Monday, 29 March 2021

March 29, 2021

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Alexandra Duenas Mejia!

1,020 years ago

Born on this date
. King of Pagan, 1038-1044. Sokkate, a son of King Nyaung-u Sawrahan, acceded to the throne upon the death of his elder brother Kyiso. He was killed on August 11, 1044 at the age of 43 in single combat with Anawrahta, who succeeded him and went on to found the Pagan Empire, the first kingdom to unify the regions of what is now Myanmar.

560 years ago

The forces of Edward of York defeated Lancastrian forces commanded by Henry Beaufort, Duke of Somerset in the Battle of Towton, resulting in Edward taking the throne as King Edward IV of England, replacing Henry VI and bringing a temporary stop to the Wars of the Roses.

190 years ago

Husein Gradaščević set out toward Travnik with 4,000 men, leading the Great Bosnian uprising against the Ottoman Empire.

180 years ago

St. Mary's College, a Jesuit liberal arts institution in Halifax, was granted a charter by the government of Nova Scotia, while Queen's College, a liberal arts college in Horton founded by Baptists in 1838, became Acadia College.

150 years ago

Royal Albert Hall in London was opened by Queen Victoria.

120 years ago

The Skippers Bridge over the Shotover River near Queenstown, New Zealand opened.

110 years ago

Died on this date
Alexandre Guilmant, 74
. French composer. Mr. Guilmant was organist at la Trinité church in Paris (1871-1901) and co-founded the Schola Cantorum in Paris, teaching there from 1894 until his death. He wrote more than 90 works, mainly for organ. Mr. Guilmant died 17 days after his 74th birthday.

The M1911 .45 ACP pistol became the official U.S. Army sidearm.

80 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Amapola (Pretty Little Poppy)--Jimmy Dorsey and His Orchestra with Bob Eberly and Helen O'Connell

On the radio

The North American Radio Broadcasting Agreement went into effect at 3 A.M. local time, regulating the bandplan of mediumwave AM broadcasting; more than 1,000 of the 1,300 stations under the agreement shifted their frequencies.

British Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy forces defeated those of the Italian Regia Marina off the Peloponnesian coast of Greece in the Battle of Cape Matapan, sinking three cruisers and two destroyers.

Secret U.K.-U.S.A. military staff talks ended in Washington after producing a war plan for concentrating on Germany in the event of war with Japan.

World events
Germany ordered her nationals to leave the Yugoslavian province of Serbia as a new government moved to end Croatian opposition. Polish sourced in London reported that the Gestapo had started a new wave of terror in Poland; the sources reported that 3,000 prisoners had died in the Oswiecim concentration camp, and that 85% of Krakow's Jews had been forced to leave the city.

Syrian Arabs demanded immediate elections for the creation of a representative governing council, and called a general strike.

Dr. Edwin Nicholson, a scouting camp master, declared that through the method of emotional conditioning and indoctrination, Boy Scout training tended to encourage youths to accept the status quo and become subservient to the will of others.

5,000 Congress of Industrial Organizations United Auto Workers membes voted to continue their 67-day strike at Allis-Chalmers depsite the U.S. government's order to return to work.

The University of Michigan won its eighth consecutive championship.

Men's championship
Wisconsin 39 Washington State 34

75 years ago

The Royal Commission investigating Soviet espionage in Canada named five more suspects who had been detained, and charged that Vitali Pavlov, U.S.S.R. Consul in Canada, was a leading agent of the Soviet secret police force NKVD in Ottawa.

Politics and government
Under a new constitution, Gold Coast became the United Kingdom's first African colony to have a majority of elected Africans in its legislature.

Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México, one of Mexico's leading universities, was founded.

UNRRA officials in Shanghai reported epidemics of cholera, bubonic plague, smallpox, meningitis, and mass hunger in China.

The French Constituent Assembly voted to nationalize the electric and gas industries.

Economics and finance
Former New York City Mayor Fiorello La Guardia accepted the appointment as Director-General of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA).

U.S. Army General Lucius Clay, Deputy Military Governor in Germany, reduced the food ration in the U.S. zone of occupation to 1,275 calories per day.

The U.S. House of Representatives passed and sent to the Senate the conference-approved version of the Lea bill aimed at curbing labour practices--especially the power of American Federation of Musicians President James Petrillo--in the communications industry. The Senate approved the Russell amendment to the minimum wage bill, calling for the inclusion of farm labour costs in computing parity prices for farm products.

70 years ago

The King and I by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, directed by John Van Druten, and starring Yul Brynner and Gertrude Lawrence, opened at the St. James Theatre on Broadway in New York.

The Academy Awards for 1950 were presented at the RKO Pantages Theatre in Hollywood. The winners included Best Picture--All About Eve; Director--Joseph L. Mankiewicz (All About Eve); Actor--Jose Ferrer (Cyrano de Bergerac); Actress--Judy Holliday (Born Yesterday); Supporting Actor--George Sanders (All About Eve); Supporting Actress--Josephine Hull (Harvey).

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted and sentenced to death for passing U.S. atomic secrets to the U.S.S.R.

The Council of Ministers of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization closed its seventh annual conference in Bangkok with a communiqué stating that if "there continues to be an active military attempt to obtain control of Laos, members of SEATO are prepared, within the terms of the treaty, to take whatever action may be appropriate in the circumstances." It said SEATO noted "with grave concern the continued offensive by rebel elements in Laos who are continuing to be supplied and assisted by Communist powers in...disregard of the Geneva accord." U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk had unsuccessfully sought a stronger resolution committing SEATO to fight if necessary to prevent a Communist takeover of Laos. It was reported that the U.S. administration of President John F. Kennedy, in a private diplomatic communication to the Soviet Union, had given a sharper warning.

