Monday, 22 March 2021

March 22, 2021

1,150 years ago

Æthelred of Wessex's forces were defeated by a Danish invasion army commanded by Halfdan Ragnarsson in the Battle of Meretun.

150 years ago

Politics and government
North Carolina Governor William Woods Holden became the first governor of a U.S. state to be removed from office by impeachment. Mr. Holden, a Republican, was impeached for his opposition to the Ku Klux Klan.

120 years ago

Born on this date
Greta Kempton
. Austro-Hungarian-born U.S. artist. Miss Kempton, a native of Vienna, emigrated to the United States in the 1920s. She was a portrait painter who became the official White House artist during the administration of President Harry Truman (1947-1953). Miss Kempton died from heart failure on Decmber 10, 1991 at the age of 90.

100 years ago

Born on this date
George Crowe
. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Crowe, nicknamed "Big Daddy," was a first baseman with the New York Black Yankees (1947-1948) of the Negro National League before playing in the major leagues with the Boston/Milwaukee Braves (1952-1953, 1955); Cincinnati Redlegs (1956-1958); and St. Louis Cardinals (1959-1961), batting .270 with 81 home runs and 299 runs batted in in 702 games. His best season was 1957, when he hit .271 with 31 homers and 92 RBIs in 133 games. Mr. Crowe hit 16 home runs as a pinch hitter, a major league career record at the time. He over 100 homers in 6 seasons in the minor leagues (1949-1952, 1954, 1961). Mr. Crowe also played basketball with the touring professional clubs Los Angeles Red Devils and New York Rens in the late 1940s. He died on January 18, 2011 at the age of 89, after a series of strokes. 90 years ago

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, William Shatner!
The actor was born in Montreal.

Died on this date
James Campbell, 1st Baron Glenavy, 79
. Irish politician and judge. Mr. Campbell, a member of the Irish Unionist Alliance, represented Dublin St. Stephen's Green (1898-1900) and Dublin University (1903-1917) in the British House of Commons, serving as Solicitor-General for Ireland (1903-1905) and Attorney-General for Ireland (1905, 1916-1917). He was created a baronet and appointed to the bench in 1917 as Lord Chief Justice of Ireland; the following year he was appointed Lord Chancellor of Ireland, serving until 1921. Upon leaving office, Mr. Campbell became Baron Glenavy; he became a member of the Irish Free State Seanad (Senate) in 1922, serving as its first Cathaoirleach (chairman) until 1928. In 1923, Lord Glenavy chaired the Judicial Committee appointed to advise the Executive Council (cabinet) on the creation of a new courts system for the Irish Free State. His recommendations were adopted in the Courts of Justice Act 1924, and largely created the Irish court system that still exists. Lord Glenavy died in Dublin, 13 days before his 80th birthday.

80 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Frenesi--Artie Shaw and his Orchestra (13th week at #1)

The German warships Scharnhorst and Gniesenau docked at Brest, France after successful raids on Allied ships. Japanese Army Lieutenant General Korechika Anami told a Diet committee that Japan would proceed with a "settlement of the China affair under the firm conviction that we are not an aggressor nation."

The U.S. Senate Appropriations Committee unanimously approved the $7-billion Lend-Lease bill.

The United States Census Bureau announced that the number of family units in the United States had increased by about one-sixth from 1930-1940, but the average number of persons in a family had declined from 4.1 to 3.8.

The American Chemical Society awarded the $1,000 Eli Lilly Prize in biological chemistry to Dr. David Rittenberg of Columbia University for his work on isotopes as tracers in chemical reactions.

Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River, 100 miles northwest of Spokane, began producing electiricity two years ahead of schedule.

Economics and finance
The Vichy French regime revealed that the Bank of France's non-interest loan to the government covering the German occupation cost had been raised to $2 billion.

Following a plea from U.S. Office of Production Management Director General Sidney Hillman, 3,000 Congress of Industrial Orgznizations aluminum workers voted to end their 10-day strike at the Edgewater, New Jersey plant of Alcoa, and return to work on March 24.

