Sunday, 28 February 2010

March 1, 2010

690 years ago
1320


Died on this date
Buyantu Khan, 34
. Emperor of China and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, 1311-1320. Buyantu Khan, born Ayurbarwada, acceded to the throne upon the sudden death of his brother Külüg Khan, becoming the fourth emperor of the Yuan dynasty. Buyantu Khan implemented political and legal reforms based on Confucian principles; he was succeeded on the throne by his son Gegeen Khan.

590 years ago
1420


Abominations
Pope Martin V issued a Bull inviting all "Christians" to unite in a crusade against the Wycliffites, Hussites, and other "heretics."

390 years ago
1620


Died on this date
Thomas Campion, 53
. English poet and composer. Dr. Campion, a physician by trade, wrote collections of poems, over 100 lute songs, and masques for dancing, as well as an authoritative treatise on counterpoint. He died, possibly of plague, 18 days after his 53rd birthday.

310 years ago
1700


Europeana
Sweden introduced its own Swedish calendar, in an attempt to gradually merge into the Gregorian calendar.

210 years ago
1790

Americana

The U.S. Congress authorized the first census of the United States.

190 years ago
1810

Born on this date
Frederic Chopin
. Polish-born composer. Both Poland and France, where Mr. Chopin spent much of his life, claim one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era as their own. His most famous works include Polonaise No. 6 in A Flat Major (Heroic); Preludes; Nocturnes Piano Concerto No. 1 in E Minor; and Piano Concerto No. 2 in F Major. He died on October 17, 1849 at the age of 39, probably of pericarditis aggravated by tuberculosis.

175 years ago
1835


Born on this date
Philip Fysh
. U.K.-born Australian politician. Sir Philip, a native of England, emigrated to Australia in 1859 and became a successful merchant. A member of the Protectionist Party, he served several terms in the Tasmanian Legislative Council and Tasmanian House of Assembly from 1866-1899, holding several cabinet posts and serving as Premier of Tasmania (1877-1878, 1887-1892). Sir Philip supported federation of the Australian colonies, and after that took effect in 1901, he represented Tasmania (1901-1903) and Denison (1903-1910) in the Australian House of Representatives, serving as Postmaster-General (1903-1904). Sir Philip died on December 20, 1919 at the age of 84.

130 years ago
1880


Born on this date
Lytton Strachey
. U.K. writer. Mr. Strachey was a sodomite who was a founding member of the Bloomsbury Group of English writers, artists, and intellectuals. He contributed book and theatre reviews to The Spectator from 1904-1914, but was best known for his irreverent biographies Eminent Victorians (1918) and Queen Victoria (1921). Mr. Strachey died of stomach cancer on January 21, 1932 at the age of 51.

125 years ago
1885


Born on this date
Lionel Atwill
. U.K.-born U.S. actor. Mr. Atwill had a distinguished career on stage, but is best remembered for his appearances in horror and mystery movies, including Doctor X (1932); Mystery of the Wax Museum (1933); Murders in the Zoo (1933); Son of Frankenstein (1939); The Hound of the Baskervilles (1939); and Sherlock Holmes and the Secret Weapon (1942). He died of lung cancer and pneumonia on April 22, 1946 at the age of 65.

110 years ago
1900


Politics and government
Simon-Napoléon Parent, first elected in 1894, was re-elected to his fourth term as Mayor of Québec City. A Liberal, he also represented Saint-Sauveur in the Québec Legislative Assembly, and took office as Premier of Québec nine months later, while still serving as Mayor.

Weather
A snowstorm began in Montreal that left 46 centimetres on this day, and 9 centimetres on March 2, interrupting tram traffic and electrical service, with traffic limited to St. Catherine Street. The city received 118 centimetres for the entire month of March.

100 years ago
1910


Born on this date
David Niven
. U.K. actor. Mr. Niven won the Academy Award for Best Actor for Separate Tables (1958). His other movies included The Prisoner of Zenda (1937); The Dawn Patrol (1938); Wuthering Heights (1939); Raffles (1939); A Matter of Life and Death (1946); The Moon is Blue (1953); Around the World in 80 Days (1956); The Pink Panther (1963); and Casino Royale (1967). Mr. Niven died in Switzerland on July 29, 1983 at the age of 73, after a three-year battle with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Archer Martin. U.K. chemist. Mr. Martin shared the 1952 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with R.M.S. Synge "for their invention of partition chromatography." Mr. Martin died on July 28, 2002 at the age of 92, after a long battle with Alzheimer's disease.

Disasters
The worst avalanche in United States history buried a Great Northern Railway train in northeastern King County, Washington, killing 96 people.

90 years ago
1920


Died on this date
John H. Bankhead, 77
. U.S. politician. Mr. Bankhead, a Democrat, was involved in state politics in Alabama before representing the state's 6th District in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1887-1907 and representing Alabama in the U.S. Senate from 1907 until his death.

70 years ago
1940


On the radio



At the movies
Charlie Chan in Panama, starring Sidney Toler, Victor Sen Yung, Jean Rogers, and Lionel Atwill, opened in theatres.



Died on this date
A.H. Tammsaare, 62
. Estonian author. Anton Hansen Tammsaare was a novelist who was best known for the pentalogy Tõde ja õigus (Truth and Justice) (1926-1933), which has been called "The Estonian Novel." He was hospitalized in 1939 for stomach problems, and died of a heart attack.

Literature
Richard Wright's novel Native Son was published.

War
German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler issued secret orders for the occupation of Denmark and Norway. Australian Prime Minister Robert Menzies announced plans for a sevenfold increase in his country's air force. British planes scattered propaganda leaflets over Germany as far east as Berlin. Soviet troops in Finland made headway toward Viborg, reaching the city's outskirts. The Chinese government in Chungking launched a sweeping evacuation program for the city in anticipation of Japanese air raids.

Diplomacy
U.S. Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles met in Berlin with German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop.

In Patna, India, leaders of the Indian Congress threatened a campaign of civil disobedience as the next step toward complete independence from the United Kingdom.

Law
The American Bar Association committee on the Bill of Rights appealed to the public to oppose all illegal methods of suppressing civil rights.

Environment
The United States House of Representatives passed and sent to the Senate the Water Pollution Control Act, setting forth a plan for prevention of pollution of navigable waterways.

60 years ago
1950

On the radio

The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Ben Wright and Eric Snowden, on ABC
Tonight’s episode: Death in the Limelight

The Casebook of Gregory Hood, starring Jackson Beck, on ABC

Died on this date
Alfred Korzybski, 70
. Polish-born U.S. philosopher and engineer. Mr. Korzybski moved to Canada and then the United States during Wold War I, eventually becoming an American citizen in 1940. He developed a field of self-improvement called general semantics, arguing that human knowledge of the world was limited both by the human nervous system and the languages humans ha developed, and thus no one could have direct access to reality. Mr. Korzybski was known for saying, "The map is not the territory."

Crime
German-born Klaus Fuchs, regarded as one of Britain’s top atomic scientists, was sentenced to 14 years in prison for espionage on behalf of the U.S.S.R.

Politics and government
Chiang Kai-shek reclaimed the Chinese Nationalist presidency from Li Tsung-jen, who was in New York, convalescing after an operation. Chiang had the backing of the Kuomintang Central Committee and the National Yuan of Taiwan.

Defense
The U.S. House of Representatives Armed Services Committee issued a report on the previous year's armed forces unification hearings, urging that civilian leaders rather than military planners fix the nation's nuclear policy.

Science
The U.S. House of Representatives approved the establishment of a National Science Foundation to promote health, prosperity, and defense.

50 years ago
1960


Hit parade
#1 single in France (IFOP): T'aimer follement--Johnny Hallyday (3rd week at #1)

On television tonight
Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond, hosted by John Newland, on ABC
Tonight's episode: The Mask, starring Wesley Lau, Luis Van Rooten, and Stephen Bekassy



40 years ago
1970


Music
The Association performed at the Felt Forum in New York City in a benefit for Coalition Venture.



Politics and government
The Socialist Party, led by Bruno Kreisky, fell just short of a majority in the Austrian general election, winning 81 of 165 seats in the National Council. The People’s Party, led by Josef Klaus, won 79 seats, and the Freedom Party, led by Friedrich Peter, took 5. Mr. Kreisky ended up taking office as Chancellor.

The Guatemalan general election resulted in Carlos Arana Osorio, presidential candidate of the Movimiento de Liberación Nacional (National Liberation Movement) (MLN) leading with 43.35% of the vote to 34.91% for Partido Revolucionario (Revolutionary Party) (PR) candidate Mario Fuentes Pieruccini and 21.74% for Democracia Cristiana Guatemalteca (Guatemalan Christian Democracy) (DCG) candidate Jorge Lucas Caballeros. Because no candidate won a majority of the vote, the election was thrown to Congress. A National Liberation Movement-Institutional Democratic Party alliance took 32 of 51 seats in Congress, with the Revolutionary Party taking 15 seats, and Guatemalan Christian Democracy winning the remaining 4 seats.

Canadiana
Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Anne visited Ottawa and Vancouver, prior to embarking on a tour of the South Pacific.

Diplomacy
French President Georges Pompidou continued his visit to the United States with a visit to New York.

