Friday, 19 March 2021

March 19, 2021

300 years ago
1721


Died on this date
Clement XI, 71
. Roman Catholic Pope, 1700-1721. Clement XI, born Giovanni Francesco Albani, became a cardinal in 1690, and succeeded Innocent XII on the papal throne. Pope Clement was known for his interest in archaeology, and was responsible for saving much of Rome's antiquity. He was also a great benefactor of the Vatican Library. Pope Clement XI was succeeded by Innocent XIII.

200 years ago
1821


Born on this date
Richard Burton
. U.K. explorer. Sir Richard, who reportedly spoke 29 languages, was known for translating into English One Thousand and One Nights (aka The Arabian Nights); visiting Mecca and Medina in disguise in 1853; and journeying with fellow Englishman John Hanning Speke to the Great Lakes of Africa from 1857-1858 in search of the source of the Nile River. He died on October 20, 1890 at the age of 69.

190 years ago
1831


Crime
James Honeyman and William J. Murray stole $245,000 (about $7 million in 2021 dollars) from City Bank of New York in one of the first bank robberies in the United States, and likely the first major bank robbery in New York City.



160 years ago
1861


Born on this date
Lomer Gouin, 68
. Canadian politician. Sir Lomer, a native of Grondine, Quebec and a Liberal, sat in the Legislative Assembly of Quebec from 1897-1920, and was Premier of Quebec from 1905-1920. He represented Laurier—Outremont in the Canadian House of Commons from 1921-1925, and took office as Lieutenant Governor of Quebec on January 10, 1929, but died on March 28, 1929, nine days after his 68th birthday, and less than three months into his term. Sir Lomer was succeeded as Lieutenant Governor of Quebec by Henry George Carroll.

140 years ago
1881


Born on this date
Edith Nourse Rogers
. U.S. politician. Mrs. Rogers, a Republican, was the wife of U.S. Congressman John Jacob Rogers, and after his death in 1925, won a special election for his seat, and represented Massachusetts' 5th District in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1925 until her death in office on September 10, 1960 at the age of 79. She was known for her advocacy for military veterans, and served two terms as chairman of the House Veterans' Affairs Committee (1947-1949, 1953-1955).

130 years ago
1891


Born on this date
Earl Warren
. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1953-1969. Mr. Warren, a Republican, was Governor of California from 1943-1953 until being appointed Chief Justice by President Dwight Eisenhower. During Mr. Warren's years as Chief Justice, the Supreme Court became known for liberal activism, in such decisions as Brown v. Board of Education (1954); Engel v. Vitale (1962) ; Griswold v. Connecticut (1963); and Miranda v. Arizona (1966). Chief Justice Warren chaired the commission appointed by President Lyndon Johnson to investigate the November 22, 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The commission's report, issued in September 1964, concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in assassinating President Kennedy. The report and its conclusion remain controversial. Mr. Warren died on July 9, 1974 at the age of 83.

110 years ago
1911


World events
International Women's Day was first observed, by over a million people in Austria, Denmark, Germany, and Switzerland.

100 years ago
1921


War
One of the biggest engagements of the Irish War of Independence took place at Crossbarry, County Cork. About 100 Irish Republican Army (IRA) volunteers escaped an attempt by over 1,300 British forces to encircle them.

90 years ago
1931


Abominations
Governor Fred B. Balzar signed a bill legalizing gambling in Nevada.

80 years ago
1941


Diplomacy
French authorities in Indochina protested to Japanese military officials that Thailand had violated the March 11 peace agreement.

Defense
The U.S. House of Representatives passed the $7-billion Lend-Lease appropriation bill by a vote of 336-55 and sent it to the Senate. U.S. Navy Secretary Frank Knox revealed that the United Kingdom had asked the United States to repair an undisclosed number of British warships. The 99th Pursuit Squadron, also known as the Tuskegee Airmen, the first all-Negro unit of the U.S. Army Air Forces, was activated.

Transportation
Representatives of the United States and Canada signed an agreement in Washington for the immediate development of a $266,170,000 Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River seaway and power project.

Labour
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt created an 11-man National Defense Mediation Board (NDMB) "to assure that all work necessary for national defense shall proceed without interruption." Dr. Clarence Dykstra was named chairman.

The Congress of Industrial Organizations Amalgamated Clothing Workers won 10%-13% pay increases for 135,000 garment workers.

75 years ago
1946


Diplomacy
Following a formal Iranian appeal, United Nations Secretary-General Trygve Lie put the Iran-U.S.S.R. dispute on the Security Council agenda.

