Thursday, 19 March 2015

March 20, 2015

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Cliff Lander!

200 years ago
1815


Politics and government
After escaping from Elba, Napoleon Bonaparte entered Paris with a regular army of 140,000 and a volunteer force of around 200,000, beginning his "Hundred Days" rule.

125 years ago
1890


Born on this date
Beniamino Gigli
. Italian singer. Mr. Gigli was the most famous tenor of his generation, enjoying a career in opera from 1914-1955. He died on November 30, 1957 at the age of 67.

Lauritz Melchior. Danish-born U.S. singer. Mr. Melchior was a prominent Wagnerian operatic tenor from 1913 through the 1950s. He died on March 19, 1973, one day before his 83rd birthday.

100 years ago
1915


Born on this date
Sviatoslav Richter
. Soviet musician. Mr. Richter was one of the most prominent pianists of the 20th century, with a career in concerts and recordings that lasted from the 1930s until shortly before his death on August 1, 1997 at the age of 82.

Rudolf Kirchschläger. 8th President of Austria, 1974-1986. Dr. Kirchschläger was Austrian Ambassador to Czechoslovakia from 1967-1970 and Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1970-1974 before being elected President. He died on March 30, 2000, 10 days after his 85th birthday.

90 years ago
1925


Died on this date
George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, 66
. Viceroy of India, 1899-1905. Lord Curzon was a Conservative politician whose positions included Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 1919-1924 and Lord President of the Council from 1924-1925. He was a key figure in the partition of Bengal in 1905, and proposed the border between Russia and Poland that became known as the Curzon Line.

75 years ago
1940


Died on this date
Alfred Ploetz, 79
. German eugenicist. Dr. Ploetz was a physician and biologist who was a socialist and evolutionist. He coined the term Rassenhygiene (racial hygiene), and influenced Nazi ideas of Nordic racial superiority. Dr. Ploetz supported the Nazis when they came to power in Germany in 1933, and was appointed by Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick to an "expert advisory committee for population and racial policy." German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler appointed Dr. Ploetz to a professorship in 1936. Dr. Ploetz finally joined the Nazi party in 1937.

War
The Presidium of the Soviet Union ratified the Moscow Peace Treaty, ending the Winter War against Finland. It was reported that 40,000 farms and 7,000 estates had been abandoned near Viborg, Finland in territory to be occupied by the U.S.S.R. German planes attacked a British convoy off the Scottish coast, claiming nine ships sunk.

Diplomacy
Colombia suggested that all American nations urge the Spanish government of Generalissimo Francisco Franco to show mercy toward those supporting the Republican cause during the Spanish Civil War.

U.S. Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles left Italy to return to Washington.

The U.S. Consulate General in Warsaw was closed on German orders, and its staff left for Berlin.

Economics and finance
French authorities in Indochina barred the acquisition there of materials for Germany.

Politics and government
The All-Indian National Congress voted for Mohandas Gandhi to direct a program for freedom from the United Kingdom.

U.S. Postmaster General James Farley said that his name would be entered in nomination as a candidate for President of the United States at the 1940 Democratic National Convention.

Society
Connecticut's highest court upheld the state's anti-birth control law, which prohibited the use of contraceptives without any exceptions.

70 years ago
1945


Died on this date
Alfred Douglas, 74
. U.K. author and poet. Lord Douglas was best known as the friend and lover of playwright Oscar Wilde in the 1890s, resulting in Mr. Wilde's imprisonment.

War
German defense of the Saar collapsed as Nazi troops fled from the converging U.S. 3rd and 7th Armies. Soviet troops captured the Stettin outpost of Alt-Dam, wiping out the Germans' strong bridgehead on the east bank of the Oder River, 70 miles northeast of Berlin. British forces completed the conquest of Mandalay, 2 years, 10 months, and 12 says after the Japanese occupation. The 19th Indian Division drove home the attack as remaining Japanese defenders abandoned their lost defense posts. 24 hours after invading Panay Island in the southern Philippines, American forces captured the capital of Iloilo. The 2,000-man Japanese garrison withdrew into the interior of the island with little resistance.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the advisory board of the Office of War Mobilization to study a guaranteed annual wage, in the light of "reconversion and the transition from a war economy to a peace economy."

