Monday, 15 March 2021

March 13, 2021

430 years ago

Moroccan forces of the Saadi dynasty led by Judar Pasha defeated those of the Songhai Empire in the Battle of Tondibi in Mali, despite being outnumbered by at least five to one.

280 years ago

Born on this date
Joseph II
. Holy Roman Emperor, 1765-1790. Joseph II was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, and the brother of Marie Antoinette. A Roman Catholic, he was known for granting religious tolerance to Protestants and Jews. Joseph II died after a lengthy illness on February 20, 1790, 22 days before his 49th birthday; he left no sons and was succeeded as Emperor by his brother Leopold II.

The Battle of Cartagena de Indias, a two-month naval battle that was part of the War of Jenkins' Ear between Great Britain and Spain, began in New Granada (present-day Colombia).

240 years ago


German-born English astronomer Sir William Herschel discovered the planet Georgium Sidus, later known as Uranus.

140 years ago

Died on this date
Aleksandr II, 62
. Czar of Russia, 1855-1881; King of Poland, 1855-1864. Aleksandr II succeeded his father Nicholas I on the thrones of Russia and Poland, the latter of which became obsolete when Poland was annexed by Russia in 1864. Czar Aleksandr was known as "Aleksandr the Liberator" for emancipating Russia's serfs in 1861, and was proposing other reforms to counter revolutionary movements when he was assassinated by a bomb. He was succeeded on the Russian throne by his son Aleksandr III.

120 years ago

Died on this date
Benjamin Harrison, 67
. 23rd President of the United States of America, 1889-1893. Mr. Harrison, a Republican and a grandson of President William Henry Harrison, represented Indiana in the U.S. Senate (1881-1887), and received his party's nomination for President in 1888, defeating incumbent Grover Cleveland in the electoral vote despite losing the popular vote. He attributed his victory to Providence, while prominent campaign leaders credited more shady methods, although Mr. Harrison was never accused of impropriety. President Harrison supported a high tariff, commercial reciprocity with other countries, and voting rights for Negroes, and facilitated the creation of national forest reserves. His views on tariffs contributed to his defeat in his bid for re-election against Mr. Cleveland in 1892. Mr. Harrison returned to his law practice in Indianapolis; he represented Venezuela in its dispute with the United Kingdom over the border between British Guiana and Dutch Guiana. Mr. Harrison died of pneumonia.

110 years ago

Born on this date
José Ardévol
. Spanish-born Cuban composer and conductor. Mr. Ardévol's father Fernando was a musician and conductor. José Ardévol emigrated to Cuba in 1930, directed the Orquestra de cámara de la Habana (1934-1952), and taught at universities in Havana and Oriente (1936-1951). He was a neoclassicist compose whose works included three symphonies, three piano sonatas, as well as vocal and chamber works. Mr. Ardévol died in Havana on January 9, 1981 at the age of 69.

L. Ron Hubbard. U.S. author and cult religious leader. Mr. Hubbard was a writer of science fiction whose book Dianetics (1950) served as the foundational text of a new religious movement, which evolved into a criminal organization. He reportedly died at his ranch in California on January 24, 1986 at the age of 74, although a number of books under his name were published after his death.

Stanley Cup challenge
Galt 4 @ Ottawa 7

Marty Walsh scored 3 goals for the Senators, who had taken the Stanley Cup from the Montreal Wanderers by winning the regular season championship of the National Hockey Association. Bruce Ridpath scored 2 goals for Ottawa, and Fred Lake and Dubbie Kerr scored 1 each. Louis Berlinguette scored 2 goals for Galt, and Tommy Smith and Fred Doherty 1 each. Only 2,500 were in attendance at The Arena to see the one-game challenge, which was described as a "poor exhibition," with water covering the ice in several places.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Al Jaffee!
The U.S. cartoonist was born in Savannah, Georgia. He began his career in 1942 as a comic book artist, and made his first contribution to Mad magazine in 1955. Mr. Jaffee was best known for the Mad Fold-In, which appeared in every issue except one from 1964-2019. He won the Reuben Award in 2008 as Cartoonist of the Year, and announced his retirement in June 2020 at the age of 99, earning recognition from the Guinness Book of World Records for the longest career as a comic artist.

O'Brien Cup
Ottawa 2 @ Toronto 0 (Ottawa won 2-game total goals series 7-0)

Eddie Gerard scored 11 minutes into the 3rd period and Frank Nighbor scored 3 minutes later, and Clint Benedict posted his second straight shutout in goal as the Senators clinched the National Hockey League championship at the Arena Gardens.