World events
American authorities in Berlin reported Soviet reactivation of the Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen concentration camps to house Germans who opposed the Communist-Social Democratic Party merger.

Defense
More than 4,200 New Zealand troops under the command of Brigadier Keith Stewart, known as Jayforce, arrived in Japan to serve in the 36,000-strong British Commonwealth Occupation Force (BCOF).

U.S. Selective Service Commissioner Lewis Hershey called for indefinite extension of the draft, with service limited to 18 months.

The U.S. Senate Military Affairs Committee approved a bill for federal funds for scientific research.

Scandal
Dr. Alan Nunn May pled not guilty in London to charges that he had disclosed atomic bomb information to the U.S.S.R.

Franciana
French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Réunion became overseas départements of France.

Politics and government
Mikhail I. Kalinin, President of Russia since 1919, retired because of ill health, and the Supreme Soviet elected Nikolai M. Shvernik to succeed him.

Democrats and Republicans in the United States Senate and House of Representatives attacked former Vice President Henry Wallace for proposing that Congressmen who defied the party line on major issues be denied party support in elections.

Former U.S. War Production Board aide Edwin Locke, Jr. was named a special presidential assistant to plan reorganization of the government.

Economics and finance
The U.S. House of Representatives passed and sent to the Senate a bill taking all farm credit agencies from the Agriculture Department and placing them under a seve-man independent board.

Labour
The Congress of Industrial Organizations United Auto Workers notified General Motors that 154,400 members had ratified the wage agreement, but the commany said that it would remain closed and assume that the strike was continuing until 20 more locals voted to return.

70 years ago
1951


Died on this date
Dmytro Doroshenko, 68
. Ukrainian politician and historian. Professor Doroshenko was a Ukrainian nationalist and member of the Ukrainian Party of Socialist Federalists who held several major offices during the revolution of 1917-1918, including Krai Commissar of the General Government of Galicia and Bukovina (April-August 1917). He resisted the increasing leftward movement of the Central Rada (council), supported a conservative coup, and served as Foreign Minister of the resulting Hetamanate (monarchy) (May-October 1918). Prof. Doroshenko's efforts to reconcile various factions failed; he resigned, and spent 20 years in Prague as a history professor, with works that included the two-volume A Survey of Ukrainian History. He fled to western Germany in 1945, and lived and taught in Winnipeg for several years, but took ill and returned to Germany, dying in Munich, 20 days before his 69th birthday.

Literature
The novel The Caine Mutiny by Herman Wouk was published in New York by Doubleday.

Politics and government
The South Korean government sent a delegation of 112 officials to Seoul, but decided provisionally not to restore the city as the country's capital.

Crime
Former Iranian Education Minister Abdul Hamid Zanganeh, a close friend of assassinated Prime Minister Ali Razmara, was shot and critically wounded by a Tehran University student.

Society
The U.S. Federal Security Agency's annual report revealed that illegitimate births in the United States had risen from 87,000 in 1938 to 129,000 in 1948, while the proportion of children living in urban areas had risen from 49% in 1940 to 52% in 1949.

Economics and finance
Delegates from France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, meeting in Paris, signed a treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, with a market of 150 million consumers.

The U.S. Office of Price Stabilization issued an order freezing prices on farm products within five days after they reached parity or the highest level before the Korean War.

60 years ago
1961


Disasters
Tornadoes in East Pakistan killed at least 226 people.

50 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Burning Bridges--The Mike Curb Congregation (2nd week at #1)

South Africa's Top 10 (Springbok Radio)
1 Knock Three Times--Dawn (5th week at #1)
2 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
3 My Sweet Lord--George Harrison
4 No Matter What--Badfinger
5 A Summer Prayer for Peace--The Archies
6 Do It--Neil Diamond
7 Immigrant Song--Led Zeppelin
8 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
9 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
10 Understanding--Peanutbutter Conspiracy

Singles entering the chart were The Raver by the Troggs (#18); Silver Moon by Michael Nesmith & the First National Band (#19); and We're All Playing in the Same Band by Quentin E. Klopjaeger (#20).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKLG)
1 Put Your Hand in the Hand--Ocean (2nd week at #1)
2 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
3 Me and Bobby McGee--Janis Joplin
4 Stay Awhile--The Bells
5 Doesn't Somebody Want to Be Wanted--The Partridge Family
6 Woodstock--Matthews' Southern Comfort
7 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
8 Help Me Make it Through the Night--Sammi Smith
9 Oh What a Feeling--Crowbar
10 One Toke Over the Line--Brewer and Shipley

