October 18, 2016 at the age of 95.

Died on this date
Harry Barron, 73
. U.K. military officer and politician. Major General Barron was Governor of Tasmania (1909-1913) and Governor of Western Australia (1913-1917).

90 years ago
1931


Died on this date
Arnold Bennett, 63
. U.K. author and playwright. Mr. Bennett wrote 34 novels, more than 100 short stories, and 13 plays, many of them set in a fictionalized version of his native Staffordshire Potteries. He believed that literature should be accessible to ordinary people, which led his work to be dismissed by many critics. Mr. Bennett also wrote newspaper articles, and directed the British Ministry of Information during the final weeks of World War I in 1918. He died of typhoid fever after drinking tap water on a visit to France.

80 years ago
1941


World events
Yugoslav Air Corps chief Dusan Simovitch overthrew the regency of Prince Paul and the pro-Axis government of Premier Dragisha Cvetkovitch in a bloodless coup d'etat, and restored King Peter II to the throne. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill promised aid for the new Yugoslav government.

Diplomacy
German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler met Japanese Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka in Berlin and secretly urged an attack on Singapore.

U.S. Senator Robert Wagner (Democrat--New York) announced the formation of the American Palestine Committee to support the movement to develop and colonize Palestine with Jewish refugees.

Defense
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed into law the $7-billion Lend-Lease appropriations bill.

Economics and finance
The Japanese government announced that beginning in April the country would have one meatless day per week.

Labour
The U.S. National Defense Mediation Board succeeded in achieving settlements of defense strikes at International Harvester Company, Vanadium Steel Corporation, Universal Cyclops Steel Company, and Condenser Corporation of America. U.S. Representative Hatton Sumners (Democrat--Texas) declared that he would not hesitate for "one split second" to recommend "the electric chair" for enemies of the defense program "in factories or elsewhere."

75 years ago
1946


Diplomacy
U.S.S.R. delegate to the United Nations Andrei Gromyko walked out of a Security Council session after his motion to postpone discussion of the issue of the presence of Soviet troops in Iran until April 10, 1946 was defeated.

Transportation
The provisional International Aviation Organization ended its 23-day conference in Dublin on North Atlantic air routes after establishing procedures for trans-Atlantic travel.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Senate Banking and Currency Commitee approved the nomination of James J. Vardaman to the Federal Reserve Board.

A report of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce urged gradual elimination of price controls.

Labour
Walter Reuther was elected President of the United Auto Workers by a 124-vote margin at the Congress of Industrial Organizations-affiliated union's convention in Atlantic City.

70 years ago
1951


On television tonight
Suspense, on CBS
Tonight’s episode: The Three of Silence, starring Robert Emhardt, Betty Garde, and Walter Slezak



War
U.S. Defense Secretary George Marshall, in his first formal news conference, said that Commander-in-Chief of the United Nations Command General Douglas MacArthur's troops had the authority to cross the 38th Parallel "to safeguard the security of his comand," but denied that they could also push all the way to Manchuria. He also warned the United States to expect 10 years of tense relations with the U.S.S.R.

General Manton Eddy, U.S. 7th Army commander in Germany, warned that there was a "critical" danger of Soviet aggression in Germany during the next six months.

Politics and government
Khaled el Azam succeeded Populist leader Nazem el Kodsi as Prime Minister of Syria, ending an 18-day cabinet crisis.

Brazil banned Communist gatherings after a meeting in Belo Horizonte, the first of a series planned by Communists in several cities, resulted in a riot.

Basketball
NCAA
Men's Championship Final @ Williams Arena, Minneapolis
Kentucky 68 Kansas State 58

60 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Quince Años Tiene Mi Amor--Dúo Dinámico (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Non, je ne regrette rien--Édith Piaf (11th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Surrender--Elvis Presley (2nd week at #1)
2 Pony Time--Chubby Checker
3 Dedicated to the One I Love--The Shirelles
4 Apache--Jorgen Ingmann and his Guitar
5 Don't Worry--Marty Robbins
6 Blue Moon--The Marcels
7 Walk Right Back--The Everly Brothers
8 Wheels--The String-A-Longs
9 Where the Boys Are--Connie Francis
10 Gee Whiz (Look at his Eyes)--Carla Thomas