80 years ago

The Royal Air Force carried out the heaviest British raids of the European war on Berlin, Hamburg, and Bremen. Germany executed 15 Dutchmen convicted of espionage and sabotage.

The U.S. House of Representatives Deficiency Appropriations subcommittee began hearings on the $7-billion Lend-Lease bill.

Brazilian President Getulio Vargas ratified the Act of Havana that had been approved at the Pan-American Conference of Foreign Ministers in Havana in July 1940.

Politics and government
German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler issued a secret directive giving the SS administrative control over all territory captured by the Wehrmacht in the planned attack on Russia.

Acting Argentine President Dr. Ramon Castillo appointed Dr. Enrique Ruiz as Foreign Minister and Dr. Carlos Alberto Acevedo as Finance Minister.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt digned an order freezing Hungarian assets in the United States.

U.S. President Roosevelt recieved a plan from Labor Secretary Frances Perkins and William Knudsen and Sidney Hillman of the Office of Production Management, calling for an 11-member board to mediate strikes in defense industries.

Soft coal operators in the United States rejected the Congress of Industrial Organizations United Mine Workers demand for a $1-per-day wage increase.

U.S. Federal Judge F. Ryan Duffy imposed fines totalling $32,250 in the antitrust suit against the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP).

Boston 8 @ New York Americans 3
Chicago 2 @ Detroit 3

The Bruins defeated the Americans at Madison Square Garden in New York to clinch first place for the third straight season.

75 years ago

Editor Bennett Cerf agreed to include 12 poems by Ezra Pound in the new edition of An Anthology of Famous English and American Poetry, after omitting them from the first edition as the work of a presumed fascist.

Testifying at his war crimes trial in Nuremberg, former Nazi Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering defended Nazism, Fuehrer Adolf Hitler, concentration camps, the Gestapo, the 1933 Nazi seizure of power, and the suppression of opposition political parties in Germany. Yugoslavian government forces captured royalist Chetnik leader Draja Mikhailovich in a mountain cave; he was wanted by the authorities for wartime collaboration with the Germans.

Soviet forces in Iran entered Karaj, 20 miles from Tehran.

Nationalist Chinese commander General Chao Kung-wu entered Mukden as Soviet troops left.

Dutch and Indonesian leaders began formal negotiations for a peace settlement in Batavia.

In an interview published in the Soviet newspaper Pravda, U.S.S.R. dictator Josef Stalin called former U.K. Prime Minister Winston Churchill a "firebrand of war," and compared him with former German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler, further denying that eastern Europe was under Soviet control.

Speaking at a secret session of the U.S. House of Representatives Military Affairs Committee, Secretary of State James Byrnes outlined a "pessimistic" picture of world conditions, while Secretary of War Patterson and Army Generals Dwight Eisenhower and Carl Spaatz urged extension of the draft to ensure an Army of over one million men.

Politics and government
U.S. President Harry Truman "reluctantly" withdrew his nomination of Edwin Pauley for Undersecretary of the Navy, defending his integrity in spite of "misrepresentations" and "vicious attacks."

Former U.S. Senator Gerald Nye (Republican) failed to gain his party's nomination for a comeback attempt in North Dakota.

Economics and finance
The site committee of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank chose Washington, D.C. for the permanent headquarters.

General Motors and the Congress of Industrial Organizations United Auto Workers ended a 113-day strike of 175,000 workers with an agreement providing for an 18½c hourly wage increase.

New York dress industry mediator Harry Uviller granted an 8% pay increase to 75,000 American Federation of Labor International Ladies' Garment Workers Union workers.

70 years ago

On television tonight
Suspense, on CBS
Tonight’s episode: On a Country Road, starring Parker Fennelly, John Forsythe, and Mildred Natwick

The Arab League Political Committee in Cairo decided that each member country would ask France through regular diplomatic channels to end its Moroccan protectorate.

The U.S. Senate Foreign Relations and Armed Services Committees approved plans to sned four additional U.S. divisions to Western Europe this year.

Politics and government
The U.S. House of Representatives rejected President Harry Truman's request for emergency powers to reorganize executive agencies.