Track and field
Greg Rice set a world indoor record of 8 minutes 51.1 seconds in winning the two-mile race at the Chicago relays.

75 years ago

At the movies
The Spider Woman Strikes Back, starring Gale Sondergaard, Brenda Joyce, Milburn Stone, and Rondo Hatton, opened in theatres.

At the trial in Nuremberg of accused Nazi war criminals, Rudolf Hess began his defense by challenging the jurisdiction of the Tribunal, and accepting full responsibility for his official acts as German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler's deputy. In Budapest, pro-Nazi Hungarian Prime Minister Marshal Doeme Sztojay and three of his ministers were sentenced to death.

In an interview with Associated Press correspondent Eddy Gilmore, U.S.S.R. dictator Josef Stalin called the United Nations "a serious instrument for the preservation of peace," based on "the principle of equality of states." With Soviet support, the French Foreign Office again urged the United States and United Kingdom to take a joint stand before the United Nations against the Spanish regime of Generalissimo Francisco Franco. The U.S. and U.K. took the lead in blocking a Soviet move to have Albania admitted to the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, while Turkey was admitted without dissent.

Politics and government
The British mandate in Transjordan ended.

World events
33 workers in Hamburg tool plants collapsed from hunger as mobs tried to loot food shops for the fourth day after British authorities cut the ration to 1,000 calories per day.

The Soviet Council of Ministers issued a decree unifying the Army, Navy, and Air Force, with dictator Josef Stalin as Minister of the Armed Forces and supreme commander.

U.S. President Harry Truman postponed the atomic bomb tests originally scheduled for May 15, 1946 for about six weeks, enabling congressmen to witness the event during a legislative recess.

The United States sent the Soviet commander in Hungary a note requesting removal of U.S.S.R. personnel from American-owned oil fields and return of the wells to American management.

70 years ago

Divorced on this date
U.S. actress Judy Garland divorced director Vincente Minnelli in Los Angeles on grounds of mental cruelty.

The U.S. Federal Communications Commission proposed expanding the U.S. television system from its present 107 stations to 2,000, of which 10% would be reserved for education.

The U.S.A. postponed discussion of Italy's request for the lifting of treaty limits on the level of Italian armaments.

Former U.S. State Department employee Alger Hiss surrendered to federal officials in New York to begin serving his five-year perjury sentence in a federal penitentiary.

Economics and finance
The first shipments of high-greade Venezuelan iron ore began arriving at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's plant in Sparrows Point, Maryland, the first in a series of U.S. steel mills opening on the east coast to facilitate the use of South American ores.

60 years ago

In a special message to Congress, U.S. President John F. Kennedy called for "a fresh approach--a more logical, efficient and successful long-term plan--for American foreign aid," calling for a shift from short-term to long-term goals. He asked Congress to create a single foreign aid agency with authority to borrow $7.3 billion from the U.S. Treasury over a five-year period, and prepared to keep the total foreign aid figure at the $4 billion mark requested by former President Dwight Eisenhower. However, Mr. Kennedy wanted to shift $200 million from military to economic assistance, putting economic aid at $2.4 billion and military aid at $1.6 billion during the first year.

British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan reported to the House of Commons that South African Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd had rejected all efforts to reach a compromise with the other members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Mr. Macmillan denounced South Africa’s apartheid policy of racial separation as "abhorrent to the ideals with which mankind is struggling in this century." Mr. Verwoerd had announced South Africa’s departure from the Commonwealth a week earlier after apartheid had been denounced at a conference of Commonwealth prime ministers in London. Mr. Macmillan had attempted to reach a compromise that would allow South Africa to remain in the Commonwealth after becoming a republic on May 31, 1961.

Two rival groups of Cuban exiles in the United States--the Democratic Front and the Revolutionary Movement of the People--who were opposed to the dictatorship of Fidel Castro, announced in New York City that they had united to form a Revolutionary Council with former Cuban Premier Jose Miro Cordona as president. The new group promised to overthrow Mr. Castro’s government and establish a provisional government once they had gained a military foothold in Cuba. Their program included general elections within 18 months "following the overthrow of the Communist tyranny;" return of confiscated property; agrarian reform; outlawing the Communist party; and renunciation of foreign treaties threatening the security of the Americas.

