Thursday, 1 March 2018

March 1, 2018

1,725 years ago

Politics and government
Roman Emperors Diocletian and Maximian appointed Constantius Chlorus as Caesar to Maximian. This is considered the beginning of the Tetrarchy, known as the Quattuor Principes Mundi ("Four Rulers of the World").

425 years ago

The Uppsala Synod was summoned to confirm the exact forms of the Lutheran Church of Sweden.

225 years ago

The Habsburg Austrian army commanded by Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld attacked and defeated a Republican French force under René Joseph de Lanoue in the Battle of Aldenhoven in Germany.

180 years ago

In the Lower Canada Rebellion, Robert Nelson, Cyrille Côté, and 600 other Patriotes were arrested and detained in Vermont by General John Wool of the U.S. Army after they were forced to retreat back into the United States by the Lower Canada militia.

140 years ago

Edmonton's first official post office opened.

G. & G. Flewwelling leased New Brunswick's first telephones in Hampton, New Brunswick.

130 years ago

The first parcel post service between Canada and the United States began.

125 years ago

The March 1893 issue of The Strand Magazine contained the short story The Adventure of the Stockbroker's Clerk, fourth in a series that was published in book form in 1894 as The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes.

Nikola Tesla gave the first public demonstration of radio in St. Louis.

100 years ago

Born on this date
João Goulart
. 24th President of Brazil, 1961-1964; 14th Vice President of Brazil, 1956-1961. "Jango" Goulart was the first president of the Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro (PTB) (Brazilian Labour Party), founded in 1945. He was first elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1950, and was Minister of Labour in the cabinet of President Getulio Vargas from 1953-1954. As the running mate of President Juscelino Kubitschek, Mr. Goulart was elected Vice President in 1956 and re-elected in 1960, succeeding to the presidency upon the resignation of President Jânio Quadros. Mr. Goulart pursued a policy of state economic interventionism and friendly relations with Communist governments, and was deposed in a military coup on March 31, 1964. He went into exile, first in Uruguay, then in Argentina. Mr. Uruguay died on December 6, 1976 at the age of 57 of a reported heart attack, but suspicions remain that he was assassinated; he was regarded as the last left-wing President of Brazil until Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva took office in 2003.

Died on this date
Harlan Brewster, 47
. Canadian politician. Mr. Brewster, a Liberal, represented Alberni in the British Columbia Legislative Assembly from 1907-1912 and 1916-1918, and Victoria City from 1916-1918. He became leader of the British Columbia Liberal Party in 1912, and became Premier when he led the Liberals to victory in the 1916 provincial election. Mr. Brewster's government brought in women's suffrage, instituted prohibition, and combatted political corruption before he died of a heart attack in Calgary. He was succeeded as Premier of British Columbia by John Oliver.

Politics and government
Former President Rodrigo Alves, candidate of the Republican Party of São Paulo, won the Brazilian presidential election, taking 99.1% of the vote. Mr. Alves had previously served as President of Brazil from 1902-1906. Delfim Moreira was elected Vice President.

90 years ago

Paul Whiteman and his Concert Orchestra were at Liederkranz Hall in New York, where they recorded Suite of Serenades.

80 years ago

Died on this date
Gabriele d'Annunzio, 74
. Italian writer. Mr. d'Annunzio was influenced by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche and was associated with the Decadent movement. A national hero as an aviator during World War I, he led a group of 2,000 Italian nationalists in the seizure of the city of Fiume, which Italy was supposed to lose under terms agreed upon at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The rebels held the city for more than a year before surrendering. Mr. d'Annunzio resumed his writing career, and is sometimes referred to as the "John the Baptist" of Fascism because of his influence on the ideology of Benito Mussolini. He never took part in Fascist politics, and retreated from public life after he was seriously injured in an assassination attempt in 1922. Mr. d'Annunzio reportedly boasted about drinking wine from the skull of a virgin who had committed suicide for his sake.

75 years ago

The Canadian Women's Army Corps was founded as part of the Canadian forces; CWACs had full military titles and could hold commissions. At the end of an eight-day offensive, Soviet Red Army General Semyon Timoshenko's forces routed the Germans near Leningrad, freeing 302 localities in a 900-square-mile area. German tanks and troops in Tunisia drove 3 miles beyond Sidi Nsir, after British forces repulsed the attacks. The Australian government announced that Japanese forces were continuing to reinforce their island positions north of Australia.

Politics and government
Juan Jose Amezaga took office for a four-year term as President of Uruguay.