Singles entering the chart were I Am...I Said by Neil Diamond (#23); Country Road by James Taylor (#25); Chick-A-Boom (Don't Ya Jes' Love It) by Daddy Dewdrop (#26); Sit Yourself Down by Stephen Stills (#27); Wild World by Cat Stevens (#29); and A Country Boy Named Willy by Spring (#30).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKVN)
1 Put Your Hand in the Hand--Ocean
2 Me and Bobby McGee--Janis Joplin
3 Woodstock--Matthews' Southern Comfort
4 Oh What a Feeling--Crowbar
5 What is Life--George Harrison
6 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
7 Wild World--Cat Stevens
8 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
9 Another Day/Oh Woman, Oh Why--Paul McCartney
10 Blue Money--Van Morrison

Singles entering the chart were Me and My Arrow by Nilsson (#24); Lucky Man by Emerson, Lake & Palmer (#26); Help Me Make it Through the Night by Sammi Smith (#29); and Sit Yourself Down by Stephen Stills (#30).

Edmonton's Top 10 (CJCA)
1 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
2 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
3 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
4 Put Your Hand in the Hand--Ocean
5 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
6 Where Evil Grows--The Poppy Family
7 Knock Three Times--Dawn
8 Mother--John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band
9 One Toke Over the Line--Brewer and Shipley
10 Beautiful People--The New Seekers

On television tonight
The Interns, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Castle of the Lion

Politics and government
Turkish President Cevdet Sunay named Nihat Erim, a moderate, to replace Suleyman Demeril as Premier. Mr. Demeril had been forced to resign a week earlier under pressure from the army.

Disasters
At least 400 were killed and 50 hospitalized after a mountainside toppled into Peru’s Lake Yanahurin, launching an avalanche of rain, mud, and rocks onto a mining camp high in the Andes Mountains.

30 years ago
1981


Hit parade
Edmonton's Top 20 (CHED)
1 Rapture--Blondie
2 Turning Japanese--The Vapors
3 Woman--John Lennon
4 Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce
5 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
6 The Best of Times--Styx
7 Just Between You and Me--April Wine
8 A Little in Love--Cliff Richard
9 Hey Nineteen--Steely Dan
10 Crying--Don McLean
11 Hearts on Fire--Randy Meisner
12 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
13 As the Beat Goes On/Switchin' to Glide--The Kings
14 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
15 Kiss on My List--Daryl Hall & John Oates
16 Every Woman in the World--Air Supply
17 The Tide is High--Blondie
18 Treat Me Right--Pat Benatar
19 Morning Train (Nine to Five)--Sheena Easton
20 Hello Again--Neil Diamond

Died on this date
Frank Lane, 86
. U.S. football player and sports official and executive. "Trader" Lane played guard with the Cincinnati Celts with the professional Ohio League in the 1910s, and umpired baseball and refereed college basketball and football games before entering professional baseball with the Cincinnati Reds in 1933 as business manager, running their farm system by 1937. After serving with the U.S. Navy in World War II, he managed the Kansas City Blues of American Association and supervised the New York Yankees' farm system in 1946, and was President of the American Association from November 1946 until becoming the general manager of the Chicago White Sox after the 1948 season. Mr. Lane was general manager of the White Sox (1948-1955); St. Louis Cardinals (1956-1957); Cleveland Indians (1958-1960); Kansas City Athletics (1961); and Milwaukee Brewers (1971-1972), trading almost 700 players in more than 400 transactions. He made more than 200 trades during his years with the White Sox, building the team into a contender and laying the foundation for the team that won the American League pennant in 1959. Mr. Lane had less success with his trades in his later GM positions, often seeming to make trades for the sake of making trades. He was fired in Kansas City after less than eight months on the job, and his dispute with Athletics' owner Charlie Finley over his compensation dragged on for several yers, and he eventually won. While in forced inactivity from baseball during his dispute with Mr. Finley, Mr. Lane was general manager of the Chicago Zephyrs of the National Basketball Association (1962-63), but stayed behind when the team moved to Baltimore to become the Bullets. He served as a scout with the Baltimore Orioles from the mid-1960s until joining the Brewers. After two years as general manager, Mr. Lane was demoted to a scouting job with the Brewers; he then served as a scout with the Texas Rangers and California Angels, and was a consultant for the San Diego Padres in 1980 before he fell and broke his hip.

