Thursday, 25 March 2021

March 25, 2021

210 years ago

Percy Bysshe Shelley was expelled from the University of Oxford for publishing the pamphlet The Necessity of Atheism.

150 years ago

Born on this date
Louis Perrée
. French fencer. Mr. Perrée won a silver medal in the épée event at the 1900 Olympic Games in Paris. He died on March 1, 1924, 24 days before his 53rd birthday.

140 years ago

Born on this date
Mary Webb
. U.K. authoress and poetess. Mrs. Webb was a romantic novelist and poet who wrote about people in the countryside of Shropshire, England in novels such as The Golden Arrow (1916) and Gone to Earth (1917). She suffered from Graves' disease, a thyroid disorder, which may have contributed to her death at the age of 46 on October 8, 1927.

Béla Bartók. Hungarian composer. Mr. Bartók is regarded as one of Hungary's greatest composers. He wrote numerous works for piano, including three concertos. Mr. Bartók took a great interest in folk music, and was one of the founders of ethnomusicology. He died of leukemia on September 26, 1945 at the age of 64.

125 years ago

James B. Connolly of the United States, a student at Harvard University, won the "hop, skip and jump" competition--soon renamed the triple jump--to claim the initial gold medal of the first modern Olympic Games in Athens.

120 years ago

Born on this date
Ed Begley
. U.S. actor. Mr. Begley was an excellent character actor whose movies included Patterns (1956) (also the earlier television version (1955)); 12 Angry Men (1957); and Sweet Bird of Youth (1962), for which he won an Academy Award for his supporting performance. He died of a heart attack on April 28, 1970 at the age of 69.

Louis Cyr defeated Édouard Breapré in the first round of a wrestling match in Montreal in what was billed as the strongest man in the world (Mr. Cyr) versus the Willow Bunch Giant.

110 years ago

Died on this date
Andrei Yushchinski, 13
. Ukrainian crime victim. Master Yushchinski disappeared on his way to school in Kiev, when Ukraine was still part of the Russian Empire; his body was discovered eight days later. Menahem Mendel Beilis was charged with committing a ritual Jewish murder of Master Yushchinski and spent two years awaiting trial before finally being acquitted.

A fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York City killed 145 workers, almost all of them Jewish and Italian immigrant women. The fire drew attention to the plight of women working in low-paying jobs.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Simone Signoret
. German-born French actress. Miss Signoret, born Simone Kaminker, mainly worked in France and Britain, and won the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in Room at the Top (1959). She died of pancreatic cancer on September 30, 1985 at the age of 64.

Alexandra. Queen consort of Yugoslavia, 1944-1945. Alexandra, the posthumous daughter of King Alexander of Greece, became Queen consort of Yugoslavia when she married King Peter II while in exile in Britain, but the monarchy ended on November 29, 1945 when Yugoslavian President Marshal Josip Broz Tito proclaimed the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, making her the country's last queen. King Peter turned to drink afterwards and died in 1970, while Queen Alexandra reacted with depression and suicide attempts. She died of cancer on February 7, 1993 at the age of 72.

Nancy Kelly. U.S. actress. Miss Kelly was a leading lady on stage, screen, and radio in the 1930s and '40s, but was best known for playing the mother in the play (1955) and movie (1956) The Bad Seed, winning a Tony Award for her starring performance in the former and receiving an Academy Award nomination for the latter. She died from complications of diabetes on January 2, 1995 at the age of 73.

90 years ago

Died on this date
Ida B. Wells, 68
. U.S. journalist and civil rights activist. Miss Wells became known for her reporting on lynching in the Memphis Free Speech and Headlight newspaper and her pamphlets Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in all its Phases (1892) and The Red Record (1895). She moved from Memphis to Chicago in 1895, and continued to oppose lynching, while advocating women's suffrage and opposing racism within the suffrage movement. Miss Wells died of uremia; she was posthumously honored with a Pulitzer Prize special citation in 1920 "[f]or her outstanding and courageous reporting on the horrific and vicious violence against African Americans during the era of lynching."

Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi, 40. Indian journalist and politician. Mr. Vidyarthi was an advocate of Indian independence from British rule who founded the revolutionary Hindi weekly Pratap in 1913 to express his views. He joined the non-cooperation movement led by Mohandas Gandhi in 1916, and as a member of the Indian National Congress Party, represented Kanpur on the United Provinces Legislative Council (1925-1929). Mr. Vidyarthi served several jail sentences for his activities, and died 16 days after being released from prison. While on his way to Karachi to attend an Indian National Congress Session, he came across communal rioting between Hindus and Muslims in Kanpur. Mr. Vidyarthi saved the lives of many Hindus and Muslims from the violence, but was stabbed to death by rioting Muslims, and his body wasn't identified until several days later.

The Scottsboro Boys were arrested in Alabama. The nine Negro youths were arrested on charges of raping two white women in a freight car on a train passing through the state.

Politics and government
Irénée Vautrin, a Liberal member of the Quebec Legislative Assembly, tabled a bill proposing an amendment to the electoral law allowing women to vote. The bill was eventually defeated 47-21.

80 years ago

Warner Brothers studios bought the rights to Edna Ferber's unpublished novel Saratoga Trunk for the record price of $175,000.

Germany extended its war zone westward to within three miles of Greenland, including U.K.-occupied Iceland.

Yugoslavian Premier Dragisha Cvetkovitch and Foreign Minister Alexander Cincar-Markovitch signed the Tripartite Pact in Vienna, bringing Yugoslavia into the Axis alliance, and sparking anti-Nazi demonstrations in Yugoslavia.

Communist Party U.S.A. leader Earl Browder surrendered to federal authorities in New York City to begin serving a four-year prison sentence for passport fraud.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order freezing Yugoslavian assets in the United States amounting to $50 million.

U.S. Representative Martin Dies (Democrat--Texas) told the House of Representatives that the National Maritime Union was a Communist-dominated organization. Congress of Industrial Organizations President Philip Murray denied that Communists were employed by the Steel Workers Organizing Committee. Pennsylvania state police routed CIO pickets in the steel strike at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation's plant in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Violence also flared at the Chicago works of International Harvester Company when CIO strikers clashed with police and American Federation of Labor employees.

The U.S. Public Health Service announced that the most serious outbreak of measles in seven years was active along the Eastern seaboard and was spreading westward.

75 years ago

Hit parade
U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Oh! What it Seemed to Be--Frankie Carle and his Orchestra (2nd week at #1)
--Frank Sinatra
--Dick Haymes and Helen Forrest
--Charlie Spivak and his Orchestra
2 Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief--Betty Hutton
--Les Brown and his Orchestra
3 Personality--Johnny Mercer
4 Symphony--Freddy Martin and his Orchestra with Clyde Rogers
--Bing Crosby
--Benny Goodman and his Orchestra
--Jo Stafford
5 You Won't Be Satisfied (Until You Break My Heart)--Les Brown and his Orchestra
--Perry Como
6 Let it Snow! Let it Snow! Let it Snow!--Vaughn Monroe and his Orchestra with Vaughn Monroe and the Norton Sisters
--Woody Herman and his Orchestra
7 Day by Day--Frank Sinatra
8 I'm Always Chasing Rainbows--Perry Como
--Dick Haymes and Helen Forrest
9 Shoo Fly Pie (And Apple Pan Dowdy)--Stan Kenton and his Orchestra
--Dinah Shore
10 One-zy, Two-zy (I Love You-zy)--Freddy Martin and his Orchestra
--Phil Harris and his Orchestra

Singles entering the chart were Here I Go Again by Dinah Shore (#27); Prisoner of Love (#34)/All Through the Day (#41) by Perry Como; All Through the Day by Frank Sinatra (#41, charting with the version by Perry Como); Where Did You Learn to Love, with versions by Tommy Dorsey and his Orchestra; and Louis Prima and his Orchestra (#42); and In the Moon Mist by the Pied Pipers (#43).

