Tuesday, 19 January 2021

January 20, 2021

220 years ago
1801


Law
John Marshall was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He served in that office until his death in 1835.

190 years ago
1831


Born on this date
Piet Joubert
. S.A. military officer and politician. Mr. Joubert was first elected to the Transvaalse Volksraad in 1860, representing Wakkerstroom. He was Commandant-General of the South African Republic from 1880-1900, leading Boer forces in the First Boer War (1880-1881). Com.-Gen. Joubert was a member of the Triumvirate, with Paul Kruger and M.W. Pretorius, who ran the provisional S.A. government from 1880-1883. He conducted four unsuccessful presidential campaigns, but served as Vice President from 1883-1888 and 1896 until his death from peritonitis on March 28, 1900 at the age of 69.

180 years ago
1841


Died on this date
Jørgen Jørgensen, 60
. Danish-born adventurer. Mr. Jørgensen apprenticed with a British collier and sailed to South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand in the early 1800s; he's been credited as the founder of the Tasmanian capital of Hobart. While visiting his family in Denmark, he was given command of a small vessel, but was captured in battle with a British ship in 1808. Mr. Jørgensen was paroled, and travelled twice to Iceland. On his second visit in 1809, he and other crew members arrested Icelandic Governor the Count of Trampe, and Mr. Jørgensen proclaimed himself "Protector," intending to establish a liberal society like those emerging in the Americas and elsewhere in Europe. The Royal Navy gunboat HMS Talbot arrived two months later, restored Danish rule, and arrested Mr. Jørgensen for violating parole. He was released in 1811, and served as a spy for the British in France and Germany toward the end of the Napoleonic Wars. Mr. Jørgensen spent some time in prison for theft, and was eventually transported to Australia in 1825, spending most of the rest of his life in Tasmania, obtaining a free pardon in 1835.

Minh Mạng, 49. Emperor of Vietnam, 1820-1841. Minh Mang, born Nguyễn Phúc Đảm, succeeded his father Gia Long on the throne. Emperor Minh Mạng was known for his isolationist foreign policy, and opposition to Christian missionaries. He was succeeded as Emperor by his eldest son Thiệu Trị.

War
As a result of the first Opium War, China ceded Hong Kong to Great Britain.

150 years ago
1871


War
The day after it started, the Battle of Buzenval in Saint-Cloud, France concluded with French troops commanded by Louis-Jules Trochu being pushed back into Paris by Prussian forces led by Crown Prince Friedrich.

130 years ago
1891


Born on this date
Mischa Elman
. Ukrainian-born U.S. musician. Mr. Elman was a violinist who began his career in Europe before moving to the United States in 1917. He was popular as a concert performer, and had a recording career that spanned 60 years. Mr. Elman died on April 5, 1967 at the age of 76.

Died on this date
Kalākaua, 54
. King of Hawaii, 1874-1891. Kalākaua was the last King of Hawaii. Hula and surfing were revived during his reign. King Kalākaua died after several years of ill health and was succeeded on the throne by his sister Liliʻuokalani.

125 years ago
1896


Born on this date
George Burns
. U.S. comedian and actor. Mr. Burns, born Nathan Birnbaum, and his wife Gracie Allen were a popular comedy team on radio and television from the 1930s through the 1950s. Miss Allen died in 1964, and Mr. Burns carried on as an individual performer. His Academy Award winning supporting performance in The Sunshine Boys (1975) opened a new career for him in movies. Mr. Burns starred in the movie Oh, God! (1977) and its sequels, and remained a popular entertainer until his death. Mr. Burns booked the London Palladium for his 100th birthday many years in advance; although he lived long enough, he was too ill to make the date, and died on March 9, 1996, exactly seven weeks after reaching the century mark. This blogger saw Mr. Burns in concert at the O'Keefe Centre in Toronto on June 21, 1992.

120 years ago
1901


Died on this date
Zénobe Gramme, 74
. Belgian engineer. Mr. Gramme invented the Gramme machine, a type of direct current dynamo capable of generating smoother and much higher voltages than the dynamos known before it was first demonstrated in 1871.

100 years ago
1921


Politics and government
The first Constitution of Turkey was adopted, making fundamental changes in the source and exercise of sovereignty by consecrating the principle of national sovereignty.

Disasters
The British K-class submarine HMS K5 sank in the English Channel, with the loss of all 56 men on board.

80 years ago
1941


War
A German officer was murdered in Bucharest, sparking a rebellion and pogrom by the Iron Guard, killing 125 Jews and 30 soldiers.

Politics and government
Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugurated for an unprecedented third term as the 32nd President of the United States of America.







Abominations
A new German tax effective January 1 levied a 15% additional gross income tax on Jews to "compensate" for their "social inferiority."

Law
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Pennsylvania's alien registration law was an illegal infringement on federal authority.

Business
A U.S. federal grand jury investigating defense industries indicted three corporations, seven individuals, and four foreign companies on charges of creating a monopoly to control magnesite.

Boxing
Selman Martin (5-11-2) won a split decision over Johnny Paychek (38-6-2) in a heavyweight bout at the Civic Center in Hammond, Indiana. Mr. Paychek announced his retirement the next day.