Alfred Pinkston, 63. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Pinkston was an outfielder and first baseman with various teams in various Negro and minor leagues in a career spanning 1936-1965, with time out for service in World War II. Records from Mr. Pinkston's early years in baseball are hard to find, although he seemed to have been the leading hitter for whatever team he played for. He didn't play in what is regarded as "Organized Baseball" until 1953, when he was 35. In six years in the minor leagues from 1953-1958, Mr. Pinkston batted .334 with 97 home runs and 483 runs batted in in 700 games. At the age of 41, he went to the Mexican League, where he played right field with the Mexico City Red Devils (1959-1960) and Veracruz Aguilas (1961-1965). In seven seasons in the Mexican League Mr. Pinkston batted .372 with 108 homers and 659 RBIs in 879 games, and won the Mexican League batting title in each of his first four seasons; his career batting average remains the highest in Mexican League history, and he was inducted into the Mexican Baseball Hall of Fame in 1974, as well as the U.S. National Black Sports Hall of Fame in 1977. Mr. Pinkston died of a heart attack.

War
124 Iranians and 17 Iraqis were killed in the Gilan area of western Kermanshah province in Iran.

Terrorism
The Syrian government announced that the three Pakistani political dissidents who had hijacked a Pakistani jetliner to Kabul, Afghanistan on March 2 and had surrendered to authorities on March 14 before being flown to Syria would be allowed to stay in Syria until another country agreed to take them in. Pakistan asked that they be extradited home.

Protest
A demonstration by farmers in Bydgoszcz, Poland was broken up by riot police, and many of the farmers, who were seeking to form a union, were hospitalized.

Politics and government
Premier Bill Davis led his governing Progressive Conservative Party to a majority of seats in the Legislative Assembly in the Ontario provincial election. The PCs won 70 of 125 seats, an increase of 12 from before the election. The Liberal Party, led by Stuart Smith, remained in second place with 34 seats, while the New Democratic Party, led by Michael Cassidy, dropped from 33 seats to 21.

Society
The Research Triangle Institute, who had conducted a study for the U.S. National Institute on Alcohol Use and the National Institute on Drug Abuse, found that 1/3 of the nation’s high school students were problem drinkers, and that 13% more girls than boys were moderate drinkers and 14% more boys than girls were heavy drinkers. The problem drinker was defined as someone who was drunk at least six times per year or experienced alcohol-related problems with friends, family, school, the police, or while driving.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Senate Budget Committee unanimously adopted a package of budget cuts totalling $36.4 billion--more than had been recommended by President Ronald Reagan.

Labour
12,000 U.S. coal miners had gone out on wildcat strikes in the previous two days, protesting the industry’s plan to run mining shifts on Sundays and claiming that the mine owners wanted them to work 56-hour weeks.

Disasters
One technician died and two others who were working on the U.S. space shuttle Columbia were injured when they were exposed to a pure nitrogen atmosphere in an enclosed area around the engines inside the shuttle. The lack of oxygen proved fatal.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 4 @ Buffalo 14

The Sabres set a National Hockey League record with 9 goals in the 2nd period in their rout of the Maple Leafs at War Memorial Auditorium. The Sabres' total of 31 goals and assists set another NHL record.

30 years ago
1991


Economics and finance
The United States Labor Department reported that consumer prices had increased 0.2% in February.

The U.S. Senate voted to approve a $78-billion package to help bail out insolvent savings and loan associations.

Society
National Football League owners voted to take the 1993 Super Bowl away from Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe and give it to the Rose Bowl because Arizona had not approved a ballot proposition to recognize Martin Luther King Day as a national holiday.

25 years ago
1996


World events
Sarajevo became a united city again after four years when Moslem-Croat authorities took control of the last district held by Serbs.

20 years ago
2001


Energy
California officials declared a power alert, ordering the first of two days of rolling blackouts.

10 years ago
2011


War
After the failure of Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi's forces to take Benghazi, the French Air Force launched Opération Harmattan, beginning foreign military intervention in Libya.

Diplomacy
Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, Foreign Affairs Minister Lawrence Cannon and Chief of the Defence Staff General Walt Natynczyk attended a meeting, in Paris, with leaders from France, Britain, the Arab League and the United Nations, to discuss the Middle East.

Soccer
MLS
Toronto 2 @ Vancouver 4

The Whitecaps beat Toronto at Empire Field in their first game in Major League Soccer. The first all-Canadian clash in MLS history marked the Whitecaps' return to the top soccer league in North America; the old North American Soccer League folded in 1984.



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