30 years ago
1980


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): My Sharona--The Knack

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Que Sera Mi Vida--Gibson Brothers

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Atomic--Blondie

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Atomic--Blondie

Austria's Top 10 (Ö3)
1 Another Brick in the Wall (Part II)--Pink Floyd
2 I Have a Dream--ABBA
3 The Ballad of Lucy Jordan--Marianne Faithfull
4 Sun of Jamaica--Goombay Dance Band
5 Confusion--Electric Light Orchestra
6 Rapper's Delight--Sugarhill Gang
7 Tusk--Fleetwood Mac
8 Video Killed the Radio Star--The Buggles
9 Lucifer--The Alan Parsons Project
10 Bobby Brown--Frank Zappa

Singles entering the chart were Rapper's Delight; Bahama Mama by Boney M. (#12); Sweet September by Tony Christie (#13); and It's a Real Good Feeling by Peter Kent (#20).

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Crying--Don McLean (2nd week at #1)
2 Do That to Me One More Time--Captain & Tennille
3 Que Sera Mi Vida--Gibson Brothers
4 An Englishman in New York--Godley & Creme
5 Rapper's Delight--Sugarhill Gang
6 Save Me--Queen
7 Nederland, Die Heeft De Bal--André Van Duin & Het Nederlands Elftal
8 I Hear You Now--Jon and Vangelis
9 Pearlydumm--BZN
10 Rap-O Clap-O--Joe Bataan

Singles entering the chart were With You I'm Born Again by Billy Preston & Syreeta (#22); Are You Ready by Billy Ocean (#29); Desire by Andy Gibb (#32); And the Beat Goes On by the Whispers (#35); Fire of Love by Earth & Fire (#36); and Let'Go Rock and Roll by KC and the Sunshine Band (#37).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Crazy Little Thing Called Love--Queen (2nd week at #1)
2 Yes, I'm Ready--Teri DeSario with K.C.
3 Do That to Me One More Time--Captain & Tennille
4 Longer--Dan Fogelberg
5 Desire--Andy Gibb
6 On the Radio--Donna Summer
7 Cruisin'--Smokey Robinson
8 Rock with You--Michael Jackson
9 Working My Way Back to You/Forgive Me, Girl--Spinners
10 Another Brick in the Wall (Part II)--Pink Floyd

Singles entering the chart were Hold on to My Love by Jimmy Ruffin (#63); Any Way You Want It by Journey (#75); Outside My Window by Stevie Wonder (#77); Baby Don't Go by Karla Bonoff (#80); and Only a Lonely Heart Sees by Felix Cavaliere (#85).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Crazy Little Thing Called Love--Queen (2nd week at #1)
2 Longer--Dan Fogelberg
3 Yes, I'm Ready--Teri DeSario with K.C.
4 Cruisin'--Smokey Robinson
5 On the Radio--Donna Summer
6 Rock With You--Michael Jackson
7 Working My Way Back to You/Forgive Me, Girl--Spinners
8 Desire--Andy Gibb
9 Coward of the County--Kenny Rogers
10 Another Brick in the Wall (Part II)--Pink Floyd

Singles entering the chart were Hold on to My Love by Jimmy Ruffin (#69); Keep the Fire by Kenny Loggins (#82); Any Way You Want It by Journey (#83); Girl with the Hungry Eyes by Jefferson Starship (#87); Only a Lonely Heart Sees by Felix Cavaliere (#97); Baby Don't Go by Karla Bonoff (#99); and This is My Country, Thank You, Canada by Shelley Looney (#100).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Record World)
1 Yes, I'm Ready--Teri DeSario with K.C.
2 On the Radio--Donna Summer
3 Longer--Dan Fogelberg
4 Crazy Little Thing Called Love--Queen
5 Desire--Andy Gibb
6 Coward of the County--Kenny Rogers
7 September Morn--Neil Diamond
8 Working My Way Back to You/Forgive Me, Girl--Spinners
9 Rock With You--Michael Jackson
10 Romeo's Tune--Steve Forbert

Singles entering the chart were Hold on to My Love by Jimmy Ruffin (#71); Any Way You Want It by Journey (#78); Carrie by Cliff Richard (#86); You are My Heaven by Roberta Flack with Donny Hathaway (#87); Love on the Phone by Suzanne Fellini (#88); Loving You with My Eyes by Starland Vocal Band (#93); Bounce, Rock, Skate, Roll, Pt. 1 by Vaughan Mason and Crew (#95); What I Wouldn't Do (For the Love of You) by Angela Bofill (#98); Autograph by John Denver (#99); and Wondering Where the Lions Are by Bruce Cockburn (#100).

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 Crazy Little Thing Called Love--Queen (2nd week at #1)
2 Coward of the County--Kenny Rogers
3 Rock with You--Michael Jackson
4 Please Don't Go--KC & the Sunshine Band
5 Do That to Me One More Time--Captain & Tennille
6 Video Killed the Radio Star--The Buggles
7 Ladies Night--Kool & The Gang
8 We Don't Talk Anymore--Cliff Richard
9 This is It--Kenny Loggins
10 Why Me--Styx

Singles entering the chart were Give it All You Got by Chuck Mangione (#83); I Can't Tell You Why by the Eagles (#84); Holiday by Nazareth (#85); White Hot by Red Rider (#92); Hidin' from Love by Bryan Adams (#95); You're So Square by Uranus (#98); Fire Lake by Bob Seger (#99); and Come Back by J. Geils Band (#100).

Radio
The Vancouver station CJAZ, billed as Canada's first all-jazz station, began broadcasting at 92.1 on the FM dial.

War
In the first major Soviet military move against Afghan rebels, Soviet and Afghan troops, backed by at least 50 helicopter gunships and 200 tanks, attacked rebel strongholds in the eastern province of Kunar. The offensive came during early spring in the area, which melted the heavy cover of snow in the valleys of the mountainous region.

Diplomacy
The United Nations Security Council voted unanimously to call on Israel to dismantle its settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Chief U.S. delegate Donald McHenry said that he had been told by Secretary of State Cyrus Vance to vote for the resolution if one particularly objectionable paragraph--paragraph 7, which implied criticism of Israel’s administration of the holy places in Jerusalem--and the language on dismantling the settlements had been deleted. Paragraph 7 was deleted, and Mr. McHenry suggested to Mr. Vance that he could deal with the other issue by making a statement about the language on dismantling the settlements. Believing that the resolution was in conformity with U.S. policy since the two issues had been dealt with, Mr. Vance advised President Jimmy Carter that it conformed to U.S. policy, and Mr. Carter authorized the vote without reading the text of the proposed resolution itself. Mr. McHenry voted for the resolution and read a statement that described the call for dismantling the existing settlements as "impractical." It was said that the U.S. had wanted to send Israel a signal of American unhappiness over Israel’s decision on February 10 to allow Jews to settle in the West Bank city of Hebron. Israel and Egypt were negotiating autonomy for Arabs on the West Bank when Israel made the decision to allow the Jewish settlement.

Politics and government
Former U.S. President Gerald Ford declared that former California Governor Ronald Reagan, the leading contender for the Republican party presidential nomination for 1980, could not win the election. Mr. Ford invited the party to ask him to run for president again, but the party did not respond.

Curling
Canadian Women’s Championship
Final
Saskatchewan 6 Nova Scotia 5

Hockey
NHL
Vancouver 5 Edmonton 2

25 years ago
1985


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): You're My Heart, You're My Soul--Modern Talking

#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): I Want To Know What Love Is--Foreigner (6th week at #1)

At the movies
The Purple Rose of Cairo, written and directed by Woody Allen, and starring Mia Farrow, Jeff Daniels, and Danny Aiello, opened in theatres in New York City, Los Angeles, and Toronto.



Hockey
NHL
Los Angeles 5 Edmonton 4

20 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Nothing Compares 2 U--Sinéad O'Connor

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Nothing Compares 2 U--Sinéad O'Connor (6th week at #1)

Edmonton's Top 10 (CFRN)
1 Opposites Attract--Paula Abdul (Duet with the Wild Pair)
2 Dangerous--Roxette
3 Two to Make it Right--Seduction
4 Let Your Backbone Slide--Maestro Fresh-Wes
5 Back to Life--Soul II Soul
6 All or Nothing--Milli Vanilli
7 Get Up (Before the Night is Over)--Technotronic
8 I Go to Extremes--Billy Joel
9 Principal's Office--Young MC
10 Escapade--Janet Jackson

Weather
It was 66 F. in Edmonton, warm enough for this blogger to wear shorts.

Crime
The United States Secret Service raided the offices of Steve Jackson Games, Inc. in Austin, Texas, seizing, among other things, the master copy of GURPS Cyberpunk, a genre toolkit for cyberpunk games, written by Loyd Blankenship, an employee of the company. The Secret Service believed that Mr. Blankenship had illegally accessed Bell South systems, and uploaded a document possibly affecting 9-1-1 systems onto Steve Jackson Games' public bulletin board system. The Secret Service also believed that GURPS Cyberpunk would help others commit computer crimes. Steve Jackson Games sued the Secret Service for damages arising from lost revenue, and helped to found the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

Law
The new Official Secrets Act went into effect in the U.K., making it an offense for any member, or former member, of the security services to disclose official information about their work. It was also an offense for a journalist to repeat any such disclosures.