60 years ago
1955


On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring John Gielgud and Ralph Richardson, on NBC
Tonight's episode: The Speckled Band

This was the first of four episodes that were broadcast on NBC, but not on BBC.

50 years ago
1965


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): I'll Never Find Another You--The Seekers (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France: Les Filles de mon Pays--Enrico Macias (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Io che non vivo--Pino Donaggio (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Das war mein schönster Tanz--Bernd Spier (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Letkiss--Gudrun Jankis; Stig Rauno (5th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): The Last Time--The Rolling Stones (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Eight Days a Week--The Beatles (2nd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Eight Days a Week--The Beatles (3rd week at #1)
2 The Birds and the Bees--Jewel Akens
3 Stop! In the Name of Love--The Supremes
4 Ferry Cross the Mersey--Gerry & the Pacemakers
5 King of the Road--Roger Miller
6 Can't You Hear My Heartbeat--Herman's Hermits
7 This Diamond Ring--Gary Lewis and the Playboys
8 Goldfinger--Shirley Bassey
--[John Barry and his Orchestra]
9 My Girl--The Temptations
10 Red Roses for a Blue Lady--Bert Kaempfert and his Orchestra

Singles entering the chart were Land of 1000 Dances by Cannibal and the Headhunters (#47); I'm Telling You Now by Freddie & the Dreamers (#52); I Know a Place by Petula Clark (#62); The Clapping Song (Clap Pat Clap Slap) by Shirley Ellis (#63); Bumble Bee by the Searchers (#64); Game of Love by Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders (#70); One Kiss for Old Times' Sake by Ronnie Dove (#80); I'll Be Doggone by Marvin Gaye (#81); You Got What it Takes by Joe Tex (#84); Peaches 'N' Cream by the Ikettes (#85); Tomorrow Night by Damita Jo (#90); I Understand (Just How You Feel) by Freddie & the Dreamers (#91); Cast Your Fate to the Wind by Sounds Orchestral (#92); Mean Old World by Rick Nelson (#94); and Every Night, Every Day by Jimmy McCracklin (#96).

On television tonight
Sherlock Holmes, starring Douglas Wilmer and Nigel Stock, on BBC 1
Tonight's episode: The Abbey Grange

Basketball
NCAA
Bill Bradley of Princeton University scored 58 points in his final college game, a 118-82 victory over Wichita State in an NCAA title consolation game in Portland, Oregon.

40 years ago
1975


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): If--Telly Savalas

Died on this date
Howard Sigmand, 47
. U.S. journalist. Mr. Sigmand was assistant sports editor of International News Service at the time of its merger with United Press in 1958. He wrote a column and covered baseball for INS, and also worked for the New York Herald Tribune. Mr. Sigmand died after a long illness.

War
South Vietnamese forces completed three days of abandonment of seven provinces--about 40% of the country's area--to Communist forces.

Baseball
Roy Howell hit a game-tying solo home run in the top of the 9th inning, and Dave Moates scored on a squeeze bunt by Joe Lovitto in the top of the 10th as the Texas Rangers edged the New York Yankees 3-2 in a spring training game before 2,201 fans in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. The game was marred by a beanball brawl, which began when New York center fielder Elliott Maddox was hit by a pitch his first time at bat and almost hit his next time up. A fight broke out in the 7th inning, and New York manager Bill Virdon was punched in the face.

Dave McNally walked 6 batters--3 in the 5th inning--and allowed 4 runs--all earned--in 5 innings as the Montreal Expos lost 4-2 to the Los Angeles Dodgers 4-2 in a spring training game before 2,912 fans in Daytona Beach, Florida. Mr. McNally also hit a batter and gave up a solo home run to Dave Lopes.

