Friday, 5 March 2021

March 6, 2021

1,060 years ago

The siege of Chandax ended in a victory for Byzantine Empire forces led by Nikephoros Phokas, resulting in the end of the Emirate of Crete.

500 years ago

Ferdinand Magellan arrived at Guam.

490 years ago

Died on this date
Pedro Arias Dávila, 90 or 91
. Spanish military officer and politician. Colonel Arias, aka Pedrarias, served in several wars in the first decade of the 16th century. In 1514, he took office as Governor and captain general of Castilla de Oro, which included territories of the present countries of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and the northern part of Colombia, serving until 1526. Captain General Arias founded Panama City in 1519, and moved his capital there in 1524. He was Governor of Nicaragua from 1528 until his death. Pedrarias has not been kindly remembered by history; his harsh treatment of both natives and Spaniards under his command earned him the nickname "Furor Domini" ("Wrath of God").

190 years ago

Born on this date
Philip Sheridan
. U.S. military officer. General Sheridan claimed to have been born in Albany, New York, but he may have been born on a ship carrying his parents from Ireland. He graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in 1853, and served in the Union Army during the American Civil War, rising rapidly to the rank of major general and being closely associated with General U.S. Grant. Gen. Sheridan's forces defeated Confederate foces in the Battle of Shenandoah Valley in 1864, and were instrumental in forcing the surrender of General Robert E. Lee in 1865. Gen. Sheridan fought in the Indian Wars on the Great Plains in later years, and was instrumental in the protection of Yellowstone National Park. He died of heart failure on August 5, 1888 at the age of 57.

150 years ago

Born on this date
Afonso Costa
. Prime Minister of Portugal, 1913-1914, 1915-1916, 1916, 1917. Mr. Costa was the leader of the Portuguese Republican Party and the subsequent Democratic Party faction. Following the proclamation of the First Republic in 1910, he was Minister for Justice in the provisional government of President Teófilo Braga. He served four brief terms as Prime Minister during a period of political instability, and was known for taking measures to establish a separation of church and state. Mr. Costa went into exile in Paris following a military coup d'état led by Sidónio Pais in December 1917, and never again lived in Portugal, although he led the Portuguese delegation at the Paris Peace Conference from March-June 1919, and signed the Treaty of Versailles on behalf of Portugal. He refused subsequent offers to lead the Portuguese government, and died in Paris on May 11, 1937 at the age of 66.

130 years ago

Born on this date
Lidia Quaranta
. Italian actress. Miss Quaranta appeared in more than 70 movies, but was best known for her starring role in Cabiria (1914). She died of pneumonia on March 5, 1928, the day before her 37th birthday.

125 years ago

Born on this date
William Fechteler
. U.S. military officer. Admiral Fechteler joined the U.S. Navy in 1916, and served in both World Wars. He succeeded the late Admiral Forrest Sherman as U.S. Chief of Naval Operations in 1951, and in 1953 traded positions with Admiral Robert Carney, becoming Commander in Chief, Allied Forces, Southern Europe, serving at the command's headquarters in Naples until his retirement in July 1956. Adm. Fecheteler died on July 4, 1967 at the age of 71.

100 years ago

At the movies
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, produced and directed by Rex Ingram, and starring Pomeroy Cannon, Josef Swickard, Bridgetta Clark, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Beery, and Alice Terry, received its premiere screening in New York City.

80 years ago

Died on this date
Gutzon Borglum, 73
. U.S. sculptor. Mr. Borglum was best known for designing the sculpture of four American presidents at Mount Rushmore, South Dakota. The work was unfinished at the time of Mr. Borglum's death from surgical complications, but was completed under the supervision of his son Lincoln.

Regent Prince Paul of Yugoslavia called a conference to decide the country's course, which the government said would be to try to compromise with the Axis. U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull asked the Italian government to close its consulates in Detroit and Newark for national policy reasons.

The U.S. National Refugee Service estimated that about 130,000 European refugees were in the United States.

5,000 members of the Congress of Industrial Organizations attended an anti-war rally in New York City, where the Lend-Lease bill was denounced as "imperialistic."

William Canning, a history instructor at City College of New York, testifed before the Rapp-Coudert state legislative committee that 40-50 faculty members were present or former members of the Communist Party.

A new law promulgated by the Vichy regime in France stipulated that Roman Catholic Church properties confiscated by the government at the time of the separation of church and state would be restored by 1943.

The U.S. House of Representatives voted to establish a committee to probe civil airline crashes, which had killed 55 people in the last eight months.

The U.S. National Industrial Conference Board estimated the numboer of unemployed in January at 7,664,000, up more than 700,000 from December 1940.

