Wednesday, 16 January 2019

January 16, 2019

1,710 years ago
309


Died on this date
Marcellus I, 54
. Roman Catholic Pope, 308-309. Marcellus I succeeded Marcellinus as Bishop of Rome, but only after a four-year interval following Marcellinus's death in 304. Marcellus I imposed severe penances on professing Christians who had lapsed during the recent persecution under Emperor Diocletian. He was thus banished from Rome by Emperor Maxentius, and died 11 days after his 54th birthday. Marcellus I was succeeded as Bishop of Rome by Eusebius.

610 years ago
1409


Born on this date
René I
. King of Naples, 1435-1442. René of Anjou, a son of Duke Louis II of Anjou, King of Sicily and a grandson of King John II of France, held various thrones, too numerous to be mentioned here. He died on July 10, 1480 at the age of 71.

210 years ago
1809


Died on this date
John Moore, 47
. U.K. military officer. Lieutenant-General Sir John served in various campaigns beginning with the American War of Independence. He was known for his innovative training methods, the results of which included the creation of Britain's first permanent light infantry regiments. Lieutenant-General Sir John was mortally wounded by a cannon shot while commanding British forces in the Battle of La Coruña, but lived long enough to be assured of victory.

War
British forces led by Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore defeated French forces commanded by Marshal of the Empire Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult in the Battle of La Coruña in Spain.

175 years ago
1844


Born on this date
Ismail Qemali
. Prime Minister of Albania, 1912-1914. Mr. Qemali was a founding father of modern Albania; he wrote the country's Declaration of Independence in 1912, and served as Albania's first Prime Minister, while also serving as Foreign Minister (1912-1913). Mr. Qemali died on January 24, 1919, eight days after his 75th birthday.

150 years ago
1869


Journalism
Hugh Graham and George Lanigan published the first issue of the Montreal Evening Star.

125 years ago
1894


Born on this date
Irving Mills
. Ukrainian-born U.S. musician, producer, and publisher. Mr. Mills, born Isidore Minsky, moved to New York with his family at a young age. He led the band Irving Mills and his Hotsy Totsy Gang in the 1920s, but became best known as a publisher of jazz music and producer of jazz recordings with artists such as Duke Ellington. Mr. Mills died on April 21, 1985 at the age of 91.

120 years ago
1899


Died on this date
Charles Chiniquy, 89
. Canadian-born clergyman. Rev. Chiniquy, a native of Kamouraska, Quebec, was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1833 and led a successful campaign against drunkenness before moving to Illinois. He was sued by a Catholic layman and was defended by Abraham Lincoln in a case that was settled out of court. Rev. Chiniquy left the Roman Catholic Church in 1858, and eventually became a Presbyterian minister. He denounced the Roman Catholic Church as anti-Christian in tracts and books such as Fifty Years in the Church of Rome and The Priest, The Woman and The Confessional. Rev. Chiniquy died in Montreal.

110 years ago
1909


Exploration
Ernest Shackleton's expedition found the magnetic South Pole.

100 years ago
1919


Died on this date
Rodrigues Alves, 70
. 5th President of Brazil, 1902-1906; President-elect of Brazil, 1918-1919. Mr. Alves, a member of the Conservative Party before 1889 and the Republican Party of São Paulo thereafter, was President of the province of São Paulo from 1887-1888 and 1900-1902, and held various cabinet posts before his presidency, which was characterized by his modernization of Rio de Janeiro. Mr. Alves was elected President again on March 1, 1918, taking 99.1% of the vote, but fell victim to the influenza epidemic and died before he could take office. Vice President-elect Delfim Moreira became acting President until new elections could be held on April 13, 1919.

Law
The United States ratified the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, requiring Prohibition in the United States one year after ratification. It reads:

Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all the territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


80 years ago
1939


Popular culture
The first Superman comic strip, by Joe Shuster, was published.

75 years ago
1944


War
Supreme Allied Commander for Europe General Dwight D. Eisenhower arrived in London to take command of Allied forces to invade the European continent. The Soviet government announced that in the period of December 24, 1943-January 13, 1944, U.S.S.R. forces alone had killed more than 100,000 Germans west and south of Kiev. U.S. troops in Italy reached the east bank of the Rapido River, two miles east of Cassino.

Diplomacy
The U.S.S.R. government rejected the Polish bid to discuss boundary issues, and ignored the plea for resumption of diplomatic relations.