Singles entering the chart were Mother-in-Law by Ernie K-Doe (#55); You Can Depend on Me by Brenda Lee (#62); Brass Buttons by the String-A-Longs (#80); Funny by Maxine Brown (#83); Ain't It, Baby by the Miracles (#85); Tenderly by Bert Kaempfert and his Orchestra (#87); Daddy's Home by Shep and the Limelites (#88); Sleepy-Eyed John by Johnny Horton (#89); Bumble Boogie by B. Bumble and the Stingers (#90); I'm in the Mood for Love by the Chimes (#92); I Told You So by Jimmy Jones (#93); Like, Long Hair by Paul Revere & the Raiders (#94); Triangle by Janie Grant (#96); Where I Fell in Love by the Capris (#97); Little Pedro by the Olympics (#98); and Green Grass of Texas by the Texans (#100).

Diplomacy
U.S. President John F. Kennedy and U.S.S.R. Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko met at the White House to discuss Laos, where Communist-supported forces were rebelling against the government. Both men expressed hope for a peaceful solution, but there was no indication that they agreed on the means.

Boxing
Chico Vejar (92-20-4) won a 10-round unanimous decision over Edmonton’s Wilf Greaves (33-17-1) in a middleweight bout at St. Nicholas Arena in New York City. After the fight, Mr. Vejar made a brief speech to the crowd announcing his retirement from professional boxing, and he kept his word.

50 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in Rhodesia (Lyons Maid): Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Il cuore e' uno zingaro--Nicola Di Bari (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Hot Love--T. Rex (2nd week at #1)

Australia's Top 10 (Go-Set)
1 The Pushbike Song--The Mixtures
2 My Sweet Lord--George Harrison
3 Knock Three Times--Dawn
4 Eleanor Rigby--Zoot
5 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
6 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
7 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
8 Apeman--The Kinks
9 Band of Gold--Freda Payne
10 I'll Be Gone--Spectrum

Singles entering the chart were Like an Eagle by Miguel Rios (#41); Valley to Pray by Arlo Guthrie (#55); Love the One You're With by Stephen Stills (#58); and Stoney End by Barbra Streisand (#59).

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Du--Peter Maffray (3rd week at #1)
2 Chirpy Chirpy Cheep Cheep--Middle of the Road
3 Butterfly--Danyel Gerard
4 Mozart - First Movement Symphony No. 40--Waldo De Los Rios
5 There's No More Corn on the Brasos--The Walkers
6 Invitation--Earth and Fire
7 What is Life--George Harrison
8 Another Day--Paul McCartney
9 Chirpy, Chirpy, Cheep, Cheep--Lally Stott
10 Silver Moon--Michael Nesmith & the First National Band

Singles entering the chart were Waarheen, Waarvoor... by Mieke Telkamp en De Hi-Five (#16); Those Words by Sandra & Andres (#21); Oh What a Day by Cloverleaf (#29); Blue Money by Van Morrison (#34); and Rozen voor Sandra by Ronnie Tober (#38). Waarheen, Waarvoor... was a Dutch-language version of Amazing Grace.

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Me and Bobby McGee--Janis Joplin (2nd week at #1)
2 Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)--The Temptations
3 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
4 Proud Mary--Ike & Tina Turner
5 For All We Know--Carpenters
6 Doesn't Somebody Want to Be Wanted--The Partridge Family
7 What's Going On--Marvin Gaye
8 Help Me Make it Through the Night--Sammi Smith
9 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
10 What is Life--George Harrison

Singles entering the chart were I Am...I Said/Done Too Soon by Neil Diamond (#45); I Play and Sing by Dawn (#71); If by Bread (#72); Someone Who Cares by Kenny Rogers and the First Edition (#81); Sweet and Innocent by Donny Osmond (#88); Love Makes the World Go Round by Kiki Dee (#89); C'mon by Poco (#97); Layla by Derek and the Dominos (#98); I Wish I Were by Andy Kim (#99); and The Animal Trainer and the Toad by Mountain (#100).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 She’s a Lady--Tom Jones
2 Doesn’t Somebody Want to Be Wanted--The Partridge Family
3 Me and Bobby McGee--Janis Joplin
4 Just My Imagination (Running Away With Me)--The Temptations
5 Proud Mary--Ike and Tina Turner
6 For All We Know--Carpenters
7 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
8 What is Life--George Harrison
9 What’s Going On--Marvin Gaye
10 Cried Like a Baby--Bobby Sherman