Lou Transparenti (27-17) won a 10-round unanimous decision over world bantamweight champion Lou Salica (52-5-12) in a non-title bout at Baltimore Arena.

New York Yankees' center fielder Joe Dimaggio ended his holdout, signing his 1941 contract for $35,000, $2,500 more than he'd made in 1940, when he had wonn his second straight batting title.

75 years ago

The Spanish regime of Generalissimo Francisco Franco issued regulations barring all French nationals from Spanish possessions, and suspending mail, telegraphic communications, and trade between the countries.

The U.S.S.R. sent messages to the U.K. and U.S. demanding the Turkish Kars-Ardahan area as the price of a defense treaty with Turkey.

The Iranian War Ministry charged that Iranian forces had been stopped by U.S.S.R. forces 60 miles east of Tehran as they moved to occupy towns which the Soviets had promised to evacuate.

Politics and government
Nationalist leader Ho Chi Minh signed a tentative agreement with France which recognized the Democratic Republic of Vietnam as "a free state...forming part of the Indochinese Federation of the French Union."

The Japanese government published a new constitution, approved by Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in Japan General Douglas MacArthur, which renounced war, prohibited maintenance of an army, navy, or air force, subjected the Emperor to constitutional checks, and established a "Bill of Rights."

The U.S. Army Air Forces disclosed plans for tactical air games in Alaska, and revealed that the aricraft carrier Midway was en route to the Davis Strait to participate in Operation Frostbite, a test of planes and armaments in subfreezing temperatures.

American reaction to former U.K. Prime Minister Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech the previous day varied: U.S. Representative Eugene Cox (Democrat--Georgia) agreed that the U.S.S.R. was seeking to "communize the world," but Senators Claude Pepper (Democrat--Florida), Harvey Kilgore (Democrat--West Virginia), and Glen Taylor (Democrat--Idaho) claimed that Mr. Churchill's proposal for an Anglo-American alliance would "cut the throat of the United Nations."

The Atlantic Traffic Conference of the International Air Transport Association, meeting in New York, set Atlantic fares at about 10.4c per passenger mile.

Nearly 23,000 coal miners in Chile went on strike against coal companies and the government, demanding "fulfillment of their economic aspirations" and a diplomatic break with Spain.

The city of Detroit asked for U.S. President Harry Truman's personal intervention in the strike of the Congress of Industrial Organizations United Auto Workers against General Motors. The strike had lasted for almost four months.

70 years ago

On television tonight
Suspense, on CBS
Tonight’s episode: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, starring Pat Hingle and Basil Rathbone

Died on this date
Volodymyr Vynnychenko, 70
. Prime Minister of Ukrainian People's Republic, 1917-1918. Mr. Vynnychenko was a modernist writer who wrote short stories, novels, and plays, reflecting his involvement in the Ukrainian revolutionary milieu. He led the first government of independent Ukraine, serving as Chairman of the Directory from December 1918-February 1919. Mr. Vynnychenko resigned and spent the remainder of his life elsewhere in Europe, resuming his writing career. He died in France.

Ivor Novello, 58. U.K. entertainer. Mr. Novello, born David Ivor Davies, first achieved success as a songwriter, with his most popular composition being Keep the Home Fires Burning (1914). He then achieved success as an actor on stage and in movies such as The Lodger (1927) and Downhill (1927). Mr. Novello returned to writing stage musicals in the 1930s and 1940s, such as Glamorous Night (1935) and Perchance to Dream (1945). He died of a heart attack, hours after completing a performance in King's Rhapsody (1949).

Commander-in-Chief of the United Nations Command General Douglas MacArthur warned that Chinese Communist forces were massing tanks and 120,000 men in the area just below the 38th Parallel for a spring offensive.

The espionage trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg began in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, with Judge Irving Kaufman presiding. Assistant U.S. Attorney Irving Saypol led the prosecution and criminal defense lawyer Emmanuel Bloch represented the Rosenbergs.

Western and Soviet representatives in Paris clashed over he topics to be discussed, with U.S.S.R. Deputy Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko insisting that the meeting focus on the questions of German unity and rearmament.

Politics and government
The U.S.A., U.K., and France allowed West Germany to establish a foreign ministry in return for a West German promise to assume responsibility for pre-World War II German debts.

Haven Emerson, honourary president of the Association on American Indian Affairs, announced that the tuberculosis death rate of most Indian groups in the United States and Alaska was 9-14 times that of surrounding white populations.