Politics and government
The Vermont Democratic state convention endorsed Franklin D. Roosevelt for a fourth term as President of the United States and wired a request that he accept the nomination.

Disasters
Severe earthquakes virtually destroyed the western Argentine town of San Juan in the Andes Mountains, and caused heavy damage to others.

70 years ago
1949


War
Israel announced the withdrawal of her forces from four Lebanese villages, in an effect to stimulate armistice talks with Lebanon and Transjordan.

Diplomacy
French High Commissioner for Indonesia Leon Pignon held talks in Cannes with former Vietnamese Emperor Bao Dai, urging him to return to Vietnam as head of a French-sponsored provisional government.

Politics and government
Shemsettin Gunaltay took office as Prime Minister of Turkey following the resignation of Hasan Saka, who was facing criticism for rising costs of living.

Chinatica
The Chinese Nationalist government moved its capital from Nanking to Canton.

Protest
Four days of rioting around Durban, South Africa between Zulus and Indians ended with 137 deaths and 1,883 injuries. Race riots were also reported in the Rand mining district of the Transvaal.

Economics and finance
The U.S.S.R. and Poland announced the signing of a commercial agreement calling for a 35% increase in trade between the two countries.

The United States cut off wheat and flour shipments to China pending developments in the Chinese civil war.

Auto racing
NASCAR
Marshall Teague won the National Stock Car Championship in a 100-mile race at Daytona, Florida.

60 years ago
1959


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): It's Only Make Believe--Conway Twitty (5th week at #1)

Diplomacy
United Nations Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold confirmed reports that he had persuaded U.A.R. President Gamal Nasser and Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to agree to public marking of the Israeli-Syrian frontier to eliminate "confusion."

Defense
The U.S. Defense Department and the Joint Congressional Atomic Energy Committee issued a report arguing that the nuclear test detection system urged by the 1958 Geneva experts' conference was of little use when observation posts were 600-1,000 miles from underground explosions of 20 kilotons or less.

Spain opened her Cartagena naval supply base, built as part of the $400-million U.S. program for construction of military facilities in Spain.

Politics and government
Allan Noble, the United Kingdom's chief delegate to the United Nations General Assembly, resigned as British Foreign Secretary. Prime Minister Harold Macmillan named Foreign Affairs Parliamentary Undersecretary John Profumo to replace Mr. Noble.

Economics and finance
Cuban Treasury Minister Rufo Lopez Fresquet reported that major Cuban and American firms had paid an estimated $3 million in advance taxes to help Cuba's revolutionary government.

50 years ago
1969


Died on this date
Vernon Duke, 65
. Russian-born U.S. composer and songwriter. Mr. Duke, born Vladimir Dukelsky, emigrated to the United States in 1921. He wrote classical works, including several symphonies, under his real name, but as Vernon Duke was better known for writing music for popular songs, including Taking a Chance on Love and April in Paris. Mr. Duke died of complications from surgery for lung cancer.

Space
The Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 effected the first docking of two manned spacecraft in Earth orbit; the first transfer of crews while in orbit; and the only time such a transfer was accomplished with a space walk. The Soyuz 5 crew of Boris Volyanov, Alexei Yeliseyev, and Yevgeni Khrunov transferred to the Soyuz 4 spacecraft, joining Vladimir Shatalov. The transfer was possibly a simulation of a rescue in space, as well as an aid in the development of modular construction techniques for space stations.

War
American and North Vietnamese delegates agreed to hold expanded peace talks in Paris.

Protest
Charles University student Jan Palach committed self-immolation in Wenceslas Square in Prague in protest against the demoralization of the Czechoslovakian people following the 1968 Soviet invasion of the country and the resulting loss of freedom as compared with the previous year's "Prague Spring" liberalization. He died three days later.

Diplomacy
Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau had an audience with Pope Paul VI in Rome, where they discussed the possibility of diplomatic relations between Canada and the Vatican. Following the audience, Mr. Trudeau said that the matter would depend on public opinion, since "we do not want to thrust anything down the throats of the Canadian people." This was an odd remark from Mr. Trudeau, given that he didn't mind shoving official bilingualism, multiculturalism, the metric system, legalized abortion and homosexual behaviour, the National Energy Program, and the Orwellian-named Charter of Rights and Freedoms down the throats of the Canadian people.

Defense
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization Defense Planning Committee announced that the alliance's defense ministers had agreed to set up a NATO Mediterranean fleet.