Western Union demonstrated the High-Speed Fax, a device for transmitting printed matter over microwave radio beams at a rate of 3,000 words per minute.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Quince Años Tiene Mi Amor--Dúo Dinámico

#1 single in France (IFOP): Non, je ne regrette rien--Édith Piaf (9th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Pony Time--Chubby Checker (3rd week at #1)
2 Surrender--Elvis Presley
3 Wheels--The String-A-Longs
4 Don't Worry--Marty Robbins
5 Where the Boys Are--Connie Francis
6 Baby Sittin' Boogie--Buzz Clifford
7 Dedicated to the One I Love--The Shirelles
8 Calcutta--Lawrence Welk and his Orchestra
9 Ebony Eyes--The Everly Brothers
10 Spanish Harlem--Ben E. King

Singles entering the chart were Tonight My Love, Tonight by Paul Anka (#56); Take Good Care of Her by Adam Wade (#63); Please Tell Me Why (#77)/Your One and Only Love (#100) by Jackie Wilson; Trust in Me by Etta James (#78); Lonely Blue Nights by Rosie (#84); I've Told Every Little Star by Linda Scott (#86); Just for Old Time's Sake by the McGuire Sisters (#89); Merry-Go-Round by Marv Johnson (#90); Canadian Sunset by Etta Jones (#91); Memphis by Donnie Brooks (#92); The Very Thought of You by Little Willie John (#93); Oh Mein Papa by Dick Lee (#94); Early Every Morning (Early Every Evening Too) by Dinah Washington (#95); Kokomo by the Flamingos (#98); and Little Turtle Dove by Otis Williams and his Charms (#99).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Music Vendor)
1 Surrender--Elvis Presley
2 Pony Time--Chubby Checker
3 Don't Worry--Marty Robbins
4 Where the Boys Are--Connie Francis
5 Dedicated to the One I Love--The Shirelles
6 Wheels--The String-A-Longs
--Billy Vaughn and his Orchestra
7 Ebony Eyes--The Everly Brothers
8 Calcutta--Lawrence Welk and his Orchestra
9 Baby Sittin' Boogie--Buzz Clifford
10 Good Time Baby--Bobby Rydell

Singles entering the chart included Your One and Only Love by Jackie Wilson (#68); Merry-Go-Round by Marv Johnson (#69); Trust in Me by Etta James (#76); Take Good Care of Her by Adam Wade (#81); Blue Moon by the Classics (#88); Just for Old Time's Sake by the McGuire Sisters (#90); Hide Away by Freddy King (#91); To Be Loved (Forever) by the Pentagons (#93); A Hundred Pounds of Clay by Gene McDaniels (#94); The Blizzard by Jim Reeves (#97); Mother-in-Law by Ernie K-Doe (#98); Bumble Boogie by B. Bumble and the Stingers (#99); and Funny by Maxine Brown (#100).

Three women and two women who comprised the "Portland Spy Ring" went on trial at the Old Bailey in London, accused of passing official secrets to the Soviet Union.

U.S. President John F. Kennedy, addressing a White House reception for Latin American diplomats and U.S. Congressional leaders, called on the Latin American republics to join the United States in a 10-year program "to build a hemisphere where all men can hope for the same high standard of living--and all can live out their lives in dignity and in freedom." Mr. Kennedy’s proposals included economic integration; cultural and educational exchanges; and expansion of scientific and technical training programs.

Major-General Jean Victor Allard became the first Canadian to command a British army division: the British 4th Division as part of the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR).

A mudslide at a reclamation project in Kiev, Ukraine killed 145, injured 43, and destroyed scores of buildings.

Floyd Patterson (37-2) retained his world heavyweight title with a knockout of former champion Ingemar Johansson (22-2) at 2:45 of the 6th round at Miami Beach Convention Hall in Miami Beach, Florida. Mr. Johansson had won the title from Mr. Patterson with a 3-round knockout in June 1959, and Mr. Patterson had regained the championship with a 5-round knockout a year later.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Rhodesia (Lyons Maid): Look Out Here Comes Tomorrow--The Dealians

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Il cuore e' uno zingaro--Nicola Di Bari

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (7th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Baby Jump--Mungo Jerry (2nd week at #1)

Australia's Top 10 (Go-Set)
1 My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (5th week at #1)
2 The Pushbike Song--The Mixtures
3 Knock Three Times--Dawn
4 Eleanor Rigby--Zoot
5 I Hear You Knocking--Dave Edmunds
6 Band of Gold--Freda Payne
7 Apeman--The Kinks
8 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
9 I Think I Love You--The Partridge Family
10 Lonely Days--Bee Gees

The only single entering the chart was For the Good Times by Ray Price (#56).