Singles entering the chart were Warpath by the Isley Brothers (#80); Stop! In the Name of Love by Margie Joseph (#81); Oh, Singer by Jeannie C. Riley (#82); Me and My Arrow by Nilsson (#83); I'm Girl Scoutin' by the Intruders (#87); Me and You and a Dog Named Boo by Lobo (#91); Freedom by Jimi Hendrix (#93); Nickel Song by the New Seekers (#96); Cool Aid by Paul Humphreys & his Cool Aid Chemists (#99); and Here Comes the Sun by Richie Havens (#100).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Record World)
1 Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)--The Temptations
2 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
3 Me and Bobby McGee--Janis Joplin
4 For All We Know--Carpenters
5 Doesn't Somebody Want to Be Wanted--The Partridge Family
6 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
7 Proud Mary--Ike & Tina Turner
8 Help Me Make it Through the Night--Sammi Smith
9 (Where Do I Begin) Love Story--Andy Williams
10 What is Life/Apple Scruffs--George Harrison

Singles entering the chart were Power to the People by John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band (#79); I Think of You by Perry Como (#81); Nickel Song by the New Seekers (#83); I Won't Mention it Again by Ray Price (#85); Me and My Arrow by Nilsson (#89); Booty Butt by the Ray Charles Orchestra (#90); Me and You and a Dog Named Boo by Lobo (#91); Toast and Marmalade for Tea by Tin Tin (#92); Lucky Man by Emerson, Lake & Palmer (#94); Sweet and Innocent by Donny Osmond (#96); C'mon by Poco (#98); Adrienne by Tommy James (#99); and Give it to Me by the Mob (#100).

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 Doesn’t Somebody Want to Be Wanted--The Partridge Family
2 She’s a Lady--Tom Jones
3 Stay Awhile--The Bells
4 What is Life--George Harrison
5 For All We Know--Carpenters
6 Me and Bobby McGee--Janis Joplin
7 Oye Como Va--Santana
8 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
9 (Where Do I Begin) Love Story--Andy Williams
10 Carry Me--Stampeders

Singles entering the chart were I Am...I Said by Neil Diamond (#76); If by Bread (#87); Freedom by Jimi Hendrix (#94); Friends by Elton John (#95); A Country Boy Named Willy by Spring (#96); Timothy by the Buoys (#97); Train by Soma (#98); Heavy Makes You Happy (Sha-Na-Boom Boom) by the Staple Singers (#99); and Patricia by Ronnie Hawkins (#100).

Calgary's Top 10 (Glenn's Music)
1 Where Evil Grows--The Poppy Family
2 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
3 Woodstock--Matthews' Southern Comfort
4 Temptation Eyes--The Grass Roots
5 What is Life--George Harrison
6 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
7 Carry Me--Stampeders
8 Theme from Love Story--Henry Mancini, his Orchestra and Chorus
9 Me and Bobby McGee--Janis Joplin
10 Blue Money--Van Morrison
Pick hit of the Week: Joy to the World--Three Dog Night

Disasters
The oil tanker Texas Oklahoma, with 44 men aboard, split in half and quickly sank 120 miles of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Within two days, only 13 survivors had been picked up within the resulting 100-mile oil slick.

40 years ago
1981


Hit parade #1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): När vi två blir en--Gyllene Tider (16th week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Stop the Cavalry--Jona Lewie

South Africa's Top 10 (Springbok Radio)
1 Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre (4th week at #1)
2 Give Me Back My Love--Maywood
3 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
4 Never Knew Love Like This Before--Stephanie Mills
5 De Do Do Do, De Da Da Da--The Police
6 Stop the Cavalry--Jona Lewie
7 Lady--Kenny Rogers
8 Fashion--David Bowie
9 A Lot of Things--Peach
10 Can You Feel It--The Jacksons

Singles entering the chart were I am the Beat by Look (#18); Some Broken Hearts Never Mend by Telly Savalas (#19); and Woman by John Lennon (#20).

Terrorism
Four men hijacked a Honduran airliner and forced it to fly from Nicaragua to Panama City. The hijackers demanded that Honduras free 16 imprisoned Salvadoran leftists. Honduras refused to co-operate, and the hijackers surrendered to Panamanian officials, requesting asylum in Cuba.

Labour
The Solidarity movement in Poland staged a warning strike, the largest in the history of the Eastern Bloc, in which at least 12 million Poles walked off their jobs for four hours.

