Wednesday, 1 April 2015

April 1, 2015

200 years ago

Born on this date
Edward Clark
. U.S. politician. Mr. Clark, a Democrat, was Lieutenant Governor of Texas from 1859-1861. When Texas seceded from the Union and Governor Sam Houston refused to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy, Mr. Clark succeeded him as Governor on March 18, 1861. He left office on November 7, 1861 after losing the gubernatorial election to Francis Lubbock by 124 votes. Mr. Clark died on May 4, 1880 at the age of 65.

Otto von Bismarck. 1st Chancellor of the German Empire, 1871-1890. Mr. Bismarck, a native of Prussia, was Chancellor of the North German Confederation from 1867-1871, and was largely responsible for uniting the German states into a German Empire. When Kaiser Wilhelm II succeeded his father Friedrich III on the throne in 1888, he expressed a desire for a more aggressive foreign policy than that preferred by Mr. Bismarck. Mr. Bismarck resigned under pressure from the Kaiser on March 18, 1890. He died on July 30, 1898 at the age of 83.

150 years ago

Born on this date
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy
. Austro-Hungarian born German chemist. Dr. Zsigmondy was awarded the 1925 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used." He died on September 23, 1929 at the age of 64.

In the U.S. Civil War, Union Army forces led by Philip Sheridan decisively defeated Confederate States Army forces led by George Pickett in the Battle of Five Forks in Virginia.

100 years ago

The April 1915 issue of The Strand Magazine contained the eighth segment of The Valley of Fear, the fourth and last Sherlock Holmes novel by A. Conan Doyle.
In this issue: Part II: The Scowrers: Chapter IV. The Valley of Fear; Chapter V. The Darkest Hour.

80 years ago

Economics and finance
India's central banking institution, the Reserve Bank of India, was formed.

75 years ago

Politics and government
The Japanese community nominated five members to the Shanghai Council of International Settlement with the express intention of gaining control.

United Mine Workers of America President John L. Lewis threatened to form a third party in the United States unless the Democrats nominated a presidential candidate acceptable to "labor and the common people."

In an address to the U.S. Attorneys Conference in Washington, U.S. Attorney General Robert H. Jackson said that government prosecutors must use extreme care in protecting civil liberties.

Economics and finance
U.S. Senator Arthur Vandenberg (Republican--Michigan), in a radio broadcast to a Nebraska Republican Party rally, urged an end to New Deal farm policies.

Track and field
The U.S. Track Writers' Association named Greg Rice as the outstanding athlete of the 1940 indoor season.

70 years ago

Allied forces in Germany encircled the Ruhr, where an estimated 30,000 German troops were trapped. Soviet Red Army troops captured Sopron, Hungary, and drove on across the border into Austria to take Trausersdorf. United States troops landed on Okinawa in the Ryukyu Island group, 360 miles south of Japan. By the end of the day, 50,000 troops had landed on an 8-mile stretch of the island's southwest coast, and penetrated 3 miles inland, capturing two airfields. Japanese resistance was unexpectedy light.

Argentina declared that all German and Japanese residents must register with the police and would be restricted.

United Mine Workers of America President John L. Lewis agreed to urge miners to keep the mines open for a 30-day extension of the present contract on condition that any wage adjustments be retroactive to April 1.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Give Me Your Word--Tennessee Ernie Ford (4th week at #1)

The EOKA rebellion against British rule in Cyprus began, with the goal of obtaining the desired unification ("enosis") with Greece.

The revised Criminal Code of Canada went into effect.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): The Last Time--The Rolling Stones (3rd week at #1)

Died on this date
Helena Rubinstein, 92
. Polish-born U.S. businesswoman. Miss Rubinstein, born Chaja Rubinstein, moved to Australia, London, and Paris before settling in New York City, where she opened a cosmetics salon in 1915. She founded the cosmetics firm Helena Rubinstein, Incorporated, and became one of the world's richest women.

Politics and government
Henry Fowler succeeded Douglas Dillon as United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Lyndon Johnson.

40 years ago

Canada began recording temperatures in Celsius instead of Fahrenheit, the first step in switching the country to the metric system of measurement. Canadians were never asked whether they wanted this; it was just imposed on the country by the government of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau.

North Vietnamese troops began seizing major coastal cities in South Vietnam as defending forces fled.

Politics and government
Richard Daley was elected his sixth consecutive four-year term as Mayor of Chicago, winning by a 5-1 margin.