On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on MBS
Tonight's episode: The Girl with the Gazelle

The United Nations Military Staff Committee, composed of the U.S.A., U.S.S.R., U.K., China, and France, held its first session.

The Canadian government of Prime Minister Mackenzie King reported that Soviet agents had been seeking atomic information five months before the first nuclear explosion.

World events
The United States charged before the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration that U.S.S.R. occupation armies in Austria had seized land upon which the Austrian population's food supply depended.

Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in Japan General Douglas MacArthur suspended the repatriation of about 500,000 Koreans from Japan to U.S.S.R.-occupied North Korea because of lack of transportation.

The U.S. Supreme Court agreed to review the cases of Robert Lovett, Goodwin Watson, and William Dodd, Jr., who were challenging the constitutionality of a law ousting them from government jobs for alleged subversive activities.

U.S. Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson presented before a secret session of the U.S. Senate Atomic Energy Committee the international nuclear control plan of the administration of President Harry Truman, putting radioactive materials under United Nations ownership, but leaving the operation of nuclear facilities to the individual states.

Spanish cellist Pablo Casals cancelled his English tour in protest against the United Kingdom's recognition of the Spanish regime of Generalissimo Francisco Franco.

Economics and finance
Argentine President Edelmiro Farrell decreed the nationalization of the central bank, part of whose stock was held by U.S. banks.

The U.S. Office of Price Administration allowed a 4% increase on all machinery, parts, and industrial equipment where the percentage of steel costs in sale prices was over 40%.

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the federal anti-kickback law did not apply to unions demanding initiation fees from workers in closed shops.

With some local disputes still pending, General Motors ended its lockout of workers, and resumed production in Detroit.

70 years ago

The Tony Awards for 1950-51 were presented at the Waldorf-Astoria Grand Ballroom in New York City. The Rose Tattoo won for Best Play, and Guys and Dolls won for Best Musical.

Shooting incidents occurred between Israelis and Syrians in a Jordan River border area where Jewish workers were draining the Huleh swamps.

Politics and government
A report issued by the American Jewish Congress and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples condemned the 81st United States Congress for taking "no substantial action" on civil rights legislation.

Alberto Gainza Paz, editor and publisher of the Buenos Aires newspaper La Prensa, disclosed in Uruguay that he had fled Argentina to avoid imprisonment, and claimed that congressional seizure of his newspaper was unconstitutional.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Wooden Heart--Elvis Presley

#1 single in Italy: Come sinfonia--Pino Donaggio (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Mit 17 fängt das Leben erst an--Ivo Robić (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Mirror): Wooden Heart--Elvis Presley

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Surrender--Elvis Presley (2nd week at #1)
2 Pony Time--Chubby Checker
3 Don’t Worry--Marty Robbins
4 Dedicated to the One I Love--The Shirelles
5 Where the Boys Are--Connie Francis
6 Apache--Jorgen Ingmann and his Guitar
7 Wheels--The String-A-Longs
--[Billy Vaughn and his Orchestra]
8 Ebony Eyes--The Everly Brothers
9 Gee Whiz (Look at his Eyes)--Carla Thomas
10 Think Twice--Brook Benton

Singles entering the chart were Funny by Maxine Brown (#86); Some Kind of Wonderful by the Drifters (#87); I Told You So by Jimmy Jones (#89); Shu Rah by Fats Domino (#90); It's Unbelievable by the Larks (#91); Jungle Drums by Clyde Otis and his Orchestra (#99); Theme from Dixie by Duane Eddy (#100); Sweet Little Kathy by Ray Peterson (also #100); and Memphis by Donnie Brooks (also #100).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CFUN)
1 Blue Moon--The Marcels (2nd week at #1)
2 Ling Ting Tong--Buddy Knox
3 Runaway--Del Shannon
4 "D" in Love--Cliff Richard and the Shadows
5 Donald, Where's Your Troosers?--Andy Stewart
6 The Corruptibles--The Good Guys
7 Bumble Boogie--B. Bumble and the Stingers
8 Star-Crossed Lovers--Eddy and Teddy
9 Surrender--Elvis Presley
10 Mother-in-Law--Ernie K-Doe