Five people were convicted in London of spying on Britain’s Underwater Detection Establishment at the Portland naval base. One of them, Gordon Lonsdale, described in court as a 25-year member of the Soviet intelligence service, was sentenced to 25 years in prison. Morris and Lona Cohen, U.S. citizens described as professional spies, were sentenced to 20 years each, while Henry Houghton and Ethel Gee, British civil servants, received 15-year sentences.

At the request of Studebaker Corporation chairman Sherwood Egbert, U.S. industrial designer Raymond Loewy made a dozen sketches for a futuristic sports car that eventually became the Avanti.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): The Pushbike Song--The Mixtures (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Shiretoko Ryojō--Tokiko Kato (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Chirpy Chirpy Cheep Cheep--Middle of the Road

Politics and government
The first radio and television coverage of the proceedings of the Nova Scotia legislature took place in Halifax.

The Canadian government of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau started a $2-million program to hire 276 Francophone graduates for public service jobs where French was the working language.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Woman--John Lennon (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Life is for Living--Barclay James Harvest (4th week at #1)

Died on this date
Gil Puyat, 73
. Filipino politician. Mr. Puyat, a member of the Nacionalista Party, was a Senator of the Philippines (1951-1972), and was President of the Senate of the Philippines (1967-1972) until President Ferdinand Marcos shut down Congress and declared martial law. Mr. Puyat died of cardiac arrest following an asthma attack.

John McCain, Jr., 70 U.S. military officer. Admiral McCain, the son of a U.S. Navy admiral, served with the U.S. Navy from 1931-1972, commanding submarines in World War II and serving as Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Command (CINCPAC), commanding all U.S. forces in the Vietnam theatre from 1968-1972. He and his father both achieved the rank of four-star admiral. Adm. McCain died of a heart attack.

James "Jumbo" Elliott, 65. U.S. runner and coach. Mr. Elliott was a short- and middle-distance runner at Villanova University, graduating in 1935. He coached the Villanova track team from 1949 until his death, leading his team to eight National Collegiate Athletic Association team titles, 82 individual NCAA titles, 66 world records. 28 of the athletes coached by Mr. Elliott participated in the Olympic Games, with five winning gold medals. He was inducted into the Track and Field Hall of Fame in 1981.

12 U.S. military advisers, all of them members of the Army’s Special Forces, I.e., Green Berets, arrived in El Salvador, bringing the total number of U.S. advisers in the country to 54, 15 of whom were Green Berets. It was also announced that the U.S. administration of President Ronald Reagan would ask for another $60 million in assistance for El Salvador.

Economics and finance
The United States Postal Service raised the cost of first class postage from 15c to 18c, and said that it would petition the Postal Rate Commission to raise it to 20c. Postal card rates went from 10c-12c, and parcel post rates increased 13%. The Postal Service had a current deficit of $306 million and need $3.75 billion more than its current rates brought in just to break even.

New York Islanders 6 @ Chicago 2
Detroit 3 @ Minnesota 9
Quebec 7 @ New York Rangers 7
St. Louis 6 @ Buffalo 5
Calgary 2 @ Philadelphia 6
Montreal 2 @ Washington 2
Toronto 3 @ Hartford 3
Los Angeles 7 @ Winnipeg 3

30 years ago

Died on this date
Gloria Holden, 87
. U.K.-born U.S. actress. Miss Holden was best known for her starring role in the movie Dracula's Daughter (1936). Her other films included The Life of Emile Zola (1937) and The Man Without a Country (1937).