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Du--Peter Maffray (2nd week at #1)
2 Butterfly--Danyel Gerard
3 Nothing Rhymed--Gilbert O'Sullivan
4 Chirpy Chirpy Cheep Cheep--Middle of the Road
5 Hup Daar is Willem!--Ed en Willem Bever
6 There's No More Corn on the Brasos--The Walkers
7 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
8 Silver Moon--Michael Nesmith & the First National Band
9 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
10 Invitation--Earth and Fire

Singles entering the chart were Sultana by Titanic (#21); Me and Bobby McGee by Janis Joplin (#23); True Love That's a Wonder by Sandy Coast (#26); The Girl I Need by Ferrari (#28); Mozart - First Movement Symphony No. 40 by Waldo De Los Rios (#31); Right Wheel, Left Hammer, Sham by the Tremeloes (#37); and Bram in de Rai by Paul Van Vliet (#38).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds (5th week at #1)
2 Me and Bobby McGee--Janis Joplin
3 For All We Know--Carpenters
4 Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)--The Temptations
5 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
6 Mama's Pearl--The Jackson 5
7 Proud Mary--Ike & Tina Turner
8 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
9 Doesn't Somebody Want to Be Wanted--The Partridge Family
10 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot

Singles entering the chart were Dream Baby (How Long Must I Dream) by Glen Campbell (#53); Sit Yourself Down by Stephen Stills (#55); Joy to the World by Three Dog Night (#58); Where Did They Go, Lord/Rags to Riches by Elvis Presley (#60); We Can Work it Out by Stevie Wonder (#67); Don't Change on Me by Ray Charles (#75); Give it to Me by the Mob (#83); I'd Rather Love You by Charley Pride (#86); Put Your Hand in the Hand by Ocean (#87); Baby Let Me Kiss You by King Floyd (#88); Hot Pants by Salvage (#89); Lucky Man by Emerson, Lake & Palmer (#92); L.A. Goodbye by The Ides of March (#93); Bad Water by the Raeletts (#94); Love Makes the World Go Round by Odds & Ends (#95); I Can't Stop by the Osmond Brothers (#96); Cool Aid by Paul Humphrey & his Cool Aid Chemists (#97); My Heart is Yours by Wilbert Harrison (#98); and 1927 Kansas City by Mike Reilly (#99).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds (4th week at #1)
2 Mama's Pearl--The Jackson 5
3 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
4 Doesn't Somebody Want to Be Wanted--The Partridge Family
5 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
6 Me and Bobby McGee--Janis Joplin
7 Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)--The Temptations
8 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
9 If You Could Read My Mind--Gordon Lightfoot
10 Don't Let the Green Grass Fool You--Wilson Pickett

Singles entering the chart were We Can Work it Out by Stevie Wonder (#64); I Don't Blame You at All by Smokey Robinson & the Miracles (#73); Rags to Riches by Elvis Presley (#74); I Won't Mention it Again by Ray Price (#76); I Think of You by Perry Como (#77); Put Your Hand in the Hand by Ocean (#84); Melting Pot by Booker T. & the M.G.'s (#86); Timothy by the Buoys (#87); Man in Black by Johnny Cash (#88); Treat Her Like a Lady by Cornelius Brothers & Sister Rose (#92); The Electronic Magnetism (That’s Heavy, Baby) by Solomon Burke (#95); and I Pity the Fool by Ann Peebles (#98).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Record World)
1 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds (4th week at #1)
2 Mama's Pearl--The Jackson 5
3 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
4 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
5 Me and Bobby McGee--Janis Joplin
6 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
7 Doesn't Somebody Want to Be Wanted--The Partridge Family
8 For All We Know--Carpenters
9 Theme from Love Story--Henry Mancini, his Orchestra and Chorus
10 Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)--The Temptations

Singles entering the chart were Where Did They Go, Lord/Rags to Riches by Elvis Presley (#70); If it's Real What I Feel by Jerry Butler (#73); Stay Awhile by the Bells (#76); Joy to the World by Three Dog Night (#77); Baby Let Me Kiss You by King Floyd (#86); Man in Black by Johnny Cash (#87); Woodstock by Matthews' Southern Comfort (#88); Spinning Wheel by James Brown (#91); When You Dance I Can Really Love by Neil Young (#92); Time and Love by Barbra Streisand (#93); Chick-A-Boom (Don't Ya Jes' Love It) by Daddy Dewdrop (#95); Treat Her Like a Lady by Cornelius Brothers & Sister Rose (#96); Too Many Lovers by Shack (#97); Don't Change on Me by Ray Charles (#98); and Get Your Lie Straight by Bill Coday (#99).