An Associated Press poll of sportswriters named the University of Kentucky, Oklahoma A&M University, Columbia University, Kansas State University, and the University of Illinois as the top teams in the U.S.A.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): The Green Leaves of Summer--The Brothers Four (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Non, je ne regrette rien--Édith Piaf (8th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Pony Time--Chubby Checker (2nd week at #1)
2 Surrender--Elvis Presley
3 Wheels--The String-A-Longs
4 Don't Worry--Marty Robbins
5 Where the Boys Are--Connie Francis
6 Calcutta--Lawrence Welk and his Orchestra
7 Baby Sittin' Boogie--Buzz Clifford
8 Dedicated to the One I Love--The Shirelles
9 There's a Moon Out Tonight--The Capris
10 Ebony Eyes--The Everly Brothers

Singles entering the chart were On the Rebound by Floyd Cramer (#51); Baby Blue by the Echoes (#66); Thats It - I Quit - I'm Movin' On by Sam Cooke (#66); One Mint Julep by Ray Charles (#70); Find Another Girl by Jerry Butler (#74); Portrait of My Love by Steve Lawrence (#76); Runaway by Del Shannon (#77); It's Unbelievable by the Larks (#78); Hide Away by Freddy King (#81); The Second Time Around by Frank Sinatra (#86); Blue Moon by the Marcels (#87); Blue Moon by Herb Lance and the Classics (#89); Little Miss Stuck-Up by the Playmates (#92); Tonight I Fell in Love by the Tokens (#93); Milord by Edith Piaf (#95); Ling-Ting-Tong by Buddy Knox (#97); I Lied to My Heart by the Enchanters (#99); and Apache by Sonny James (#100).

Died on this date
George Formby, Jr., 56
. U.K. entertainer. Mr. Formby, born George Hoy Booth, was the son of music hall performer George Formby, Sr., and followed his father into show business. Mr. Formby, Jr. was Britain's most popular entertainer in the 1930s and '40s on stage, screen, and recordings, singing comical songs while playing a ukulele. His health began to decline in the late 1940s, and he performed less frequently. Mr. Formby died of a heart attack, and was mourned throughout England.

U.S. President John F. Kennedy issued an executive order "to insure that Americans of all colors and beliefs will have equal access to employment within the Government, and with those who do business with the Government." The order replaced two old presidential committees, one on government employment policy and the other on government contracts, with the new President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity. Mr. Kennedy named Vice-President Lyndon Johnson as chairman of the new committee and Labor Secretary Arthur Goldberg as vice-chairman. The committee was given wide powers of investigation and enforcement.

Economics and finance
The Netherlands revalued the guilder upward by 4.75%, chiefly to maintain stability of trade with West Germany, which had revalued the mark upward by 5% two days earlier. The revaluations were expected to ease pressure on the U.S. dollar.

Alex Miteff (23-7-1) won a 10-round unanimous decision over Alonzo Johnson (18-7) in a heavyweight bout at St. Nicholas Arena in New York.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Rhodesia (Lyons Maid): I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Vent'anni--Massimo Ranieri (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (6th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Baby Jump--Mungo Jerry

Australia's Top 10 (Go-Set)
1 My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (4th week at #1)
2 The Pushbike Song--The Mixtures
3 Knock Three Times--Dawn
4 Eleanor Rigby--Zoot
5 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
6 Band of Gold--Freda Payne
7 I Think I Love You--The Partridge Family
8 Lonely Days--Bee Gees
9 Apeman--The Kinks
10 My Baby's Gone--Axiom

Singles entering the chart were Blame it on the Pony Express by Johnny Johnson and the Bandwagon (#55); Black and Blue by Chain (#56); and Bonnie Please Don't Go by Kevin Johnson (#60).

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Du--Peter Maffray
2 Nothing Rhymed--Gilbert O'Sullivan
3 Butterfly--Danyel Gerard
4 Hup Daar is Willem!--Ed en Willem Bever
5 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
6 Bridget the Midget--Ray Stevens
7 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
8 Holy Holy Life--Golden Earring
9 Silver Moon--Michael Nesmith & the First National Band
10 Your Song--Elton John

Singles entering the chart were Chirpy Chirpy Cheep Cheep by Middle of the Road (#12); Shocking You by Shocking Blue (#16); Don't Waste Your Time by the Cats (#19); Invitation by Earth and Fire (#22); Spanish Rose by Van Morrison (#29); We'll Fly You to the Promised Land by the Les Humphries Singers (#32); The War Will Soon Be Over (My Love) by Cobra (#33); The Pushbike Song by the Mixtures (#39); and Hold on to What You've Got by Bill & Buster (#40).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds (4th week at #1)
2 Mama's Pearl--The Jackson 5
3 Me and Bobby McGee--Janis Joplin
4 Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)--The Temptations
5 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
6 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
7 For All We Know--Carpenters
8 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
9 Mr. Bojangles--Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
10 Sweet Mary--Wadsworth Mansion