Football
NFL
Agreeing to television deals that eventually furnished the league about $3.3 billion over the next four years ($30 million a team each year), the National Football League added two wild-card teams to its playoff format, introducing another round of playoff games and extending the season from the first week of September to the last week of January.

10 years ago
2000


Diplomacy
U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright announced that the administration of President Bill Clinton would certify that Colombia and Mexico were cooperating in the fight against illegal drugs. Congress had required the administration to list cooperating countries each year, with those failing to meet the test subject to economic sanctions. In Colombia, cocaine production was increasing, but the U.S. hoped that $1.3 billion in U.S. aid would help reduce drug trafficking. Afghanistan and Myanmar, described by Mrs. Albright as "headquarters for the heroin business," were the only countries denied full certification.

Scandal
After an extensive internal investigation, the Los Angeles Police Department issued a report concluding that members of a police unit in a district west of downtown often behaved in ways that resembled the gangs they were targeting. The investigation had been kicked off by the confession of Rafael Perez, a former member of the Rampart unit, who had been sentenced to jail for stealing cocaine held as evidence and who described how police officers allegedly assaulted and framed innocent people. Discoveries of misconduct had by then cost 20 officers their jobs and caused about 40 convictions to be overturned.

Oddities
A woman in Mozambique gave birth to a girl in a treetop, where she had lived for four days above raging flood waters that had forced about 1 million people from their homes.

Saturday, 27 February 2010

February 29 (2010)

290 years ago
1720


Europeana
Queen Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden abdicated in favour of her husband, who became King Frederick I on March 24.

170 years ago
1840

Born on this date

William H. Carney. U.S. soldier. Mr. Carney was born a slave in Virginia, but escaped to freedom through the Underground Railroad. As a member of the all-Negro Company C of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, Mr. Carney distinguished himself in the U.S. Civil War at the Battle of Fort Wagner, outside Charleston, South Carolina, on July 18, 1863, when despite being wounded four times, he made his way back to his unit carrying the flag, and proudly claimed that it never hit the ground. Although the Union forces lost the battle, the 54th was hailed for its courage, and Mr. Carney was promoted to sergeant. In 1900 he was finally awarded the Medal of Honor, becoming the first Negro soldier to win it. He died at the age of 68 on December 9, 1908 in an elevator accident at the Massachusetts State House in Boston, where he had been employed for 35 years.

John Philip Holland. U.K.-born U.S. engineer. Mr. Holland, a native of Ireland, is regarded as the father of the modern submarine, having designed the first submarine to be formally commissioned by the U.S. Navy, and the first U.K. Royal Navy submarine, the Holland 1. He died on August 12, 1914 at the age of 74.

130 years ago
1880


Died on this date
James Milne Wilson, 68
. U.K.-born Australian politician. Sir James, a native of Scotland, emigrated to Tasmania in 1829, and managed Cascade Brewery before entering politics in 1859, representing Hobart in the Tasmanian Legislative Council, while also serving as Mayor of Hobart in the 1860s. He was Premier of Tasmania (1869-1872), and served as President of the Tasmanian Legislative Council from 1872 until his death on his 68th (or 17th) birthday.

90 years ago
1920


Died on this date
Ernie Courtney, 45
. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Courtney was a third baseman with the Boston Beaneaters (1902); Baltimore Orioles (1902); New York Highlanders (1903); Detroit Tigers (1903); and Philadelphia Phillies (1905-1908), batting .245 with 5 home runs and 200 runs batted in in 558 games. He led the National League in games played (155) in 1905. Mr. Courtney played at least 9 seasons in the minor leagues from 1898-1911.

Politics and government
The Czechoslovak National assembly adopted the Constitution of 1920.

70 years ago
1940


On the radio



At the movies
Black Friday, directed by Arthur Lubin, and starring Boris Karloff and Bela Lugosi, received its premiere screening, in Chicago.





Died on this date
E. F. Benson, 72
. U.K. writer. Edward Frederic Benson wrote fiction and non-fiction, but was best known for his Dodo (1893-1921) and Mapp and Lucia (1920-1939) series of novels, as well as ghost stories. He died of throat cancer.

Movies
The Academy Awards for 1939 were presented at the Coconut Grove in the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. Gone With the Wind won a then-record 10 Oscars: Picture; Director (Victor Fleming); Actress (Vivian Leigh); Supporting Actress (Hattie McDaniel); Screenplay (Sidney Howard); Cinematography--Color (Ernest Haller and Ray Rennahan); Art Direction (Lyle Wheeler); Film Editing (Hal Kern and James E. Newsom); a special award to William Cameron Menzies for his use of color; and a special technical award to Don Musgrave for pioneering the use of coordinated equipment in the production of Gone With the Wind. Max Steiner’s memorable original score for Gone With the Wind didn’t win; Herbert Stothart won for The Wizard of Oz. The Wizard of Oz also won for Original Song (Over the Rainbow, written by Harold Arlen and E.Y. Harburg), and Judy Garland won a special Oscar for outstanding juvenile performance. Robert Donat won the Best Actor Oscar for Goodbye, Mr. Chips, while Thomas Mitchell, who appeared in Gone With the Wind, won supporting actor honours for Stagecoach. Stagecoach also won for Score (Richard Hageman, Franke Harling, John Leipold, Louis Gruenberg, Leo Shuken). Other Oscars went to Wuthering Heights for Cinematography--Black and White (Gregg Toland); Mr. Smith Goes to Washington for Original Story (Lewis R. Foster); and The Rains Came for Special Effects (E.H. Hansen and Fred Sersen). David O. Selznick won the Irving C. Thalberg Memorial Award.



War
Representatives of 23 religious denominations, meeting in Philadelphia, urged neutral nations to band together and negotiate an end to the European war. Finland initiated peace negotiations with the U.S.S.R., as Soviet forces were reported to be just 1 mile from the Finnish city of Viborg. Brazilian Foreign Minister Oswaldo Aranha protested the February 12 British naval action against the German freighter Wakama as a violation of Brazilian waters. China claimed to have repulsed Japanese efforts to clean up guerrilla areas on the Anhwei-Kiangsu border southeast of Nanking.

Protest
Jews in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv demonstrated against the new British restriction, announced the previous day, on Jewish purchases of land in Palestine. The executive committee of the League of Nations adopted a resolution condemning the British action.

Economics and finance
The French government revalued its gold stocks to make a 30-billion franc paper profit for the purpose of war finances.

Politics and government
Manuel Quezon, President of the Philippine Commonwealth, said that he would not be a candidate for re-election in 1941.

Science
In a ceremony held in Berkeley, California because of the European war, American physicist Ernest Lawrence received the 1939 Nobel Prize in Physics, "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements," from Sweden's Consul General in San Francisco. The Nobel Prize ceremonies usually took place in Stockholm, with the exception of the ceremony for the Peace Prize, which was held in Oslo.

Education
U.S. education commissioner John W. Studebaker said that controversial subjects should be taught in schools.

50 years ago
1960

Hit parade

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Mackie el Navaja--(Mack The Knife)--José Guardiola

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 The Theme from "A Summer Place"--Percy Faith and his Orchestra (2nd week at #1)
2 Handy Man--Jimmy Jones
3 He'll Have to Go--Jim Reeves
4 Teen Angel--Mark Dinning
5 What in the World's Come Over You--Jack Scott
6 Beyond the Sea--Bobby Darin
7 Running Bear--Johnny Preston
8 Let it Be Me--The Everly Brothers
9 Baby (You've Got What it Takes)--Dinah Washington & Brook Benton
10 Wild One--Bobby Rydell

Singles entering the chart were About this Thing Called Love by Fabian (#53); Teddy by Connie Francis (#77); Summer Set by Monty Kelly and his Orchestra (#82); Werewolf by the Frantics (#83); Starbright by Johnny Mathis (#84); Chattanooga Choo Choo by the Ernie Fields Orchestra (#85); The Same Old Me by Guy Mitchell (#89); Step by Step by the Crests (#90); You Don't Know Me by Lenny Welch (#95); Mountain of Love by Harold Dorman (#96); Road Runner by Bo Diddley (#97); The Old Payola Roll Blues (Side 1) by Stan Freberg (#99); and Just Give Me a Ring by Clyde McPhatter (#100).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Music Vendor)
1 The Theme from "A Summer Place"--Percy Faith and his Orchestra
--Hugo Winterhalter and his Orchestra
--Leroy Holmes and his Orchestra
2 He'll Have to Go--Jim Reeves
3 Teen Angel--Mark Dinning
4 What in the World's Come Over You--Jack Scott
5 Handy Man--Jimmy Jones
6 Baby (You've Got What it Takes)--Dinah Washington & Brook Benton
7 Wild One--Bobby Rydell
8 Beyond the Sea--Bobby Darin
9 Let it Be Me--The Everly Brothers
10 Running Bear--Johnny Preston

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKWX)
1 He'll Have to Go--Jim Reeves (3rd week at #1)
2 Teen Angel--Mark Dinning
3 Running Bear--Johnny Preston
4 Handy Man--Jimmy Jones
5 What in the World's Come Over You--Jack Scott
6 The Theme from "A Summer Place"--Percy Faith and his Orchestra
7 Lucky Devil/In My Heart--Carl Dobkins, Jr.
8 El Paso--Marty Robbins
9 Beyond the Sea--Bobby Darin
10 Down by the Station--The Four Preps

Singles entering the chart were Fannie Mae by Buster Brown (#47); String Along by Fabian (#53); White Silver Sands by Bill Black's Combo (#54); Sink the Bismark by Johnny Horton (#55); and Don't Fence Me In by Tommy Edwards (#60).