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 Have You Ever Seen the Rain/Hey Tonight--Creedence Clearwater Revival
2 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
3 Mama's Pearl--The Jackson 5
4 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
5 Hang on to Your Life--The Guess Who
6 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
7 Doesn't Somebody Want to Be Wanted--The Partridge Family
8 Mr. Bojangles--Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
9 Theme from Love Story--Henry Mancini, his Orchestra and Chorus
10 What is Life--George Harrison

Singles entering the chart were Joy to the World by Three Dog Night (#68); Oh What a Feeling by Crowbar (#71); Gotta See Jane by R. Dean Taylor (#72); (Where Do I Begin) Love Story by Andy Williams (#73); Dream Baby (How Long Must I Dream) by Glen Campbell (#79); Sit Yourself Down by Stephen Stills (#81); Nickel Song by the New Seekers (#90); Cherish What is Dear to You (While it's Near to You) by Freda Payne (#91); Do the Push and Pull by Rufus Thomas (#92); When You Dance I Can Really Love by Neil Young (#94); Man in Black by Johnny Cash (#95); Hot Pants by Salvage (#96); Where Did They Go, Lord by Elvis Presley (#97); Why? by Roger Whittaker (#98); and Woodstock by Matthews' Southern Comfort (#99).

Calgary's Top 10 (Glenn's Music)
1 Woodstock--Matthews' Southern Comfort
2 One Bad Apple--The Osmonds
3 Carry Me--Stampeders
4 Stay Awhile--The Bells
5 Theme from Love Story--Henry Mancini, his Orchestra and Chorus
6 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
7 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
8 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
9 I was Wondering--The Poppy Family
10 What is Life--George Harrison
Pick hit of the week: Blue Money--Van Morrison

Died on this date
Rockwell Kent, 88
. U.S. artist. Mr. Kent was a painter, printmaker, and illustrator who was known for illustrating books and painting murals. He took "progressive" political views and was awarded the International Lenin Peace Prize in 1967, but was successful in denying accusations that he was a Communist. Mr. Kent died of a heart attack.

The United States launched Explorer 43 from Cape Kennedy, Florida. The satellite carried 12 instruments to study sun-earth-moon relationships by conducting a continuing study of the radiation environment of the interplanetary magnetic field.

Paul Rose, 27, a member of the terrorist group Front de Liberation du Quebec (FLQ), was sentenced to life in prison for the October 1970 kidnapping and murder of Quebec Labour Minister Pierre Laporte. He was paroled in 1982 after it was determined that he had not been present at Mr. Laporte’s murder.

40 years ago

Hit parade #1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): När vi två blir en--Gyllene Tider (14th week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Reality--Richard Sanderson (7th week at #1)

South Africa's Top 10 (Springbok Radio)
1 Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre (2nd week at #1)
2 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
3 Lady--Kenny Rogers
4 Stop the Cavalry--Jona Lewie
5 Can You Feel It--The Jacksons
6 Passion--Rod Stewart
7 A Lot of Things--Peach
8 Never Knew Love Like This Before--Stephanie Mills
9 Give Me Back My Love--Maywood
10 De Do Do Do, De Da Da Da--The Police

Singles entering the chart were Fashion by David Bowie (#13); and Gee Haar 'n Roos by Cora Marie (#20).

Libya agreed to take in 55 political prisoners freed by Pakistan the day before as part of negotiations with three Pakistani political dissidents who had hijacked a Pakistani jetliner to Kabul, Afghanistan on March 2. The hijackers agreed to free their hostages when the prisoners were safe.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Joyride--Roxette

World events
In the U.S.S.R.’s first national referendum, nine of the Soviet Union’s 15 republics asked citizens to vote yes or no on the question: "Do you consider it necessary to preserve the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as a renewed federation of equal sovereign republics, in which the rights and freedoms of people of all nationalities will be fully guaranteed?" Only four republics offered the question alone and unaltered, while five altered it or offered more than one ballot question. The result that emerged was less than Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev was hoping for. It was reported by the Kremlin that 77% of 136 million voters supported preservation of the Soviet Union.