The Chicago White Sox traded catcher Ed Herrmann to the New York Yankees for cash and pitcher Fred Anyzeski; outfielder and first baseman John Narron; outfielder Ken Bennett; and catcher Terry Quinn, all of whom were in the minor leagues. Mr. Herrmann, who had played briefly with the White Sox in 1967 and joined the team to stay in 1969, had batted .259 in 1974 with 10 home runs and 39 runs batted in in 107 games. He was selected to play for the American League in the 1974 major league All-Star Game, but elected not to play, preferring to spend the three-day break with his family, whom he hadn't seen all season. Mr. Herrmann had requested a salary of $55,000 in 1975--a raise of $13,000 over his previous salary--and had expressed his willingness to play the 1975 season without a contract, challenging the reserve clause which allowed major league clubs to renew player contracts year after year.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): I Should Have Known Better--Jim Diamond

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Ano Ko to Scandal--The Checkers

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Woodpeckers from Space--VideoKids (4th week at #1)

Died on this date
Douglass Wallop, 65
. U.S. author. Mr. Wallop wrote 13 novels, the best known of which was The Year the Yankees Lost the Pennant (1954), which inspired the Broadway musical and subsequent film Damn Yankees.

Men’s championship
Final @ Lexington, Kentucky
Villanova 66 Georgetown 64

The Wildcats set a tournament record by shooting 79% from the field (22 for 28) in achieving one of the greatest upsets in championship history. The defending championship Hoyas went into the game with a 17-game winning streak.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Don't Make Me Over--Sybil (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Nothing Compares 2 U--Sinéad O'Connor (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Nothing Compares 2 U--Sinéad O'Connor (6th week at #1)

Politics and government
The Canadian government of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney signed a final land claim agreement with Yukon Indians, giving them surface title to 41,000 square kilometres of land, plus mineral rights and $232 million in cash.

Up to 1,000 inmates at Strangeways Prison in Manchester, England ran amok in a riot over overcrowding.

20 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): Here's Johnny!--Hocus Pocus (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Denmark (Nielsen Music Control & IFPI): Sarajevo's børn - Gi dem et håb--Various artists

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Het isj nie moeilijk, het isj gemakkelijk--Kamiel Spiessens

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Back for Good--Take That (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Take a Bow--Madonna (6th week at #1)

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Take a Bow--Madonna (7th week at #1)
2 Candy Rain--Soul for Real
3 Red Light Special--TLC
4 Run Away--Real McCoy
5 If You Love Me--Brownstone
6 Strong Enough--Sheryl Crow
7 Big Poppa/Warning--Notorious B.I.G.
8 I Know--Dionne Farris
9 Baby--Brandy
10 Creep--TLC

Singles entering the chart were Can't Stop Lovin' You by Van Halen (#72); White Lines by Duran Duran (#79); I'd Rather Be Alone by IV Xample (#80); Ask of You by Raphael Saadiq (#81); Here and Now by Letters to Cleo (#85); Until the End of Time by Foreigner (#86); Close to You by Fun Factory (#87); Down by the Water by PJ Harvey (#89); I'll Be Around by Rappin’ 4-Tay featuring the Spinners (#90); Let Her Cry by Hootie & the Blowfish (#91); and Grapevine by Brownstone (#93).

Died on this date
Jack M. Warner, 78 or 79
. U.S. movie executive. Mr. Warner was the son of jack Warner of the Warner Brothers studio. Jack M. Warner worked in Warner Brothers' short subject department and produced several feature films before being fired by his father in 1958 after becoming estranged.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Alexander Brott, 90
. Canadian orchestra conductor. Mr. Brott, born Joël Brod, was leader of the Montreal Orchestra, Les Concerts symphoniques de Montréal, and the Montreal Symphony Orchestra from 1945-1958, and conducted the Kingston Symphony Orchestra from 1965-1981. His son Boris also became a prominent conductor.

Jack Keller, 68. U.S. songwriter. Mr. Keller was one of a number of people who worked at the Brill Building in New York City and achieved success in writing hit songs in the late 1950s and early '60s. He co-wrote the hit singles Everybody's Somebody's Fool; My Heart Has a Mind of its Own; and Breakin' in a Brand New Broken Heart for Connie Francis; Venus in Blue Jeans for Jimmy Clanton; and Run to Him for Bobby Vee. Mr. Keller co-wrote the theme songs for the television comedy series Bewitched and Gidget, and co-produced the first album by the Monkees in 1966.

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