The U.S. Supreme Court reversed the espionage conviction of journalist George Sylvester Viereck, ruling that he was not obligated to report his activities to the U.S. State Department except while acting as a foreign agent.

70 years ago

Died on this date
Louis de Vogue, 80
. French businessman. Marquis de Vogue was President of the Universal Maritime Suez Canal Company from 1927 until his death.

Politics and government
The Costa Rican Congress annulled the election of Otilio Ulate as President, charging vote fraud. Mr. Ulate disappeared immediately after the decision.

General John Hodge announced in Seoul that United Nations-supervised elections would be held on May 9 in the U.S.-supervised zone of Korea, as recommended by the Interim Committee on Peace and Security.

A U.S. House of Representativs Committee on Un-American Activities subcommittee charged National Bureau of Standards director Edward Condon with being "one of the weakest links" in the U.S. nuclear security system, claiming that he associated with "alleged Soviet espionage agents." Mr. Condon immediatel denied all charges of disloyalty.

State Democratic Party committees in Tennessee and South Carolina announced their opposition to the re-election of U.S. President Harry Truman.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): April Love--Pat Boone (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Der lachende Vagabund--Fred Bertelmann (6th week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Gondolier--Dalida (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Mirror): Magic Moments/Catch a Falling Star--Perry Como

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Don't--Elvis Presley
2 Get a Job--The Silhouettes
3 Short Shorts--The Royal Teens
4 Catch a Falling Star--Perry Como
5 Sail Along Silvery Moon--Billy Vaughn and his Orchestra
6 Oh Julie--The Crescendos
7 At the Hop--Danny and the Juniors
8 The Stroll--The Diamonds
9 You are My Destiny--Paul Anka
10 26 Miles (Santa Catalina)--The Four Preps

Singles entering the chart were Sweet Elizabeth by Will Glahe and his Orchestra (#48); Yes, My Darling by Fats Domino (#53); Movin' n' Groovin' by Duane Eddy (#54); Arrividerci, Roma by Roger Williams (#55); Breathless by Jerry Lee Lewis (#56); Your Graduation Means Goodbye by the Cardigans (#59); and College Man by Bill Justis and his Orchestra (#60).

The Spanish War Ministry claimed that a three-week air and ground campaign had cleared "invading elements of the Moroccan guerrilla Sahara Liberation Army" from central Spanish Sahara.

Terrorist members of the Danul Islam sect attacked a convoy near Bandung, Indonesia, killing eight soldiers.

Politics and government
The Polish Communist Party issued a communique following a three-day Central Committee meeting in Warsaw, indicating that First Secretary Wladyslaw Gomulka had defeated all rightist challenges to his leadership.

Samuel Stritch was appointed Pro-Prefect of the Propagation of Faith, and thus became the first U.S. member of the Roman Curia.

The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation reported 65 executions by U.S. civil authorities in federal and state penitentiaries had taken place in 1957.

More than 350 people were killed when the Turkish ferry Uskudar sank in the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul.

Horse racing
Tim Tam, with Bill Hartack up, won the Flamingo Stakes at Hialeah in Florida.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Daydream Believer--The Monkees (4th week at #1)

Edmonton's top 10 (CJCA)
1 Love is Blue (L'Amour est Bleu)--Paul Mauriat and his Orchestra (4th week at #1)
2 Words--The Bee Gees
3 (Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay--Otis Redding
4 Green Tambourine--The Lemon Pipers
5 Itchycoo Park--Small Faces
6 Simon Says--1910 Fruitgum Company
7 The Unicorn--The Irish Rovers
8 I Can Take or Leave Your Loving--Herman's Hermits
9 Spooky--The Classics IV
10 Do What You Gotta Do--Al Wilson
Pick of the Week: Will You Love Me Tomorrow--The 4 Seasons
New this week: Summertime Blues--Blue Cheer
Whisper You Love Me Boy--Chris Clark
Up From the Skies--The Jimi Hendrix Experience
Paper Crown of Gold--The Collection
Ways--The Candymen

At the movies
Day of the Evil Gun, produced and directed by Jerry Thorpe and starring Glenn Ford, Arthur Kennedy, and Dean Jagger, opened in theatres.

Married on this date
U.S. country musician Johnny Cash married singer June Carter.

Politics and government
King Baudouin I of Belgium dissolved his country's parliament in anticipation of new elections after several attempts to form a new government had failed, following the February 7 resignation of the administration of Premier Paul Vanden Boeynant. Mr. Vanden Boeynant had resigned after failing to solve a conflict at Roman Catholic University of Louvain, where Flemish-speaking students had demanded the ouster of all French-speaking students.