Politics and government
Serbian Interior Minister Radmilo Bogdanovic, who controlled the riot police, resigned, several days after riot police had moved against 30,000 protesters, mostly students, in Belgrade.

Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and U.S. President George Bush signed an agreement which they said would end acid rain within 10 years. The air quality agreement committed the countries to curb emissions causing acid rain and to reduce air pollutants.

Exxon Corporation signed a plea bargain with the U.S. government and the state of Alaska relating to charges resulting from the 1989 oil spill from the tanker Exxon Valdez. Exxon agreed to pay a criminal fine of $100 million and to pay $900 million in civil damage to repair damage to the Alaska coast. Exxon also agreed to plead guilty to one count of killing migratory birds, and its subsidiary Exxon Shipping Company accepted a charge of negligent discharge of pollutants and the killing of wildlife.

Figure skating
Lloyd Eisler and Isabelle Brasseur of Canada again won a silver medal for pairs at the world championships at Olympiahalle in Munich.

25 years ago

Died on this date
Krzysztof Kieślowski, 54
. Polish movie director and screenwriter. Mr. Kieślowski was known for The Double Life of Véronique (1991)--the most boring movie this blogger has ever seen--and the Three Colors Trilogy (1993-1994). He died during open-heart surgery after a heart attack.

16 primary school children and one teacher in Dunblane, Scotland were shot dead by Thomas Hamilton, 43, who then committed suicide. See also here.

20 years ago

Died on this date
John A. Alonzo, 66
. U.S. cinematographer. Mr. Alonzo was a pioneer in handheld camerawork and high-definition video photography. He worked on numerous television documentaries in the 1960s and '70s before branching out into dramatic television and feature films. Mr. Alonzo was nominated for an Academy Award for Chinatown (1974), and won a Primetime Emmy Award for Fail Safe (2000). He died after a long illness.

The United States and Canada both banned imports of animals and animal products from all 15 European Union countries, and Canada added Argentina to the list. The bans were the result of reports of foot-and-mouth disease.

U.S. President George W. Bush reversed one of his campaign pledges and, in a letter to four Republican U.S. senators, said he would not act to regulate carbon dioxide emissions from power plants, since it might harm consumers with an energy crisis looming. Industry hailed the decision, which appeared to undercut the new chief of the Environmental Protection Agency, former New Jersey Governor Christie Todd Whitman.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Rick Martin, 59
. Canadian-born hockey player. Mr. Martin, a native of Verdun, Quebec, played left wing with the Thetford Mines Canadiens (1967-68) and Montreal Junior Canadiens (1968-71), scoring 71 goals and 50 assists in 60 regular season games and 17 goals and 7 assists in 11 playoff games in his final season. He played in the National Hockey League with the Buffalo Sabres (1971-81) and Los Angeles Kings (1981-82), scoring 701 points on 384 goals and 317 assists in 685 regular season games and 53 points on 24 goals and 29 assists in 53 playoff games. Mr. Martin, with centre Gilbert Perreault and right wing Rene Robert, comprised "The French Connection," probably the NHL's most exciting line in the 1970s. Mr. Martin had five seasons of 44 or more goals, scoring 52 goals in both 1974-75 and 1975-76. He suffered a serious concussion in 1977 when his head hit the ice on a dirty play by Dave Farrish of the New York Rangers, and suffered a serious knee injury in November 1980 on a dirty play by Washington Capitals' goaltender Mike Palmateer. Mr. Martin was traded to the Kings on March 10, 1981, but played only 4 regular season games and 1 playoff game after the trade because of the knee injury. He died of a heart attack while driving, and his car subsequently crashed. A post-mortem examination revealed that Mr. Martin had stage 2 chronic traumatic encephalopathy, usually associated with hocky "enforcers," and likely resulting from the 1977 concussion. Mr. Martin deserves to be in the Hockey Hall of Fame, but has so far been overlooked.

Jeff Stoughton's rink, representing Manitoba, defeated Glenn Howard's Ontario rink 8-6 in the final of the Brier at John Labatt Centre in London, Ontario; it was Mr. Stoughton's third Canadian championship, and first in 12 years. Earlier in the day, Brad Gushue of Newfoundland and Labrador defeated Kevin Martin of Alberta 10-5 in the first bronze medal game in Brier history.

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