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Sandy Mains!

Died on this date
Walter Yust, 65
. U.S. journalist. Mr. Yust was editor-in-chief of Encyclopædia Britannica from 1938 until his death.

Melvin Purvis, 56. U.S. law enforcement official. Mr. Purvis joined the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1927, and was put in charge of the Bureau's Chicago office by Director J. Edgar Hoover in 1932. Mr. Purvis led the manhunts that resulted in the captures of criminals Baby Face Nelson, Pretty Boy Floyd, and most famously, John Dillinger in 1934. Mr. Hoover was reportedly unhappy with the amount of publicity that Mr. Purvis was attracting, and Mr. Purvis resigned from the FBI in 1935. He practiced law, and served with the U.S. Army as an intelligence officer during World War II, rising to the rank of colonel, and assisting with the compilation of evidence for the Nueremberg war crimes trials. Mr. Purvis died from a gunshot wound to the head in an apparent suicide, although there were suggestions that the shooting may have been accidental.

Popular culture
Hugh Hefner opened the first Playboy Club in Chicago.

Disasters
An estimated 12,000 people were killed when an earthquake hit the Moroccan city of Agadir.

30 years ago
1980


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Himmel No. 7/Flickorna på TV2--Gyllene Tider (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Another Brick in the Wall (Part II)--Pink Floyd (4th week at #1)

South Africa's Top 10 (Springbok Radio)
1 Babe--Styx
2 Another Brick in the Wall (Part II)--Pink Floyd
3 Don't Stop 'til You Get Enough--Michael Jackson
4 Rise--Herb Alpert
5 Do That to Me One More Time--Captain & Tennille
6 The Part of Me that Needs You Most--Exile
7 Tired of Toein' the Line--Rocky Burnette
8 Video Killed the Radio Star--The Buggles
9 Great Balls of Fire--Nightmare
10 Please Don't Go--KC and the Sunshine Band

Singles entering the chart were Gloria by Umberto Tozzi (#19); and Gonna Get Along Without You Now by Viola Wills (#20).

Died on this date
Yigal Allon, 61
. Prime Minister of Israel, 1969. General Allon, born Yigal Peikowitz, joined the paramilitary organization Haganah in 1931, participating in the Arab Revolt (1936-1939) and various other actions. After Israel gained her independence in 1948, Gen. Allon commanded troops in the Arab-Israeli War (1948). He resigned from the military in 1950, and went into politics, representing various factions in the Knesset. Mr. Allon held various cabinet posts from 1961-1977, including Minister of Foreign Affairs (1974-1977). When Prime Minister Levi Eshkol died on February 26, 1969, Deputy Prime Minister Allon was appointed interim Prime Minister, serving until March 17, when Golda Meir took office as Prime Minister after being named leader of the Labour Party. Mr. Allon died of heart failure; at the time of his death, he was challenging Shimon Peres for leadership of the two-party Alignment.

Journalism
La Bougie du Sapeur, a humourous French newspaper that is published only on February 29, printed its first issue.

Diplomacy
An aide to Iran’s Ayatollah Khomeini told the United Nations commission investigating grievances against the deposed shah that they would be able to visit the hostages at the U.S. embassy.

Terrorism
The April 19 Movement guerrillas occupying the Dominican Republic’s embassy in Colombia freed the last five female hostages.

Economics and finance
Strong support in the United States Congress for balancing the 1981 federal budget was reported. Rep. Robert Giaimo (Democrat--Connecticut), chairman of the House Budget Committee, said: "This place is panicked--the House, the Senate, the Administration. They have realized we have got to take drastic steps."

Hockey
NHL
Gordie Howe of the Hartford Whalers became the first player to score 800 career National Hockey League regular season goals.

Edmonton 4 Winnipeg 2

10 years ago
2000


War
84 Russian paratroopers were killed in a rebel attack on a guard post near Ulus Kert, Chechnya.

Disasters
International aid agencies in Mozambique said that they needed extra helicopters to rescue thousands stranded in floods, as flood waters in southern Mozambique rose again, engulfing everything in their path. The United Nations World Food Programme estimated that up to 300,000 people needed immediate aid.

February 28, 2010

1,140 years ago
870


Religion
The Fourth Council of Constantinople, which had opened on October 5, 1869, closed. The eighth ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, which had been convened by Byzantine Emperor Basil I and pope Adrian II, deposed Photios as Patriarch of Constantinople and restored his predecessor, Ignatius. The council also reaffirmed the decisions of the Second Council of Nicaea in support of icons and holy images, and required the image of Christ to have veneration equal with that of the gospel book.

300 years ago
1710


War
14,000 Danish invaders commanded by Jørgen Rantzau were decisively defeated by an equally sized Swedish force under Magnus Stenbock in the Battle of Helsingborg. The battle was an attempt by the Danes to regain the Scanian lands, which had been lost to Sweden in 1658. This was the last time Swedish and Danish troops met on Swedish soil.

140 years ago
1870


Religion
The Bulgarian Exarchate (Bulgarian Orthodox Church) was established by decree of Sultan Abdülaziz of the Ottoman Empire.

110 years ago
1900


War
The 118-day Siege of Ladysmith, Natal by Boer forces was lifted when the first party of the British relief column, led by Major Herbert Gough and including war correspondent Winston Churchill, rode into the township in the evening.

90 years ago
1920


Auto racing
AAA
Championship Car Series
Jimmy Murphy won a 250-mile race on the board track at Los Angeles Motor Speedway. Joe Thomas finished second and Ira Vail third in the 18-car field.

70 years ago
1940


On the radio



On television today
The first live telecast of a basketball game occurred when a college match between Fordham University and the University of Pittsburgh at Madison Square Garden was broadcast by the experimental station W2XBS to several hundred homes in New York. There was a 20-minute blackout due to technical problems.

Americana
U.S. population was reported at 131,669,275, with 12,865,518 Negroes (9.8%).

War
The U.S.S.R. gave Finland 48 hours to respond to its peace proposal. Soviet forces fought to within 7 miles of the Finnish city of Viborg.

World events
The United Kingdom announced a curb on Jewish land purchases in agricultural areas of Palestine.

Economics and finance
The U.S. House of Representatives passed and sent to conference a bill providing for a $100-million increase in the lending authority of the Import-Export Bank.

Disasters
Floods in northern California from Tehchapi to the Oregon state line marooned 4,000 people and caused $1 million in damages.

60 years ago
1950


On the radio
Philo Vance, starring Jackson Beck
Tonight’s episode: The Big Nick Murder Case

On television tonight
Suspense, on CBS
Tonight's episode: The Man Who Talked in His Sleep, starring Donald Briggs, Edith Atwater, and Ben Cooper



Diplomacy
After several days of debate, the Thai cabinet of Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram decided to recognize Bảo Đại's pro-French Vietnamese government.

Politics and government
Thai Foreign Minister Phot Sarasin, who opposed the recognition of Bảo Đại's Vietnamese government and didn't want to antagonize the governments of Indonesia and the People's Republic of China, resigned from the cabinet.

U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson refused, despite strong Republican Party pressure, to retract his declaration of support for former State Department official Alger Hiss, who had been convicted a month earlier of perjury.

Scandal
U.S. Commerce Department economist William Remington's $100,000 slander suit against former Soviet spy and Communist Elizabeth Bentley was settled in New York for $10,000. On September 12, 1948, Miss Bentley had appeared on the first-ever televised broadcast of the NBC news panel program Meet the Press, where she accused Mr. Remington of being a Communist. Mr. Remington launched his suit on October 6, 1948 against Miss Bentley, NBC, and its television sponsor, General Foods Corporation. Mr. Remington was later charged with perjury.

Religion
The Vatican authorized Roman Catholics to cooperate with members of other Christian sects in activities directed against Communism and toward a reunion of Christian churches.

Energy
The University of Illinois' new 300-million volt belatron, designed for research on nuclear binding forces, was publicly demonstrated for the first time.

Business
C.E. Hooper, Inc. announced the sale of its national U.S. radio and television ratings service (Hooperatings) to A.C. Nielsen Company.

60 years ago
1960


On television tonight
Alfred Hitchcock Presents, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Across the Threshold, starring Patricia Collinge, George Grizzard, and Barbara Baxley

Olympics
Men's hockey @ Blyth Arena, Squaw Valley, California
Final Round
U.S.A. (5-0) 9 C.S.S.R. (2-3) 4
Sweden (1-3-1) 8 Germany (0-5) 2
Canada (4-1) 8 U.S.S.R. (2-2-1) 5

Roger Christian scored 3 goals--his second, third, and fourth of the game--as the United States erupted for 6 unanswered goals in the 3rd period to defeat Czechoslovakia and clinch the gold medal. Bob Cleary scored 2 goals in the 3rd period, with his brother Bill scoring the other.



Sven Johansson and Lars-Eric Lundvall each scored 2 goals in the 3rd period for the Swedes as they completed their rout of the Germans. Mr. Lundvall opened the scoring at 1:15 of the 3rd period.