Singles entering the chart were Sleepy-Eyed John by Johnny Horton (#35); Tonight My Love, Tonight by Paul Anka (#38); Flaming Star by Elvis Presley (#42); The Great Snowman by Bob Luman (#43); Little Lonely One by the Jarmels (#45); Shu Rah by Fats Domino (#46); Sweet Little Kathy by Ray Peterson (#48); Frogg by the Brothers Four (#49); and What'd I Say by Jerry Lee Lewis (#50). Flaming Star was the title song of the movie, which starred Mr. Presley.

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKWX)
1 Blue Moon--The Marcels
2 Two--Del Erickson
3 Bumble Boogie--B. Bumble and the Stingers
4 Runaway--Del Shannon
5 "D" in Love--Cliff Richard and the Shadows
6 Ling-Ting-Tong--Buddy Knox
7 Memphis--Donnie Brooks
8 Mother-in-Law--Ernie K-Doe
9 Star-Crossed Lovers--Eddy and Teddy
10 Surrender/Lonely Man--Elvis Presley

Singles entering the chart were The Great Snow Man by Bob Luman (#23); Shy Away by Jerry Fuller (#26); Flaming Star by Elvis Presley (#34); Bonanza by Al Caiola and his Orchestra (#37); Theme from Dixie by Duane Eddy (#39); and After the Hurricane by Paul Evans (#40). Bonanza was a version of the theme from the television series.

The U.S.S.R. launched Sputnik 10, a spherical Vostok 3KA-2 capsule containing a life-size human mannequin and a small dog named Zvezdochka ("Little Star"). The capsule completed one orbit of Earth and re-entered the atmosphere, landing safely. Zvezdochka was unharmed and the mannequin was recovered, indicating to Soviet authorities that the Soviet Union was ready to attempt a manned space flight.

The United States launched Explorer 10 from Cape Canaveral, Florida using a Thor-Delta rocket. The 79-pound satellite was propelled into a highly eccentric orbit ranging from 100 miles to 145,000 miles from Earth. It radioed valuable information on Earth and interplanetary magnetic fields for 60 hours before its chemical batteries were exhausted. NASA said the data lent support to the theory that the interplanetary magnetic field near the Earth was mainly an extension of the magnetic field of the sun.

Politics and government
Quebec Premier Jean Lesage delivered a speech to teachers that was one of the early mileposts in the Quiet Revolution. He said, “The Quebec state is the collective fulcrum of the French-Canadian community. The Quebec state is no stranger among us. Will we figure it out! It's ours. It is ours. It belongs to us and it emanates from us.”

Under pressure from President John F. Kennedy, the U.S. Civil War Centennial Commission agreed to avoid racially-segregated hotels in Charleston, South Carolina during its two-day observance of the 100th anniversary of the firing on Fort Sumter. Mr. Kennedy entered the dispute after the New Jersey unit of the commission decided to boycott the meeting because a Negro member of the state unit would be barred from sessions at a Charleston hotel. President Kennedy appealed for equal treatment of all participants, but the commission said it had no jurisdiction over hotel owners. After Mr. Kennedy commented on the matter a second time at a press conference, the commission agreed to move all its sessions to the desegregated U.S. Naval Station at Charleston. Meanwhile, several northern state units had announced their withdrawal from the national group.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in France (IFOP): Non je ne veux pas faire la guerre--Les Poppys

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (9th week at #1)