30 years ago
1985


Adventure
Canadian paraplegic athlete Rick Hansen began his "Man in Motion" circumnavigation of the globe in a wheelchair in the name of spinal cord injury medical research.

Sport
Libby Riddles became the first woman to win the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race from Anchorage to Nome, Alaska, completing the 1,131-mile course in 18 days, 20 minutes, and 17 seconds.

25 years ago
1990


Movies
The Genie Awards were presented in Toronto, recognizing the best Canadian film achievements of 1989. Jesus of Montreal won 12 of 14 awards, including Best Picture; Best Director ( Denys Arcand); Best Actor (Lothaire Bluteau); and Best Supporting Actor (Rémy Girard).

Politics and government
In an attempt to save the Meech Lake Canadian constitutional accord, New Brunswick Premier Frank McKenna proposed a parallel accord, so that Meech could be approved intact while concessions to its opponents were met in a companion agreement. Former Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau published a book of speeches attacking the Meech Lake Accord.

Diplomacy
As Namibia became an independent nation, Canadian External Affairs Minister Joe Clark announced that Canada would open a High Commission in Namibia. He pledged $4 million in aid to Namibia and assistance for the army and police.

Scandal
Imelda Marcos, widow of former Philippines President Ferdinand Marcos, went on trial for bribery, embezzlement, and racketeering.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Commerce Department reported that consumer prices had increased 0.5% in February. A record rise in oil imports caused the merchandise trade deficit to grow to $9.25 billion in January.

The Canadian government of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney announced its intention to pass a law forcing financial institutions to keep records of large cash transactions so that criminals could not launder money. The move had been urged by the Canadian Bankers Association.

Environment
Meeting at the Globe '90 Conference in Vancouver, provincial environment ministers in Canada agreed to cut the use of disposable packaging by 50%. They also agreed to impose tougher controls on pulp mill polluters..

Football
CFL
The British Columbia Lions and Toronto Argos completed their second trade in as many days. The Lions traded quarterback Matt Dunigan to the Argos for quarterback Rick Johnson; linebacker Willie Pless; slotback Emanuel Tolbert; defensive tackle Jearld Baylis; defensive back Todd Wiseman; and linebacker Tony Visco. Two years earlier Mr. Dunigan had been traded from the Edmonton Eskimos to the Lions for what ended up being six players, making the future Hall of Fame member probably the most-traded-for player in Canadian Football League history. Mr. Johnson had announced his intention to retire from football to pursue an acting career, and the Lions were unable to persuade him to change his plans.

20 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Quiero volar--G.E.M.

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Strong Enough--Sheryl Crow
2 Take a Bow--Madonna
3 She's a River--Simple Minds
4 The Ballad of Peter Pumpkinhead--Crash Test Dummies
5 Mishale--Andru Donalds
6 I Know--Dionne Farris
7 Sukiyaki--4 P.M.
8 When I Come Around--Green Day
9 You Lose You Gain--John Bottomley
10 Gel--Collective Soul

Singles entering the chart were Here and Now by Del Amitri (#78); Shade of Your Love by Laura Smith (#79); Charms by the Philosopher Kings (#81); White Lines by Duran Duran (#82); Head Over Heels by Blue Rodeo (#83); Live Forever by Oasis (#87); Sex Kills by Joni Mitchell (#88); and Ugly by the Age of Electric (#89).

Terrorism
Two members of the Japanese cult Aum Sinrikyo released poisonous gas in a Tokyo subway stop during rush hour, killing 12 people and sending over 5,000 to the hospital for treatment.

War
Government forces in Bosnia launched an offensive against Serb positions. On one front, the government had reportedly taken 35 square miles of territory. The Serbs, in turn, attacked Sarajevo, Gorazde, and Tuzla, all of which were United Nations-designated safe areas.

Politics and government
Journalist and former White House aide Patrick Buchanan announced that he would seek the 1996 Republican Party nomination for President of the United States. Mr. Buchanan, an aide to Presidents Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Ronald Reagan, had unsuccessfully challenged incumbent President George Bush for the nomination in 1992.

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