Fred Etcher scored 2 goals and 2 assists, and Bob Attersley added a goal and 4 assists for the Canadians as they defeated the Soviets, outscoring the U.S.S.R. 4-2 in the 3rd period to clinch the silver medal. The Soviets won the bronze medal.

The Winter Olympic Games concluded with the U.S.S.R. leading the medal parade with 21: 7 gold, 5 silver, 9 bronze. The host U.S.A. finished with 10: 3 gold, 4 silver, 3 bronze. Canada finished seventh with 2 gold (Barbara Wagner and Robert Paul in pairs figure skating, Anne Heggtveit in women’s slalom), 1 silver, 1 bronze.

40 years ago
1970

Hit parade

#1 single in Rhodesia (Lyons Maid): Pretty Belinda--Chris Andrews (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in France: The 5th--Ekseption (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Venus--Shocking Blue

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Dein schönstes Geschenk--Roy Black (9th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Love Grows (Where My Rosemary Goes)--Edison Lighthouse (5th week at #1)

Australia's Top 10 (Go-Set)
1 Raindrops Keep Falling on My Head--Johnny Farnham (6th week at #1)
2 I Thank You--Lionel Rose
3 Smiley--Ronnie Burns
4 Venus--Shocking Blue
5 Jam Up Jelly Tight--Tommy Roe
6 Down on the Corner/Fortunate Son--Creedence Clearwater Revival
7 Superstar--Murray Head with the Trinidad Singers
8 Holly Holy--Neil Diamond
9 Two Little Boys--Rolf Harris
10 Arkansas Grass--Axiom

Singles entering the chart were All I Have to Do is Dream by Bobbie Gentry and Glen Campbell (#34); Walk a Mile in My Shoes by Joe South and the Believers (#35); and Hitchin' a Ride by Vanity Fare (#36).

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Mijn Gebed--D.C. Lewis (4th week at #1)
2 Who'll Stop the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
3 Seasons--Earth and Fire
4 Venus--Shocking Blue
5 Room to Move--John Mayall
6 Mighty Joe--Shocking Blue
7 Dear Ann--George Baker Selection
8 Our Father--Unit Gloria
9 Travelling in the U.S.A.--Bintangs
10 Het Stoomlied (Kunst- En Vliegwerk)--Ed & William Bever

Singles entering the chart were Feijenoord! by Het 1e Elftal Van Feijenoord (#27); Live for Tomorrow Harry Jones by Barrie Webb - O.P.M.C. (#28); Love Grows (Where My Rosemary Goes) by Edison Lighthouse (#35); Spaanse Vliegenier by De Specials (#36); and Indian Pipe by Amsterdam (#37).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Bridge Over Troubled Water--Simon & Garfunkel
2 Thank You Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin/Everybody is a Star--Sly & the Family Stone
3 Travelin' Band/Who'll Stop the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
4 Hey There Lonely Girl--Eddie Holman
5 No Time--The Guess Who
6 Ma Belle Amie--The Tee Set
7 Psychedelic Shack--The Temptations
8 Raindrops Keep Fallin' on My Head--B.J. Thomas
9 Rainy Night in Georgia--Brook Benton
10 Venus--The Shocking Blue

Singles entering the chart were Celebrate by Three Dog Night (#48); Spirit in the Sky by Norman Greenbaum (#64); Instant Karma (We All Shine On) by John Ono Lennon (with the Plastic Ono Band) (#65); Stir it Up and Serve It by Tommy Roe (#83); To the Other Woman (I'm the Other Woman) by Doris Duke (#84); You're the One--Part II by Little Sister (#86); Long Lonesome Highway by Michael Parks (#88); Rock Island Line by Johnny Cash (#93); Silly, Silly Fool by Dusty Springfield (#95); Love, Peace and Happiness by the Chambers Brothers (#96); Can't Help Falling in Love by Andy Williams (#97); Tennessee Bird Walk by Jack Blanchard & Misty Morgan (#98); Message from a Black Man by the Whatnauts and the Whatnaut Band (#99); and Sparkle and Shine by the Clique (#100). Long Lonesome Highway was from the television series Then Came Bronson.

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Bridge Over Troubled Water--Simon & Garfunkel
2 Hey There Lonely Girl--Eddie Holman
3 Thank You Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin--Sly & the Family Stone
4 No Time--The Guess Who
5 Psychedelic Shack--The Temptations
6 Rainy Night in Georgia--Brook Benton
7 Travelin' Band--Creedence Clearwater Revival
8 Venus--The Shocking Blue
9 Raindrops Keep Fallin' on My Head--B.J. Thomas
10 Rainy Night in Georgia--Brook Benton

Singles entering the chart were Who's Your Baby? by the Archies (#61); Let's Give Adam and Eve Another Chance by Gary Puckett and the Union Gap (#77); Lay Lady Lay by Ferrante & Teicher (#83); Run Sally Run by the Cuff Links (#85); California Girl by Eddie Floyd (#91); Reflections of My Life by the Marmalade (#93); You're Right, Ray Charles by Joe Tex (#96); Don't Get Close by Little Anthony and the Imperials (#98); and Long Lonesome Highway by Michael Parks (#100).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Record World)
1 Bridge Over Troubled Water--Simon & Garfunkel
2 Hey There Lonely Girl--Eddie Holman
3 Travelin' Band/Who'll Stop the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
4 Thank You Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin/Everybody is a Star--Sly & the Family Stone
5 Rainy Night in Georgia--Brook Benton
6 Psychedelic Shack--The Temptations
7 No Time--The Guess Who
8 Ma Belle Amie--The Tee Set
9 Arizona--Mark Lindsay
10 Honey Come Back--Glen Campbell

Singles entering the chart were Come Together by Ike & Tina Turner and the Ikettes (#70); Silly, Silly Fool by Dusty Springfield (#84); Let's Give Adam and Eve Another Chance by Gary Puckett and the Union Gap (#85); Stir it Up and Serve It by Tommy Roe (#87); Sparkle and Shine by the Clique (#88); Who's Your Baby? by the Archies (#89); You Keep Tightening Up on Me by the Box Tops (#90); Mississippi Mama by Owen B. (#91); To the Other Woman (I'm the Other Woman) by Doris Duke (#92); Run Sally Run by the Cuff Links (#93); Baby Make it Soon by the Flying Machine (#96); Cat Walk by the Village Soul Choir (#97); Don't Worry Baby by the Tokens (#98); Long Lonesome Highway by Michael Parks (#99); and Music to My Heart by the Obsession (#100).

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 No Time--The Guess Who
2 Thank You Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin--Sly & the Family Stone
3 Hey There Lonely Girl--Eddie Holman
4 Arizona--Mark Lindsay
5 Psychedelic Shack--The Temptations
6 Honey Come Back--Glen Campbell
7 Rainy Night in Georgia--Brook Benton
8 Ma Belle Amie--The Tee Set
9 Travelin' Band--Creedence Clearwater Revival
10 Walk a Mile in My Shoes--Joe South and the Believers

Singles entering the chart were Temma Harbour by Mary Hopkin (#69); Rag Mama Rag by the Band (#71); You, Me and Mexico by Edward Bear (#73); Instant Karma (We All Shine On) by John Ono Lennon (with the Plastic Ono Band) (#76); Celebrate by Three Dog Night (#79); 1984 by Spirit (#81); Can't Help Falling in Love by Andy Williams (#82); Melting Pot by Blue Mink (#84); Come Together by Ike & Tina Turner and the Ikettes (#85); Silly, Silly Fool by Dusty Springfield (#86); Brighton Hill by Jackie DeShannon (#90); Welfare Cadillac by Guy Drake (#91); Mississippi Mama by Owen B. (#92); Stir it Up and Serve It by Tommy Roe (#93); Spirit in the Sky by Norman Greenbaum (#94); Easy to Be Free by Rick Nelson (#95); Run Sally Run by the Cuff Links (#96); Point of View by Jose Feliciano (#97); Let's Give Adam and Eve Another Chance by Gary Puckett and the Union Gap (#98); Gotta Hold on to this Feeling by Jr. Walker & the All Stars (#99); and Sparkle and Shine by the Clique (#100).

Calgary's Top 10 (Glenn's Music)
1 Bridge Over Troubled Water--Simon & Garfunkel
2 Raindrops Keep Fallin' on My Head--B.J. Thomas
3 Arizona--Mark Lindsay
4 That's Where I Went Wrong--The Poppy Family
5 Light of Love--The Cat
6 I Want You Back--The Jackson 5
7 Come and Get It--Badfinger
8 No Time--The Guess Who
9 Venus--The Shocking Blue
10 He Ain't Heavy, He's My Brother--Hollies
Pick hit of the week: Love Grows (Where My Rosemary Goes)--Edison Lighthouse

Married on this date
Crown Prince Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva of Nepal and Aishwarya Rajya Laxmi Devi Rana. The wedding was the culmination of a two-day Hindu ceremony that began with the Crown Prince riding an ornately-decorated elephant. The bride was from an aristocratic Nepalese family.

Diplomacy
French President Georges Pompidou arrived in Chicago as part of his tour of the United States, and was angered by demonstrations against France’s supplying of arms to Libya.

Crime
The "Chicago Seven" defendants were released on bond after the U.S. 7th Circuit Court of Appeals granted them bail--$25,000 each for the 5 convicted of crossing state lines to incite a riot, and $15,000 each for the 2 who were acquitted on incite-to-riot charges, but were convicted of contempt of court. Bail of $15,000 each was also set for the defense lawyers, who had been convicted of contempt of court.