Urho Kekkonen was inaugurated into his third six-year term as President of Finland, after winning re-election in January.

Clark Clifford took office as U.S. Secretary of Defense, replacing Robert McNamara, who had resigned.

The U.K. House of Lords voted 109-85 to reject a motion to defeat a bill passed three days earlier in the House of Commons by a vote of 372-62 to drastically curb the immigration to Britain of 200,000 Asians from Kenya, where non-citizens were deprived of jobs.

In Philadelphia, high winds blew off a portion of the covering of the roof off of The Spectrum during a performance of the Ice Capades, closing the arena for a month, and forcing the Flyers, in their first season in the NHL, to play their remaining regular season "home" games on the road. After one game in New York and another in Toronto, the Flyers played at Le Colisee, home of their AHL farm team, the Quebec Aces. The roof was repaired in time for the Flyers to begin the Stanley Cup playoffs in April. The 76ers of the NBA were able to play their home games that month in Convention Hall or the Palestra, but neither facility had an ice rink.

Hazel Jamieson of Edmonton won the Canadian women's curling championship, her second title in three years.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Take a Chance on Me--ABBA (3rd week at #1)

Politics and government
The Canadian Parliament revised the Canada Elections Act, ending political party status for seven groups; 12 parties remained officially registered.

Two people were killed and 20 injured when a Continental Air Lines DC-10, taking off in a rainstorm at Los Angeles International Airport, blew out two tires, ran off the runway, and burst into flames.

Chicago 2 @ Vancouver 3

30 years ago

Hit parade

#1 single in Canada (The Record): Pump Up the Volume--M/A/R/R/S (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Joe Besser, 80
. U.S. comedian and actor. Mr. Besser was best known as a member of The Three Stooges; he joined the team in the spring of 1956, shortly after the death of Shemp Howard, and left shortly after Columbia Pictures shut down its comedy shorts department on December 20, 1957. Mr. Besser's comic persona was that of a childish, whiny sissy. He played this type of character ("Stinky") in the Abbott and Costello television program in the early 1950s. By the mid-1950s, Mr. Besser was one of the few performers still making shorts at Columbia, which is why studio executives insisted on his being added to The Three Stooges. His sissy character didn't fit in well with the Stooges' brand of humour (Mr. Besser actually had a clause in his contract that prevented him from being hit too much), and the 16 shorts that The Three Stooges made during this period aren't regarded as being among their best. The films were released between January 31, 1957 (Hoofs and Goofs) and June 4, 1959 (Sappy Bull Fighters). His last "official" appearance as a Stooge came when the team was honoured with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in August 1983. Mr. Besser was a regular on The Joey Bishop Show from 1962-1965, and made occasional appearances on Mr. Bishop's late-night show from 1967-1969.

World events
The Soviet foreign ministry said that Soviet troops had been sent to the city of Sumgait in the Soviet republic of Azerbaijan, where ethnic Azeris had been slaughtering Armenians over the previous two days.

Politics and government
Panama's new President, Manuel Solis Palma, named a new cabinet that was sworn in. The ousted President, Eric Arturo Delvalle, claimed from hiding that he was still head of the government, and issued a proclamation freezing all Panamanian assets outside Panama.

U.S. Vice President George Bush won the Vermont Republican Party primary in the contest for the nomination for President of the United States in the 1988 election. Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis won the Democratic primary.

U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz met with King Hussein of Jordan in London in an attempt to restart the Middle East peace process.

Iran protested to the Soviet Union for allegedly supplying Iraq with missiles.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the index of leading economic indicators had fallen 0.6% in January, while the index for December 1987 was revised to an increase of 0.3%, meaning that the index had not declined for three months in a row--the traditional indication of a recession.

Wayne Gretzky of the Edmonton Oilers picked up career assist number 1,050 in a game-winning goal against the Los Angeles Kings, becoming the National Hockey League's career assist leader. He broke the 26-year mark of Gordie Howe in only 681 games, vs. Mr. Howe's 1,767 games.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Germany (Media Control): I Will Always Love You--Whitney Houston (6th week at #1)

20 years ago

Titanic (1997) became the first movie to gross over $1 billion worldwide.

10 years ago

10 people were killed when Armenian police clashed with a peaceful opposition rally protesting against allegedly fraudulent presidential elections.

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