Civil war broke out in Pakistan as President Yahya Khan ordered troops, planes, and tanks to crush East Pakistan’s movement for home rule. The Awami League, led by Sheik Mujibur Rahman, long-time leader in the fight for East Pakistani autonomy, had won an absolute majority in Pakistan’s first general elections in December 1970. President Khan had then twice postponed the first session of the National Assembly which was to write a new constitution. General strikes and violence followed, and Mr. Khan declared martial law. Sheik Mujibur countered with a campaign of non-violent civil disobedience, leaving him in virtual control of East Pakistan. 11 days of negotiations followed in East Pakistan’s capital of Dacca. Just when a compromise seemed near, Mr. Khan left abruptly for Islamabad, called the Sheik a traitor, outlawed the Awami League, and ordered troops into East Pakistan. Conflicting reports put casualties at 10,000-300,000 East Pakistanis as a well-equipped army of 70,000 men, aided by the air force, battled with rebels armed often only with knives, clubs, and scimitars. Sheik Mujibur was seized by government troops early in the fighting.

For the fourth straight week, North Vietnamese and Viet Cong delegates boycotted the weekly session of the Paris peace talks, this time joined by their deputies. The boycotts were protests against U.S. bombing and what they termed U.S. "threats of war."

40 years ago

Hit parade
Vancouver's Top 10 (CKLG)
1 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
2 Kiss on My List--Daryl Hall & John Oates
3 Woman--John Lennon
4 The Best of Times--Styx
5 Rapture--Blondie
6 A Little in Love--Cliff Richard
7 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
8 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
9 Morning Train (Nine to Five)--Sheena Easton
10 Turn Me Loose--Loverboy

Singles entering the chart were What Kind of Fool by Barbra Streisand (Duet with Barry Gibb) (#19); and I Can't Stand It by Eric Clapton and his Band (#20).

Edmonton 7 @ Hartford 2

Whalers’ head coach Larry Pleau was heavily criticized for pulling his goalie for a sixth attacker in the 3rd period earlier than is normally the case, which resulted in several empty net goals for the Oilers at Hartford Civic Center.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Oh! Yeah!/Love Story wa Totsuzen ni--Kazumasa Oda (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Se mustamies--Hausmylly (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)--C+C Music Factory featuring Freedom Williams (4th week at #1)

Died on this date
Marcel Lefebvre, 85
. French-born Swiss clergyman. Most Rev. Lefebvre was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1929, and was asssociated with the Holy Ghost Fathers, eventually their Superior General. He was a major leader of the conservative bloc during the Second Vatican Council (Vatican II) (1962-1965), and resigned from the leadership of the Holy Ghost Fathers in 1968 rather than implement reforms recommended by Vatican II. Most Rev. Lefebvre founded the Society of St. Pius X (SSPX) in 1970, and was excommunicated by Pope John Paul II in 1988 after defying the pope and consecrating four bishops to carry on the work of SSPX. Most Rev. Lefebvre died of cancer; Pope Benedict XVI lifted the excommunications of the other four bishops in 2009.

The Academy Awards for 1990 were presented at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, with Dances With Wolves winning Best Picture. Other Oscars included: Director--Kevin Costner, Dances With Wolves; Best Actor--Jeremy Irons, Reversal of Fortune; Best Actress--Kathy Bates, Misery; Best Supporting Actor--Joe Pesci, GoodFellas; Best Supporting Actress--Whoopi Goldberg, Ghost; Best Foreign Language Film--Reise der Hoffnung (Journey of Hope).

Politics and government
Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic and Croatian President Franjo Tudjman agreed to co-operate for two months to avoid a breakup of Yugoslavia.

U.S.S.R. President Mikhail Gorbachev banned demonstrations in Moscow for three weeks.