30 years ago
1980


World events
The United Nations commission in Iran hearing grievances against the regime of the deposed shah met with about 1,500 Iranians, most of whom had been injured during demonstrations shortly before the shah was deposed a year earlier. The commission’s co-chairman, Mohammed Bedjaoui of Algeria, said to the crowd: "We will fulfill our mandate and...the international community will know to what unimaginable lengths the violations of human rights were carried on in this land."

Terrorism
13 of the hostages held at the Dominican Republic’s embassy in Colombia by April 19 Movement guerrillas were freed in exchange for food and supplies.

Politics and government
Andalusia approved its statute of autonomy within Spain in a referendum.

Transportation
The U.S. Department of Transportation reported that all the 1979 foreign cars and most domestic cars subjected to 35 miles-per-hour crash tests had failed to protect occupants. The test was only 5 mph over the speed specified in the minimum safety standards, and its purpose "was to see who tried to provide an extra measure of safety," according to agency spokesman David Umansky. The Chevrolet Citation, Plymouth Horizon, and Ford Mustang were praised for doing well on the test. The Citation almost passed the test at 40 mph. "Failure" in the crash test meant that a passenger would have been killed or very seriously injured in a similar crash.

Hockey
NHL
Edmonton 5 Chicago 2

20 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Nothing Compares 2 U--Sinéad O'Connor (2nd week at #1)

Personal
This blogger concluded a two-month term as museum assistant at Musee Heritage Museum in St. Albert, Alberta. It was an interesting and enjoyable job, and I was sorry to leave.

Diplomacy
South African Zulu chief Mangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi met with U.S. President George Bush in Washington and called on him to lift economic sanctions against South Africa.

Hockey
NHL
Edmonton 2 @ Los Angeles 4

Because of fights mainly consisting of players milling around and waltzing, this may have been the longest game I’ve ever seen that was completed in regulation time.

10 years ago
2000

Scandal

British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) confirmed its chief executive, John Taylor, had resigned over the safety scandal that had attracted severe criticism from watchdogs. A report published the previous week by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate confirmed that some safety records relating to a shipment of uranium and plutonium mixed oxide fuel to Japan had been faked at BNFL's Sellafield in Cumbria.

February 27, 2010

1,630 years ago
380


Religion
Roman Emperor Theodosius I and his co-emperors Gratian and Valentinian II issued the Edict of Thessalonica, declaring Nicene Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire.

510 years ago
1500


Born on this date
João de Castro
. Governor and Viceroy of Portuguese India, 1545-1548. Dom de Castro was a Portuguese nobleman who participated in the Siege of Tunis (1535) and an expedition to Suez in 1540, making a detailed map of the latter. In 1543 he was given a command to clear the Atlantic European seas of pirates, and was sent to India in 1545 as Governor, being appointed Viceroy in 1547. Dom de Castro took a great interest in Indian culture and religion, and was widely mourned upon his death in office, after a long illness, on June 6, 1548 at the age of 48.

450 years ago
1560


War
The Duke of Norfolk, representing Queen Elizabeth I of England, and the rebellious Scottish Lords of the Congregation negotiated the Treaty of Berwick, agreeing on the terms under which an English fleet and army would come to Scotland to expel the French troops who were defending the Regency of Mary of Guise.

310 years ago
1700


Exploration
English explorer William Dampier discovered the largest island in what is now known as the Bismarck Archipelago, and named it Nova Britannia (New Britain).

290 years ago
1720


Died on this date
Samuel Parris, 66 or 67
. English-born American clergyman. Rev. Parris, a Puritan, was appointed minister of Salem, Massachusetts in 1689, and was serving in that capacity during the Salem witch trials in 1692. His daughter Betty and niece Abigail Williams, accused the Parris's slave Tituba of being a witch, which started the accusations that culminated in the trials. Rev. Parris took an active part in the prosecutions, many of them against people with whom he had disputes. In 1693, Rev. Parris was himself was charged by his parish for his part in the trials; he apologized in an essay in 1694, and was vindicated in a church council. Rev. Parris had a dispute with his congregation over parsonage land, and resigned his office in 1696, apparently returning to business in Boston. He held several other pastoral positions in Massachusetts in later years.

150 years ago
1860


Politics and government
Abraham Lincoln, candidate for the 1860 Republican Party U.S. presidential nomination, delivered a speech at Cooper Union in New York City. Before the speech, Mr. Lincoln posed for a portrait by famed photographer Matthew Brady.

140 years ago
1870


Japanica
The current flag of Japan was first adopted, as the national flag for Japanese merchant ships.

110 years ago
1900


War
British military leaders in South Africa received an unconditional notice of surrender from Boer General Piet Cronjé in the Battle of Paardeberg.

Politics and government
The British Labour Party was founded as the climax of a conference at Congregational Memorial Hall in London.

Soccer
Fußball-Club Bayern München was founded.

100 years ago
1910


Born on this date
Joan Bennett
. U.S. actress. Miss Bennett appeared in more than 70 movies, but was probably best known for her co-starring roles in The Woman in the Window (1944) and Scarlet Street (1945). She died on December 7, 1990 at the age of 80.

Kelly Johnson. U.S. aeronautical engineer. Mr. Johnson designed over 40 aircraft, including the the Lockheed U-2 and Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird. He died on December 21, 1990 at the age of 80.

Peter De Vries. U.S. author. Mr. De Vries wrote for The New Yorker magazine from 1944-1987. His novels, which combined comedy and tragedy and were influenced by his Calvinist upbringing, included The Tunnel of Love (1954); The Blood of the Lamb (1961); Reuben, Reuben (1964); and Witch's Milk (1968). Mr. De Vries died on September 28, 1993 at the age of 83.

80 years ago
1930


Boxing
Jack Sharkey (34-8-1) scored a technical knockout of British Empire champion Phil Scott (64-11-4) in the 3rd round at Madison Square Garden Stadium in Miami in an elimination bout for the vacant world heavyweight title. Mr. Scott, who had a history of winning bouts by disqualification, claimed to have been fouled, but referee Lou Magnolia disallowed the claim. An examination by physicians of Mr. Scott after the fight revealed a hip injury.



70 years ago
1940


On the radio



War
The U.S.S.R. reported the first Soviet success since Christmas 1939 on the Petsamo front in Finland.

Politics and government
The New York State Assembly passed a resolution petitioning the United States Congress to pass a law prohibiting a third term for any President.

Through his supporters, U.S. Vice President John Nance "Cactus Jack" Garner entered the race for New York delegates to the Democratic National Convention in the contest for the 1940 nomination for President of the United States.

Herman Laborde and Valentin Campa, president and secretary, respectively, of the Mexican Communist Party, were purged from the party.

Economics and finance
After months of negotiations, plans for the Inter-American Bank were finally approved by the Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory Committee.

Science
Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben discovered carbon-14.

70 years ago
1950


Literature
The Wall, a novel by John Hersey about the Warsaw Ghetto, was published in New York by Alfred A. Knopf.

Diplomacy
Canada and the United States signed a new 50-year treaty to preserve the scenic beauty of Niagara Falls, and increase the Niagara River power output.

The U.S. State Department forbade Americans to visit Bulgaria.

Defense
France asked the United States to give the pro-French Vietnamese government $30 million worth of military equipment.

Politics and government
Chilean President Gabriel Gonzalez Videla appointed a new cabinet to replace a 19-month-old emergency non-partisan government.

Iranian State Minister Ali Asghar Hemmat announced the dismissal of 60 high officials in the province of Azerbaijan for corruption and cruelty following the flight of 120,000 Azerbaijani peasants from mistreatment in their villages.

60 years ago
1960


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Boom Boom Baby--Crash Craddock (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy: Romantica--Tony Dallara (4th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Marina--Rocco Granata and the International Quintet (9th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Mirror): Why--Anthony Newley (6th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 The Theme from "A Summer Place"--Percy Faith and his Orchestra
2 Handy Man--Jimmy Jones
3 Teen Angel--Mark Dinning
4 He'll Have to Go--Jim Reeves
5 Running Bear--Johnny Preston
6 What in the World's Come Over You--Jack Scott
7 Beyond the Sea--Bobby Darin
8 Wild One--Bobby Rydell
9 Baby (You've Got What it Takes)--Dinah Washington & Brook Benton
10 Let it Be Me--The Everly Brothers

Singles entering the chart were Mama (#58)/Teddy (#91) by Connie Francis; Sink the Bismark by Johnny Horton (#81); El Matador (#83)/Home from the Hill (#98) by the Kingston Trio; Greenfields by the Brothers Four (#93); White Silver Sands by Bill Black's Combo (#94); I Love the Way You Love by Marv Johnson (#95); Little Susie (Parts 1 and 2) by the Ray Bryant Trio (#96); Stolen Angel by the Scott Brothers (#97); Cindy by Teddy Vann (#99); Just One Time by Don Gibson (#100); Suddenly by Nickey De Matteo (also #100); and String Along by Fabian (also #100).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CFUN)
1 Handy Man--Jimmy Jones
2 Teen Angel--Mark Dinning
3 Beatnik Fly--Johnny and the Hurricanes
4 Wild One--Bobby Rydell
5 Bad Boy--Marty Wilde
6 What in the World's Come Over You--Jack Scott
5 Little Bitty Girl/Wild One--Bobby Rydell
7 Snake in the Garden--Gerry Howard
8 Puppy Love--Paul Anka
9 Terry--Leigh Bell
10 He'll Have to Go--Jim Reeves

Singles entering the chart were China Doll by the Ames Brothers (#32); Tamiami by Bill Haley and his Comets (#40); Crazy Arms by Bob Beckham (#45); I Don't Know What it Is by the Bluenotes (#50); Baby (You've Got What it Takes) by Dinah Washington & Brook Benton (#52); What Do You Want by Adam Faith (#55); Teen-Ex by the Browns (#56); Am I that Easy to Forget by Debbie Reynolds (#57); Mountain of Love by Harold Dorman (#58); Greenfields by the Brothers Four (#59); and This Magic Moment by the Drifters (#60). Teen-Ex was the B-side of The Old Lamplighter, which had yet to chart.