Economics and finance
Two major economic reports submitted to Congress by the administration of U.S. President Lyndon Johnson urged both economic restraint and continued growth for 1969.

40 years ago
1979


Died on this date
Ted Cassidy, 46
. U.S. actor. Mr. Cassidy, who stood 6' 9", was best known for playing the butler "Lurch" in television comedy series The Addams Family (1964-1966). His deep voice enabled him to find steady work as a voice actor in cartoons and as the narrator for the series The Incredible Hulk (1978-1979). Mr. Cassidy died of complications following surgery to remove a non-malignant tumour from his heart.

World events
Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi left Iran and flew to Egypt after 37 years on the throne, and after a year of anti-government demonstrations and crippling strikes.

Disasters
On the same day that the Shah left Iran, an earthquake struck eastern Iran, registering approximately 7 on the Richter scale; the bodies of at least 199 dead were discovered.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 3 @ Colorado 2
Montreal 2 @ Vancouver 2

30 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Australian Music Report): Kokomo--The Beach Boys (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Smooth Criminal--Michael Jackson (2nd week at #1)

Protest
Three days of rioting erupted in Miami when a police officer fatally shot a Negro motorcyclist, causing a crash that also claimed the life of a passenger.

25 years ago
1994


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand: I Can See Clearly Now--Jimmy Cliff

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): I'd Do Anything for Love (But I Won't Do That)--Meat Loaf (10th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: I'd Do Anything for Love (But I Won't Do That)--Meat Loaf (9th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Chart Information Network): Things Can Only Get Better--D: Ream

Music
Canadian singer Bryan Adams played before an audience of 2,500 in Ho Chi Minh City, becoming the first Western artist to perform in Vietnam since end of the Vietnam War.

Diplomacy
At a joint press conference in Geneva with U.S. President Bill Clinton, Syrian President Hafez al-Assad indicated a willingness to negotiate a peace treaty with Israel.

Politics and government
Yegor Gaidar, Russia's first deputy premier and economics minister, resigned, saying that the government had not approved some of his pro-reform policies.

Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari asked Congress to approve a general amnesty for members of the Zapatista National Liberation Army, a rebel group in the state of Chiapas that had declared war against the government earlier in the month.

Figure skating
Josee Chouinard won the Canadian women's championship at the Edmonton Coliseum; it was her second straight national championship and third in four years.

Football
NFL
NFC Divisional Playoff
Green Bay 17 @ Dallas 27

The Cowboys scored 17 points in the 2nd quarter--10 in the final 23 seconds--to take a 17-3 halftime lead as they held on to defeat the Packers before 64,790 fans at Texas Stadium in Irving. Eddie Murray's 41-yard field goal with 23 seconds remaining in the 1st half gave Dallas a 10-3 lead; the Cowboys recovered a Green Bay fumble on the subsequent kickoff, and Troy Aikman passed 6 yards to Jay Novacek for a touchdown. The Packers had several opportunities to come back in the 4th quarter, but Green Bay quarterback Brett Favre threw 2 interceptions before completing a touchdown pass to Sterling Sharpe late in the game.

AFC Divisional Playoff
Kansas City 28 @ Houston 20

Joe Montana threw a touchdown pass in the 3rd quarter and 2 in the 4th, and handed off to Marcus Allen for a 21-yard touchdown to conclude the scoring as the Chiefs overcame a 10-0 halftime deficit to defeat the Oilers before 64,011 fans at the Astrodome. The Kansas City defense sacked Houston quarterback Warren Moon 9 times.

10 years ago
2009


Died on this date
Andrew Wyeth, 91
. U.S. artist. Mr. Wyeth, the son of artist N.C. Wyeth, was a realist painter whose subjects were mainly the land and people in his hometown of Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania and his summer home in Cushing, Maine. His most famous painting was Christina's World (1948). Mr. Wyeth's subjects also included the farm of his neighbours Anna and Karl Kuerner, and Helga Testorf, a caretaker at the Kuerner farm who was the subject of 247 works from 1971-1985.

John Mortimer, 85. U.K. lawyer, author, and playwright. Sir John, the son of a London barrister, became a barrister himself, making his name defending clients accused of obscenity. His legal experiences served as the basis for his fiction, notably the barrister Horace Rumpole in the series of novels and television series Rumpole of the Bailey. Sir John died after a long illness.

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