The Canadian House of Commons Environment Committee urged a 20% cut in carbon dioxide emissions to help combat global warming.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): How Deep is Your Love--Take That

#1 single in Norway (VG-lista): Firestarter--The Prodigy

#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Children--Robert Miles

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 Follow You Down--Gin Blossoms
2 I Want to Come Over--Melissa Etheridge
3 1979--Smashing Pumpkins
4 Ironic--Alanis Morissette
5 Missing--Everything But the Girl
6 Don't Cry--Seal
7 The World I Know--Collective Soul
8 Wonderwall--Oasis
9 Birmingham--Amanda Marshall
10 One of Us--Joan Osborne

Singles entering the chart were Dreamers Dream by Tom Cochrane (#83); Gin Palace by Barney Bentall (#84); Darling Pretty by Mark Knopfler (#86); Fast as I Can by Great Big Sea (#87); Santa Monica (Watch the World Die) by Everclear (#88); Champagne Supernova by Oasis (#92); I Was Born to Love You by Queen (#93); Starbird Road by Megan Metcalfe (#94); and Hands in the Air by Bob Seger (#95).

Died on this date
John Snagge, 91
. U.K. broadcaster. Mr. Snagge was a newsreader and commentator for BBC Radio from 1927-1965. He provided commentary for the coronations of King George VI in 1937 and Queen Elizabeth II in 1953, and delivered important announcements of World War II developments. Mr. Snagge began announcing the annual Oxford-Cambridge Boat Race in 1931, and continued after his retirement, calling his last race in 1980. He died of throat cancer.

The Academy Awards for 1995 were presented at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles. The winners included: Best Picture--Braveheart; Best Director--Mel Gibson (Braveheart); Best Actor--Nicolas Cage (Leaving Las Vegas); Best Actress--Susan Sarandon (Dead Man Walking); Best Supporting Actor--Kevin Spacey (The Usual Suspects); and Best Supporting Actress--Mira Sorvino (Mighty Aphrodite).

An 81-day standoff began near Jordan, Montana between law enforcement officials and the anti-government Montana Freemen.

Politics and government
The governing Liberal Party of Prime Minister Jean Chretien won five of six federal byelections in Canada, with the Bloc Québecois winning the other. The results restored the Liberals to 177 seats in the House of Commons and confirmed the Bloc as the official Opposition.

Canadian Department of Defence documents made public indicated that the United Nations owed Canada $50.8 million for expenses during nine peacekeeping missions dating back to the 1980s; the UN's continuing shortage of money meant that the debt was unlikely to be paid soon.

The European Union's Veterinarian Committee banned the export of British beef and its by-products as a result of mad cow disease (Bovine spongiform encephalopathy).

Economics and finance
The redesigned American $100 bill went into circulation.

Figure skating
The world championships began at Edmonton Coliseum.

20 years ago

Died on this date
Herb Siler, 66
. U.S. boxer. Mr. Siler was a heavyweight who compiled a professional record of 20-12 from 1960-1967. In his third professional fight, he was knocked out in 4 rounds by Cassius Clay--the future Muhammad Ali--to become the future world champion's second victim and first knockout victim. Mr. Siler also lost two fights to future world heavyweight champion Ernie Terrell, and was knocked out in 1965 by 1960 Olympic heavyweight champion Franco De Piccoli. Mr. Siler was convicted of manslaughter in 1972, and served a seven-year prison sentence. He reportedly became a Christian in prison, conquered his drinking habit, and established a succesful construction business in the 1980s.

The Academy Awards for 2000 were presented at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, with Gladiator winning Best Picture. Other Oscars included: Director--Steven Soderbergh (Traffic); Actor--Russell Crowe (Gladiator); Actress--Julia Roberts (Erin Brockovich); Supporting Actor--Benicio Del Toro (Traffic); Supporting Actress--Marcia Gay Harden (Pollock). Wo Hu, Cang Long (Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon) won four Oscars, including Best Foreign Language Film.

Macedonians launched a ground offensive against ethnic Albanian rebels in Macedonia.

10 years ago

Politics and government
Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper's minority Conservative government was defeated in a no-confidence vote, 156-145, after being found in contempt of Parliament, thus triggering the 41st General Election on May 2; it was the first instance in Commonwealth history of a government in the Westminster parliamentary tradition losing the confidence of the House of Commons on these grounds.

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