Olympics
Men's hockey @ Blyth Arena, Squaw Valley, California
Final Round
C.S.S.R. (2-2) 9 West Germany (0-4) 1
U.S.A. (4-0) 3 U.S.S.R. (2-1-1) 2
Canada (3-1) 6 Sweden (0-3-1) 5

František Vaněk scored 2 goals and 3 assists, and Miroslav Vlach added 2 goals to help Czechoslovakia rout West Germany.

Bill Christian scored the tying goal at 11:01 of the 2nd period and the winning goal with 5:01 remaining in the game as the Americans came back from a 2-1 1st-period deficit to defeat the Soviets.



Jim Connelly's second goal of the game, with 2:29 remaining in the game, climaxed a 4-goal 3rd period as the Canadians came back from a 4-1 1st-period deficit to defeat the Swedes. Mr. Connelly scored his first goal of the game with 3:19 remaining in the 2nd period to make the score 4-2, and Bobby Rousseau scored at 3:11 of the 3rd period to make the score 4-3. Harry Sinden scored with 8:43 remaining to tie the score, but Lars-Eric Lundvall scored his third goal of the game 2:38 later to give Sweden a 5-4 lead. Moe Benoit tied the score 5-5 with 4:28 remaining.

40 years ago
1970


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Come and Get It--Badfinger (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Love Grows (Where My Rosemary Goes)--Edison Lighthouse (4th week at #1)

South Africa's Top 10 (Springbok Radio)
1 Raindrops Keep Fallin' on My Head--B.J. Thomas
2 Pretty Belinda--Chris Andrews
3 All I Have to Do is Dream--Bobbie Gentry and Glen Campbell
4 Venus--Shocking Blue
5 Without Love (There is Nothing)--Tom Jones
6 Don't Cry Daddy--Elvis Presley
7 The Liquidator--The Harry J. All Stars
8 Someday We'll Be Together--Diana Ross and the Supremes
9 Whole Lotta Love--Led Zeppelin
10 Holly Holy--Neil Diamond

Singles entering the chart were Venus; Love Grows (Where My Rosemary Goes) by Edison Lighthouse (#16); and Two Little Boys by Rolf Harris (#20).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKLG)
1 Bridge Over Troubled Water--Simon & Garfunkel (2nd week at #1)
2 Travelin' Band/Who'll Stop the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
3 Spirit in the Sky--Norman Greenbaum
4 He Ain't Heavy, He's My Brother--Hollies
5 If I were a Carpenter--Johnny Cash and June Carter
6 I'll Never Fall in Love Again--Dionne Warwick
7 Ma Belle Amie--The Tee Set
8 I Must Have Been Blind--The Collectors
9 Give Me Just a Little More Time--The Chairmen of the Board
10 Arizona--Mark Lindsay

Singles entering the chart were Celebrate by Three Dog Night (#22); Come and Get It by Badfinger (#24); House of the Rising Sun by Frijid Pink (#26); My Elusive Dreams by Bobby Vinton (#28); As Feelings Go by Spring (#29); and Walking Through the Country by the Grass Roots (#30).

Edmonton's Top 10 (CJCA)
1 Bridge Over Troubled Water--Simon & Garfunkel
2 Jennifer Tomkins--Street People
3 Ma Belle Amie--The Tee Set
4 The Rainmaker--Tom Northcott
5 Fancy--Bobbie Gentry
6 No Time--The Guess Who
7 Kentucky Rain--Elvis Presley
8 Who'll Stop the Rain/Travelin' Band--Creedence Clearwater Revival
9 Walk a Mile in My Shoes--Joe South and the Believers
10 Honey Come Back--Glen Campbell

Diplomacy
French President Georges Pompidou continued his visit to the United States with a tour of the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Kennedy, Florida.



The 14th ordinary session of the Organization of African Unity opened in Addis Ababa.

Protest
Students at the University of Manchester politely took over the administration building in a protest against the university’s files on students’ political activities. The U of M was the ninth of Britain’s 44 universities to have been the sites of demonstrations on the issue, with the occupation of the Manchester building the largest protest so far.

Disasters
A Ceylonese boat sank at Jaffna, drowning 61.

7 people were killed and 5 injured when a ski bus overturned near Saratoga Springs, New York.

30 years ago
1980


Died on this date
George Tobias, 78
. U.S. actor. Mr. Tobias was a character actor in plays, movies, and television programs. He was best known for playing Abner Kravitz in the television comedy series Bewitched (1964-1971). Mr. Tobias died of cancer.

Terrorism
Leftist guerrillas seized the Dominican Republic’s embassy in Bogota, Colombia during a reception to mark the D.R.’s annual independence day. Dressed in joggers’ warmup suits with their weapons in gym bags, 17 guerrillas with the Movement of April 19 ran into the embassy. In the ensuing shootout with security guards, four people were wounded and one guerrilla killed. A large portion of Bogota’s diplomatic corps, including the U.S. ambassador and the papal nuncio, were taken hostage, as was the embassy staff. The guerrillas--subject along with other leftist groups to an intensive crackdown over the previous 18 months in which nearly 2,000 guerrilla suspects were seized--made the following demands: the release of political prisoners, including 311 from their movement; the publication in the main newspapers of the hostages’ countries of an April 19 manifesto; and payment of a $50-million ransom raised from the hostages’ countries. The April 19 Movement, also known as M-19, was a radical leftist (read: Marxist) group that had broken away from the youth movement of the National Popular Alliance of General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla after he was defeated in the presidential election of April 19, 1970. Some of Gen. Pinilla’s followers made accusations of fraud and turned to terrorism.

World events
Kabul was reported back to normal after several days of strikes in protest against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and subsequent arrests of protesters.

25 years ago
1985


Hockey
NHL
Montreal 4 Edmonton 1

20 years ago
1990


On television tonight
The Wonder Years, on ABC
Tonight's episode: The Glee Club

This was one of my favourite episodes.

Died on this date
Josephine Johnson, 79
. U.S. authoress. Miss Johnson wrote several novels and numerous short stories. She won five O. Henry awards for her short stories, but is best known for being, at age 24, the youngest person to win the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, for her first novel, Now in November (1934).

Diplomacy
Recently-freed South African anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela went to Zambia to meet with African National Congress leaders, and was greeted by official delegations from many countries.

Politics and government
The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. gave its approval to President Mikhail Gorbachev’s proposal for a popularly elected president having broad executive powers.

Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega said that Contra rebels would have to demobilize before the Sandanistas yielded control of the army and police. Violetta Chamorro, who had defeated Mr. Ortega in the general election two days earlier, called on the Contras to disband to help speed the transfer of power.

10 years ago
2000

Soccer

CONCACAF Gold Cup
Final @ Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
Canada 2 Colombia 0

Tournament organizers had been hoping for a final between the United States and Mexico, with an expected crowd of at least 70,000. However, they were disappointed by not only the matchup for the final, but by a steady rain, which kept the crowd closer to 7,000. It was the first time Canada had won the tournament, and may stand as the high point in the history of Canadian soccer. The cup itself is as big a trophy as I've ever seen.

Friday, 26 February 2010

February 26, 2010

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Fats Domino!

240 years ago
1770


Born on this date
Anton Reicha
. Bohemian-born composer. Mr. Reicha was a flautist who was known for writing wind quintets. He was a theorist and teacher of composition; his students included Franz Liszt, Hector Berlioz, and César Franck. Mr. Reicha was unwilling to have his compositions published, which contributed to the relative obscurity into which he ultimately fell.

Died on this date
Giuseppe Tartini, 77
. Italian composer. Mr. Tartini was a violinist who wrote at least 135 concerti for the instrument. His best-known composition is the Devil's Trill Sonata.

160 years ago
1850


Died on this date
Daoguang, 67
. Emperor of China, 1820-1850. Daoguang, born Aisin Gioro Mianning, acceded to the throne upon the death of his father Jiaqing. Daogang's reign was marked by the First Opium War (1839-1842) and the beginning of the Taipei Rebellion, which almost brought down the Qing dynasty. He was regarded as well-meaning but ineffective, and was succeeded by his eldest son Xianfeng.

140 years ago
1870


Transportation
A 312-foot-long pneumatic subway, the first in New York City, was opened; funding for a larger version never materialized.