Léon Balcer, 73. Canadian politician. Mr. Balcer, a Progressive Conservative, represented Trois-Rivières in the House of Commons from 1949-1965. In the government (1957-1963) of Prime Minister John Diefenbaker, Mr. Balcer was Solicitor General (1957-1960) and Minister of Transport (1960-1963). He quit the party in 1965 and sat as an independent, claiming "there is no place for a French Canadian in the party of Mr. Diefenbaker." Mr. Balcer declined to run in the 1965 federal election, but was an unsuccessful Liberal candidate in the 1966 Quebec provincial election.

Dave Guard, 56. U.S. musician. Mr. Guard was the founder of the folk group the Kingston Trio, who began their recording career in 1958, and were popular into the 1960s. Mr. Guard eventually became disenchanted with fellow members Nick Reynolds and Bob Shane, and left in 1961 after John Stewart had been recruited as his replacement. Mr. Guard continued to perform as a solo artist and with other groups, but with little commercial success. He died of cancer.

The United Nations effectively ended its food embargo against Iraq.

A U.S. fighter plane downed an Iraqi warplane. General Colin Powell, chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, said that a U.S. military presence would be maintained in southern Iraq for some months until a United Nations security arrangement was in place.

High school teacher Pamela Smart, accused of manipulating her student and lover into killing her husband, was convicted in Exeter, New Hampshire of murder and conspiracy.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): One of Us--Joan Osborne

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Aon Focal Eile--Richie Kavanagh

Died on this date
Billy Williamson, 71
. U.S. musician. Mr. Williamson played steel guitar with Bill Haley and the Saddlemen--later known as Bill Haley and his Comets--from 1949-1963.

Robert Overmyer, 59. U.S. astronaut. Colonel Overmyer, an officer with the United States Marine Corps, was selected by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1966 as part of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program. After the program was cancelled in 1969, Col. Overmyer was selected as part of the seventh group of NASA astronauts. He served as Pilot on the space shuttle mission STS-5 in 1982 and Commander of STS-51-B in 1985. Col. Overmyer was testing the homemade aircraft Cirrus VK-30 near Duluth International Airport in Minnesota when he was killed in a crash.

Don Murray, 50. U.S. musician. Mr. Murray was the drummer with the rock group the Crossfires, who changed their name to the Turtles in 1965. Mr. Murray was with the Turtles when they had the hit singles It Ain't Me, Babe and Let Me Be in 1965, but he left the group early in 1966. Mr. Murray died of cancer.

The U.S. space shuttle Atlantis lifted off from Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida to begin mission STS-76. The six-member crew was commanded by Kevin Chilton.

Politics and government
The government of Canada and the Nisg'a Indians of British Columbia signed an agreement in principle regarding the Nisg'a land claim.

20 years ago

Died on this date
William Hanna, 90
. U.S. animator. Mr. Hanna and partner Joseph Barbera teamed up to produce Tom and Jerry cartoons in the 1940s and '50s, and then founded Hanna-Barbera Productions in 1957, producing animated television series such as The Huckleberry Hound Show (1958-1961); The Flintstones (1960-1966); and The Jetsons (1962-1963). The team won seven Academy Awards and eight Emmy Awards. Mr. Hanna died of esophageal cancer.

Russia’s space station Mir was given a final boost before its return to Earth’s atmosphere the next day.

Ethnic Albanian rebels declared a cease-fire and reportedly began to withdraw from villages held in Macedonia. They asked for negotiations with the government of Macedonia, which had rejected such overtures.

Economics and finance
Quebec Premier Bernard Landry announced the creation of a commission to investigate the fiscal imbalance between the governments of Canada and the provinces.

Jason Hoffman, 18, was shot by police and seriously wounded after shooting and wounding five people in El Cajon, California.

After a case of foot-and-mouth disease had been confirmed in Ireland, Irish authorities began slaughtering animals in the vicinity.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Victor Bouchard, 84
. Canadian musician and composer. Mr. Bouchard, a native of Sainte-Claire de Dorchester, Quebec, was a classical concert pianist who performed with his wife Renée Morisset as a duo from 1952 until the 1970s. He wrote chamber works and more than 100 French-Canadian folk song arrangements. Mr. Bouchard died in Quebec City.

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