The United Mine Workers of America membership rejected a tentative agreement from the Bituminous Coal Operators Association and went on strike; scattered non-union mines were also shut down. The coal companies had offered a pay increase of 36% over three years, but had eliminated the royalties that they would pay to the union when they bought non-union coal.

30 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Joyride--Roxette (3rd week at #1)

Died on this date
Aldo Ray, 64
. U.S. actor. Mr. Ray, born Aldo DaRe, was usually cast in "tough guy" roles, because of his gravelly voice and husky build, but he occasionally played other kinds of characters. His movies included Battle Cry (1955); We're No Angels (1955); Men in War (1957); The Naked and the Dead (1958); God's Little Acre (1958); Four Desperate Men (1959); and The Green Berets (1968). Mr. Ray's career declined in later years, and he became good friends with the notoriously awful director and writer Ed Wood.

Ralph Bates, 51. U.K. actor. Mr. Bates starred in the television comedy series Dear John (1986-1987) and appeared in several horror movies made by Hammer Studios, including Taste the Blood of Dracula (1970). He died of pancreatic cancer.

War
Iran denied that it was aiding Iraqi rebels, including the Kurds, who were reported to be gaining ground in the northern part of Iraq. U.S. President George Bush said he would adopt a "wait and see" attitude toward internal revolts in Iraq and that he thought the regime of dictator Saddam Hussein would fall without U.S. intervention.

Politics and government
Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa tabled the previous day’s Belanger-Campeau Commission report, which recommended legislation providing for a referendum on Quebec sovereignty by October 1992. Mr. Bourassa made it clear that his government would make the final decision on how to proceed, whether it be toward sovereignty or federalism.

Hockey
Coach Scotty Bowman and former Toronto Maple Leaf' captain George Armstrong were elected to the Hockey Hall of Fame. Mr. Bowman led the Montreal Canadiens to five Stanley Cup championships in the 1970s, while Mr. Armstrong led the Maple Leafs to four Stanley Cup championships in the 1960s. Mr. Bowman subsequently led the Pittsburgh Penguins and Detroit Red Wings to Stanley Cup championships in the 1990s.

25 years ago
1996


Crime
Former law student Yigal Amir was convicted of the assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and was sentenced to life in prison. Mr. Amir had shot Mr. Rabin to death on November 4, 1995 in Tel Aviv in protest against Mr. Rabin's peace initiative, especially the signing of the Oslo Accords with Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat.

Politics and government
Bangladeshi Prime Minister Khaleda Zia announced her resignation, effective March 30, after repeated protests an non-cooperation campaigns after the February 15 election, which was alleged to be rigged. She was succeeded on an interim basis by Muhammad Habibur Rahman.

Health
The European Commission announced a worldwide ban on the export of British beef products because of mad-cow disease.

Economics and finance
The Quebec budget presented by Revenue Minister Roger Bertrand included spending cuts on hospitals, school boards, and bureaucrats, and proposed that wealthy seniors pay for their own drugs.

Horse racing
Cigar finished ½ length ahead of Soul of the Matter to win the $4-million Dubai Silver Cup, posting his 14th straight win.



Hockey
NHL
Vancouver 2 @ Toronto 6

Larry Murphy scored a goal and an assist for the Toronto Maple Leafs in their victory over the Canucks at Maple Leaf Gardens, giving him 1,001 career points. Mr. Murphy joined Paul Coffey, Ray Bourque and Denis Potvin to become the fourth defenceman in NHL history to reach the milestone.

20 years ago
2001


Environment
U.S. President George W. Bush removed the United States from the Kyoto Protocol, the 1997 treaty on global warming that called for the U.S. to cut carbon dioxide emissions by one-third by 2012.

Academia
A U.S. federal judge ruled that the University of Michigan’s affirmative action policy was invalid, a ruling that later would be reversed in an appeal.

10 years ago
2011


Died on this date
Farley Granger, 85
. U.S. actor. Mr. Granger appeared in plays, films, and television programs in a career spanning more than 40 years, and was primarily known for his co-starring roles in the films They Live by Night (1948); Rope (1948); and Strangers on a Train (1951).

Clement Arrindell, 79. 1st Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis, 1983-1995. Sir Clement began practicing law in 1958, and was a senior magistrate in Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla and the British Virgin Islands (1972-1978) and judge of the West Indies Associated States Supreme Court (1978-1981) before serving as the final colonial Governor of St. Kitts and Nevis (1981-1983). He died after a short illness, 23 days before his 80th birthday.