110 years ago
1900


Born on this date
Halina Konopacka
. Polish-born athlete and poet. Miss Konopacka won a bronze medal in the shot put and a gold medal in the discus throw at the 1926 Women's World Games in Gothenburg, and a gold medal in the discus throw at the 1930 Women's World Games in Prague. She won the gold medal in the women's discus throw competition at the 1928 Summer Olympic Games in Amsterdam. Miss Konopacka married former Polish Treasury Minister Ignacy Matuszewski in 1928; the couple emigrated to the United States in 1941. Miss Konopacka had poetry published in major magazines, and had at least one collection published. She died on January 28, 1989, 29 days before hier 89th birthday.

90 years ago
1920


At the movies
Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari (The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari), directed by Robert Wiene, and starring Werner Krauss and Conrad Veidt, received its premiere screening at the Marmorhaus theatre in Berlin.



80 years ago
1930


Died on this date
Mary Whiton Calkins 66
. U.S. philosopher and psychologist. Professor Calkins taught Greek and philosophy at Wellesley College before studying psychology at Harvard University under William James. She returned to Wellesley College and taught psychology as part of the philosophy department. Prof. Calkins was known for her research on dreams, memory, and self-psychology. She was subject to much discrimination on account of her sex, most notably denial of a doctorate in Philosophy and Psychology from Harvard, despite earning all the requirements. Prof. Calkins was the first woman in the United States to establish a psychology laboratory (1891) and to be elected president of the American Psychological Association (1905) and president of the American Philosophical Association (1918), as well as being the first woman to hold positions in both associations. She retired in 1929 after teaching at Wellesley College for 40 years; despite Harvard's denial of her degree, Prof. Calkins is regarded as the first woman to get a doctorate in psychology.

75 years ago
1935

Technology

RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) was first demonstrated by Robert Watson-Watt.

Baseball
Babe Ruth was given his unconditional release by the New York Yankees in order to join the Boston Braves of the National League as a player, assistant manager, and executive.

70 years ago
1940

On the radio




The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce
Tonight’s episode: The Reigate Puzzle

Diplomacy
The Pan-American Neutrality Committee established sharp limitations on auxiliary ships of belligerent nations in American territorial waters.

U.S. Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles delivered a confidential message from U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini in Rome.

Defense
The United States Air Defense Command was established at Mitchell Field on Long Island, New York.

Journalism
U.S. newsman James R. Young was indicted in Tokyo for violating the Japanese army code by disseminating slanderous material about the Japanese military.

Labour
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that only the National Labor Relations Board, not labour unions, could take the initiative in compelling employers to comply with NLRB orders.

Medicine
Dr. H.J. Corper of National Jewish Hospital in Denver announced the isolation of a tuberculosis vaccine.

Academia
British philosopher Bertrand Russell was appointed a professor at City College of New York.

Education
The U.S. National Education Association's legislative committee charged that U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's policies toward public education were meaningless.

60 years ago
1950


Died on this date
Harry Lauder, 79
. U.K. entertainer. Sir Harry, a native of Scotland, worked as a coal miner for 10 years before embarking as a singer and actor, becoming a popular music hall and vaudeville performer in Britain and other British Empire countries from the mid-1890s through the mid-1930s, coming out of semi-retirement to entertain troops during World War II. He wrote his own songs, and began making recordings in 1902, with his best-known song being Roamin' in the Gloamin' (1911). Sir Harry was the highest-paid performer in the world by 1911, and was the first British artist to sell a million records, doubling that total by 1928. He died after years of declining health.

World events
The Cairo Egyptian Gazette reported that King Imam Ahmed of Yemen had broken up a revolutionary plot led by his brother, former Education Minister Seif el Islam Ismail, who was now in jail.

Diplomacy
People's Republic of China Chairman Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) and Premier Chou En-lai (Zhou Enlai) returned to China from their negotiations in the U.S.S.R.

Politics and government
Former U.S. Vice President Henry Wallace addressed the Progressive Party's second annual convention in Chicago, disavowing Communism, but assuring the party's Communists that they would not be purged.

Environment
Speaking at a University of Chicago Round Table Conference, four atomic scientists warned that the hydrogen bomb could be made to exterminate the world's entire population by enveloping the globe in radioactive dust.

Business
The U.S. Federal Trade Commission ordered the American Dental Association, six of its officers, and 143 manufacturers and distributors to end an alleged conspiracy to fix prices and curb competition in dental goods.

50 years ago
1960


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Why--Anthony Newley (4th week at #1)

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): Why--Anthony Newley (4th week at #1)

On television tonight
The Twilight Zone, on CBS
Tonight’s episode: Mirror Image, starring Vera Miles and Martin Milner

Disasters
A New York-bound Alitalia airliner crashed into a cemetery in Shannon, Ireland shortly after takeoff, killing 34 of the 52 people on board.

Olympics
David Jenkins of Colorado Springs, Colorado won the men's figure skating gold medal at the Winter Olympic Games in Squaw Valley, California. The audience gasped when Mr. Jenkins performed a spectacular "sit spin," fearing he was falling. Mr. Jenkins followed in the footsteps of his brother Hayes, who had won the men's singles gold medal in the 1956 games in Cortina, Italy.



Boxing
Eddie Machen (32-2-1) scored a technical knockout of Billy Hunter (17-7-3) at 2:11 of the 9th round of a heavyweight bout at Madison Square Garden in New York.



40 years ago
1970


On television tonight
Dragnet 1970, on NBC
Tonight's episode: Burglary: The Dognappers



Music
The album Hey Jude by the Beatles was released on Apple Records. It was originally to be titled The Beatles Again, and that title appeared on the labels of early copies, including the one owned by this blogger.

Radio
The U.S. network National Public Radio was incorporated, replacing the National Educational Radio Network.

World events
In Saigon, a four-day sojourn in the National Assembly by an opposition deputy, Tran Ngoc Chau, ended when national policemen dragged him away to begin serving a 20-year prison sentence for pro-Communist activity. The arrest came in the face of a legal appeal, which was believed to entitle Mr. Chau to freedom pending a decision.

Politics and government
Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor named Planning and Industry Minister Abdou Diouf as the nation's Prime Minister; the office was being restored after being abolished in 1963.

Terrorism
Jacques Lanctôt and Pierre Marcil were arrested in Montreal for possession of firearms and then released on bail. The Montreal police suspected a plot on their part to kidnap the Israeli consul in Montreal, Moïse Golan. Mr. Marcil was arrested again a month later in connection with this affair, while Mr. Lanctôt participated in the kidnapping of British Trade Commissioner James Cross in October 1970.

30 years ago
1980


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (Hot Press): Coward of the County--Kenny Rogers

World events
There were widespread arrests of Shiite Muslims in Afghanistan suspected of instigating anti-Soviet protests and strikes.

The five-man United Nations commission to investigate Iranian grievances against the deposed Shah received testimony from five Iranian jurists and more than 140 invalids who claimed to be victims of the shah’s regime. Ali Reza Nobari, the governor of Iran’s central bank, testified that "we have documents showing that the total amount of money plundered by the former imperial family was 500 billion rials," equivalent to U.S. $7.14 billion.

Politics and government
Former California Governor and current U.S. Republican Party presidential candidate Ronald Reagan fired his campaign manager, John Sears, who was opposed by conservatives in Mr. Reagan’s campaign for his attempts to moderate Mr. Reagan’s conservative image in order to broaden his support.

Mr. Reagan won the Republican presidential primary in New Hampshire with 50% of the vote; George Bush was second with 24%, followed by Howard Baker with 13% and John Anderson with 10%. Mr. Reagan won 15 delegates to the party’s national convention, while Mr. Bush won 5. President Jimmy Carter won the Democratic primary with 49% of the vote and 10 delegates to Sen. Ted Kennedy’s 38% and 9 delegates and Jerry Brown’s 10%.

Energy
U.S. Energy Department officials said that they foresaw the price of gasoline going to $1.50 per gallon by the end of the year.

20 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): No Titlist--Rie Miyazawa

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Pump ab Das Bier--Werner Wichtig (3rd week at #1)

Died on this date
Cornell Gunter, 53
. U.S. singer. Mr. Gunter was an original member of the Platters in the early 1950s, before joining the Flairs, and later, the Coasters, with whom he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1987. He was shot to death in his car in Las Vegas.

Defense
The U.S.S.R. began pulling its 73,500 troops out of Czechoslovakia, agreeing to be out by July 1991.

Politics and government
Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega conceded defeat to Violetta Chamorro in the previous day’s general election.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 2 @ Vancouver 5

10 years ago
2000


Died on this date
George L. Street III, 86
. U.S. military officer. Captain Street was submariner with the U.S. Navy from 1941-1966. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for actions above and beyond the call of duty while commanding USS Tirante in March 1945, launching torpedoes that destroyed three Japanese ships in the Yellow Sea.

Scandal
The British government announced that it was suing former British spy David Shayler for breach of confidence over secret service files. Attempts at criminally prosecuting Mr. Shayler for violating the Official Secrets Act had so far proven unsuccessful. Mr. Shayler had fled to France in 1997, and was fighting British attempts to extradite him.

Skiing
Mélanie Turgeon, 23, of Alma, Québéc won a super-giant slalom World Cup race at Innsbruck, Austria, covering the course in 1 minute 32.23 seconds, 0.36 seconds ahead of Austria's Renate Goetschl.