Singles entering the chart were Another Day/Oh Woman, Oh Why by Paul McCartney (#55); When There's No You by Engelbert Humperdinck (#67); If it's Real What I Feel by Jerry Butler featuring Brenda Lee [Eager] (#72); Tongue in Cheek by Sugarloaf (#73); Woodstock by Matthews' Southern Comfort (#83); Pushbike Song by the Mixtures (#84); Snow Blind Friend by Steppenwolf (#85); Chick-A-Boom (Don't Ya Jes' Love It) by Daddy Dewdrop (#87); Spinning Wheel (Part 1) by James Brown (#90); I Pity the Fool by Ann Peebles (#92); Stay Awhile by the Bells (#99); and What About Me by Quicksilver Messenger Service (#100).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Mama's Pearl--The Jackson 5
2 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
3 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
4 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
5 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
6 Doesn't Somebody Want to Be Wanted--The Partridge Family
7 Sweet Mary--Wadsworth Mansion
8 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
9 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
10 Don't Let the Green Grass Fool You--Wilson Pickett

Singles entering the chart were Another Day (#48)/Oh Woman, Oh Why (#58) by Paul McCartney; Sit Yourself Down by Stephen Stills (#60); When There's No You by Engelbert Humperdinck (#70); Where Did They Go, Lord by Elvis Presley (#71); Joy to the World by Three Dog Night (#73); Snow Blind Friend by Steppenwolf (#74); Dream Baby (How Long Must I Dream) by Glen Campbell (#76); Baby Let Me Kiss You by King Floyd (#79); Don't Make Me Pay for His Mistakes by Z.Z. Hill (#84); Chick-A-Boom (Don't Ya Jes' Love It) by Daddy Dewdrop (#85); I Don't Know How to Love Him by Helen Reddy (#86); Too Many Lovers by Shack (#87); Don't Change on Me by Ray Charles (#88); Hot Pants by Salvage (#89); Celia of the Seals by Donovan (#93); Pushbike Song by the Mixtures (#94); Could I Forget You by Tyrone Davis (#97); Woodstock by Matthews' Southern Comfort (#98); I Believe in Music by Marian Love (#99); and Stay Awhile by the Bells (#100).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Record World)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds (3rd week at #1)
2 Mama's Pearl--The Jackson 5
3 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
4 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
5 Sweet Mary--Wadsworth Mansion
6 Mr. Bojangles--Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
7 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
8 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
9 Theme from Love Story--Henry Mancini, his Orchestra and Chorus
10 Me and Bobby McGee--Janis Joplin

Singles entering the chart were Ain't Got Time by the Impressions (#75); Dream Baby (How Long Must I Dream) by Glen Campbell (#78); Tongue in Cheek by Sugarloaf (#80); Sit Yourself Down by Stephen Stills (#83); When There's No You by Engelbert Humperdinck (#84); I Pity the Fool by Ann Peebles (#91); One Man's Leftovers (Is Another Man's Feast) by 100 Proof Aged in Soul (#93); I Don't Know How to Love Him by Helen Reddy (#94); Don't Make Me Pay for His Mistakes by Z.Z. Hill (#96); and I'll Be Home by Vikki Carr (#98).

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds (2nd week at #1)
2 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
3 Mr. Bojangles--Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
4 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
5 Sweet Mary--Wadsworth Mansion
6 Hang on to Your Life--The Guess Who
7 Watching Scotty Grow--Bobby Goldsboro
8 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
9 Mama's Pearl--The Jackson 5
10 Doesn't Somebody Want to Be Wanted--The Partridge Family

Singles entering the chart were Another Day by Paul McCartney (#72); You're All I Need to Get By by Aretha Franklin (#73); Love's Lines, Angles and Rhymes by the 5th Dimension (#78); When There's No You by Engelbert Humperdinck (#79); Tongue in Cheek by Sugarloaf (#80); Pushbike Song by the Mixtures (#83); Wild World by the Gentrys (#84); Snow Blind Friend by Steppenwolf (#87); Walk by the River by Steel River (#92); Fuddle Duddle by Antique Fair (#95); Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me) by the Temptations (#96); Do the Fuddle Duddle by the House of Commons (#97); Tulsa by Billy Joe Royal (#99); and Angel Baby by Dusk (#100).