The People's Republic of China announced the conclusion of a pact with the U.S.S.R. for the passage of railroad trains across the Manchurian-Siberian border.

Soviet authorities rejected a U.S.-U.K. protest against the previous day's incident when East Berlin police had fired upon a busload of U.S. soldiers and civilians when the bus ignored their orders to stop.

Politics and government
The U.S. Senate extended the life of the Senate Crime Investigating Committee for 30 days to give it time to file a final report.

60 years ago

Politics and government
The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified; it reads:

Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Knock Three Times--Dawn

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Shiretoko Ryojō--Tokiko Kato (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Chirpy Chirpy Cheep Cheep--Middle of the Road (2nd week at #1)

U.S. Army Lieutenant William Calley was convicted of murder at a court-martial for his role in the March 16, 1968 massacre of civilians in the South Vietnamese hamlet of My Lai.

Charles Manson and three members of his "family" were sentenced to death in the gas chamber in California for the murders of actress Sharon Tate and eight other people in Los Angeles in 1969.

World events
India asked United Nations Secretary-General U Thant to "help stop the massacre of unarmed people" in Pakistan. East Pakistan had declared its independence three days earlier, taking the name Bangladesh.

Yugoslavian President Marshal Josip Broz Tito met with Pope Paul VI during a formal state visit to Italy, thus becoming the first Communist leader ever to officially meet the Roman Catholic pontiff.

Ralph E. Collins was appointed as the first Canadian Ambassador to the People's Republic of China.

Former world heavyweight champion Floyd Patterson (49-7-1) scored a technical knockout of Roger Russell (11-9-2) at 1:29 of the 9th round at Philadelphia Arena.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Woman--John Lennon (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Fade to Grey--Visage

Died on this date
Eric Williams, 69
. Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, 1962-1981. Dr. Williams was a historian specializing in slavery in the Caribbean, with his best-known work being Capitalism and Slavery (1944). He founded the People's National Movement in 1956, which achieved success in that year's election, which enabled him to become Chief Minister. He held that office until 1959, and was Premier of Trinidad and Tobago (1959-1962) until the nation achieved its independence from British rule. Mr. Williams then served as Trinidad and Tobago's Prime Minister until his death; he was succeeded by George Chambers.

Edmonton received its first rain of the year.

Hijackers holding an Indonesian jet at the Bangkok airport shot and wounded an American hostage when he tried to escape. 55 passengers and crew members remained on the plane. The hijackers were demanding that Indonesia release 20 political prisoners, but they raised the number to 80, then 84.

Track and field
Dick Beardsley of the United States and Inge Simonsen of Norway crossed the tape together as they led 6,700 participants in the first London Marathon.

Montreal 0 @ Quebec 4

Jacques Richard scored his 50th goal of the season to help the Nordiques shut out the Canadiens at Le Colisee.

30 years ago

Died on this date
Lee Atwater, 40
. U.S. political adviser. Mr. Atwater was a political strategist with the Republican Party who was known for his exploitation of emotional wedge issues in election campaigns, and was often effective. He was best known for managing the 1988 U.S. presidential campaign of then-Vice President George Bush, and using advertisements to portray Democratic Party candidate Michael Dukakis as soft on crime. The campaign was successful, and Mr. Atwater was named chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1989. He collapsed at a breakfast on March 5, 1990, and was diagnosed with a brain tumour. During his last months, Mr. Atwater converted to Roman Catholicism and apologized to people who had been hurt by his actions.

Politics and government
British Columbia Premier Bill Vander Zalm said he would step down when his Social Credit party chose a new leader; he was being investigated for improper real estate dealings relating to the sale of his family's Fantasy Gardens to a Taiwanese billionaire.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the index of leading economic indicators had increased 1.1% in February, ending a six-month decline.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): California Love--2Pac featuring Dr. Dre

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Aon Focal Eile--Richie Kavanagh (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Bill Goldsworthy, 51
. Canadian-born U.S. hockey player. Mr. Goldsworthy played right wing with the Boston Bruins (1964-67); Minnesota North Stars (1967-76); New York Rangers (1976-77); Indianapolis Racers (1977-78); and Edmonton Oilers (1978-79), scoring 541 points on 283 goals and 258 assists in 771 regular season NHL games and 37 points on 18 goals and 19 assists in 40 playoff games, and 12 goals and 12 assists in 49 regular season WHA games and 1 goal and 1 assist in 2 playoff games. Mr. Goldsworthy played for Team Canada in the 1972 series vs. the U.S.S.R., scoring a goal and an assist in 3 games. His best season was 1973-74, when he scored 48 goals and 26 assists, and was known for the "Goldy shuffle" dance after scoring. Heavy drinking contributed to a decline in his hockey abilities, and combined with sexual promiscuity to lead to his death from AIDS.

Politics and government
Leaders of Sierra Leone's military government transferred power to a democratically-elected government led by President Alhaji Ahmad Tejan Kabba of the People's Party, following a runoff election in March and a cease-fire between the forces of then-President Julius Maada Bio and anti-government rebels.

Utah 105 @ Vancouver 91

The Grizzlies set a National Basketball Association record with their 21st consecutive loss, falling to the Jazz at Pacific Coliseum.

20 years ago

Died on this date
John Lewis, 80
. U.S. musician. Mr. Lewis was a jazz pianist, composer, and arranger who had a performing career spanning more than 50 years. He was best known as the founder and director of the Modern Jazz Quartet, which performed from 1952-1974 and 1981-1997. Mr. Lewis died after a long battle with prostate cancer.

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