Calgary's Top 10 (Glenn's Music)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
2 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
3 Woodstock--Matthews' Southern Comfort
4 Stay Awhile--The Bells
5 Theme from Love Story--Henry Mancini, his Orchestra and Chorus
6 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
7 Carry Me--Stampeders
8 I was Wondering--The Poppy Family
9 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
10 1900 Yesterday--Liz Damon's Orient Express
Pick hit of the week: What is Life--George Harrison

Died on this date
Blair Richardson, 30
. Canadian boxer. Mr. Richardson, a native of Sydney, Nova Scotia, won the Canadian middleweight title with an 8-round technical knockout over Wilf Greaves in 1962. He fought Gomeo Brennan for the Commonwealth title in September 1965, but was knocked out in 11 rounds. Six months later, he won the title from Mr. Brennan in a 13-round split decision, and still held both titles when he decided to retire from boxing in 1967 because he had "lost his viciousness." Mr. Richardson, who retired with a professional record of 45-5-2, died of a brain tumour.

Reinforced South Vietnamese troops pushed into Sepone after seizing the heights overlooking the deserted town.

28 elderly patients suffocated when fire swept through the University of Zurich's psychiatric clinic at Burgholzli, Switzerland.

In a three-way playoff to determine the winner of the Brier at Pavilion de la Jeunesse in Quebec City, Bill Tetley's Northern Ontario rink edged Bob Pickering of Saskatchewan 10-9 in the semi-final after defending champion Don Duguid of Manitoba had drawn a bye. In the final, Mr. Duguid defeated Mr. Tetley 11-6 to win his second straight Brier.

Denny McLain started and pitched 4 strong innings to earn the win as the Washington Senators defeated the Montreal Expos 3-1 in a spring training game in West Palm Beach, Florida. Steve Renko started on the mound for the Expos and was relieved by Howie Reed, who took the loss.

40 years ago

#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): När vi två blir en--Gyllene Tider (13th week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Reality--Richard Sanderson (6th week at #1)

South Africa's Top 10 (Springbok Radio)
1 Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre
2 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
3 Lady--Kenny Rogers
4 Can You Feel It--The Jacksons
5 Passion--Rod Stewart
6 Stop the Cavalry--Jona Lewie
7 Never Knew Love Like This Before--Stephanie Mills
8 A Lot of Things--Peach
9 I'm Alright--Kenny Loggins
10 Give Me Back My Love--Maywood

The only single entering the chart was Cry to Me by Precious Wilson & Sky Train (#18).

On television tonight
CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite

Mr. Cronkite delivered his last broadcast as the anchorman of the program after 18 years in the position. He was succeeded by Dan Rather.

Three political dissidents who had hijacked a Pakistani jetliner with 117 people aboard to Kabul, Afghanistan on March 2 killed one of the hostages--a Pakistani diplomat--and set a deadline for the next day to release 90 Pakistanis who were being held in Karachi as political prisoners.

Judge Jean Keable concluded that there was undue interference by the police following the October Crisis in 1970; the Keable Report was commissioned by the government of Québec to look into police wrongdoing.

Politics and government
U.S. President Ronald Reagan held his second news conference as President, announcing reductions in the size of the federal government as part of his budget. He also answered questions on other subjects, such as abortion.

In New Delhi, delegates from 37 countries attending the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora voted to outlaw trade in the products of three species of whale. Japan voted against the measure, while the U.S.A., U.S.S.R., and several other countries abstained. The trade affected by the ban was the oil, meat, and bones of the sperm, sei, and fin whales, virtually the only species of whale still hunted commercially. Under the provisions of the treaty, customs officials would now confiscate any products made from the protected wildlife.

Economics and finance
The United States Labor Department reported that producer prices had risen 0.8% in February, probably caused by price increases announced by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries in December and January.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Crazy--Seal (4th week at #1)

On television tonight
The Wonder Years, on ABC
Tonight’s episode: Road Trip

U.S. President George Bush, in an address to Congress, said that the allies, in achieving victory in the Gulf War, had passed the first test under the new world order.

Edmonton 1 @ Minnesota 5

25 years ago

Economics and finance
Canadian Finance Minister Paul Martin delivered a budget that continued the defict-fighting strategies of the previous budget, but did not put a bigger bite on the average Canadian.

The German government reported that the jobless rate was 11.1% in February, the highest rate since World War II.

20 years ago

The United States Senate voted 56-44 to defeat a bill introduced by then-President Bill Clinton to introduce regulations that would have required employers to provide a work environment that would protect them from repetitive stress injuries.

More than 40 schoolchildren, some as young as 8, were killed when an explosion ripped through their primary school, demolishing several classrooms. The school had used the children to assemble fireworks to help raise money.

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