75 years ago
1946


War
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in Japan General Douglas MacArthur ordered 394 Japanese aircraft plants, arsenals, and war laboratories seized and kept intact for possible use in reparations payments.

Aviation
A Pan American Constellation Clipper set a commercial record for the New York-Lisbon flight by covering the 3,425 miles in 9 hours 58 minutes.

Politics and government
The first free elections in Germany since 1933 were held in U.S.-occupied Hesse; the Social Democrats won with 1456,508 votes, followed by the Christian Social Union with 99,591 votes.

General Charles de Gaulle resigned as President of France for the third time in as many months, on this occasion over a Communist and Socialist demand that the Army budget be cut by 20%.

Belgian Prime Minister Achille van Acker rejected a request of exiled King Leopold III that a national plebiscite be held on the question of his return to Belgium.

U.S. President Harry Truman issued an executive order establishing the Control Intelligence Group, later known as the Central Intelligence Agency.

Defense
The U.S. Navy revealed development of an underwater sound system to locate survivors at sea as far as 2,000 miles from shore stations.

Agriculture
The U.S. Agriculture Department reported the development of a new weed killer--2, 4Di--which did not harm grass, hastened the ripening of fruit, and made apples cling to the tree longer for harvest.

70 years ago
1951


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Goodnight Irene--Gordon Jenkins and his Orchestra and the Weavers (6th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): The Tennessee Waltz--Patti Page (Best Seller--4th week at #1; Disc Jockey--3rd week at #1; Jukebox--3rd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 The Tennessee Waltz--Patti Page (4th week at #1)
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Les Paul and Mary Ford
--Jo Stafford
2 The Thing--Phil Harris
3 My Heart Cries for You--Guy Mitchell
--Dinah Shore
--Vic Damone
--Jimmy Wakely
4 Harbor Lights--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Ray Anthony and his Orchestra
--Bing Crosby
5 A Bushel and a Peck--Perry Como and Betty Hutton
--Margaret Whiting and Jimmy Wakely
6 Nevertheless (I’m in Love with You)--Paul Weston and his Orchestra
--The Mills Brothers
--Ralph Flanagan and his Orchestra
--Ray Anthony and his Orchestra
7 Thinking of You--Don Cherry
--Eddie Fisher
8 All My Love (Bolero)--Patti Page
--Percy Faith and his Orchestra
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Bing Crosby
9 Oh, Babe!--Kay Starr
--Louis Prima and Keely Smith
10 To Think You’ve Chosen Me--Eddy Howard

Singles entering the chart were If by Perry Como (#30) and A Penny a Kiss by Tony Martin and Dinah Shore (#35).

Defense
Supreme Commander of NATO--Europe General Dwight D. Eisenhower, returning to West Germany on a goodwill visit, told the Germans that "bygones are bygones" as far as his World War II enmity was concerned.



Journalism
Edmonton's first newspaper, the Edmonton Bulletin, ceased publication with that day's edition. The Bulletin had begun publishing in 1880 under the leadership of future federal cabinet minister Frank Oliver. The paper had rapidly gained in circulation on The Edmonton Journal in its last years, but found it impossible to keep going after the Journal bought up most of the available newsprint on which newspapers were printed.

60 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Poetry in Motion--Johnny Tillotson (3rd week at #1)

On television tonight
The Twilight Zone, on CBS
Tonight’s episode: The Whole Truth, starring Jack Carson

Television
The English-language Montreal station CFCF-TV began broadcasting at 5:45 P.M.

Politics and government
John F. Kennedy was inaugurated as the 35th President of the United States of America. The ceremony included an appearance by Robert Frost reciting his poem The Gift Outright. Mr. Kennedy's inaugural address included the words, "Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty...And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man." NBC televised the event in colour, although it’s not known (by me, anyway) if any of the colour video still exists.





50 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Grandad--Clive Dunn (4th week at #1)

On television tonight
Rod Serling’s Night Gallery, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: They’re Tearing Down Tim Riley’s Bar, starring William Windom, Diane Baker, Bert Convy, and John Randolph; The Last Laurel, starring Jack Cassidy and Martine Beswick

This was the last episode of the series for the season. It was part of the NBC wheel series Four in One, which rotated four series of six episodes each. The first series to run was McCloud, followed by San Francisco International Airport, Rod Serling’s Night Gallery, and The Psychiatrist. McCloud and Rod Serling’s Night Gallery were renewed and expanded to full series in their own right for the 1971-72 season. Mr. Serling’s teleplay for They’re Tearing Down Tim Riley’s Bar was nominated for an Emmy Award in the category of Outstanding Single Program - Drama or Comedy.

Died on this date
Broncho Billy Anderson, 90
. U.S. actor, director, and producer. Mr. Anderson, born Maxwell Henry Aronson, was the first star of Western movies, beginning with The Great Train Robbery (1903), in which he played three roles. He and G.K. Spoor founded Essanay Studios in Chicago in 1907, and Mr. Anderson produced and directed hundreds of short films. He appeared in more than 300 shorts, including 148 Westerns, playing "Broncho Billy." Mr. Anderson retired from acting, making the occasional brief comeback. He received an Honorary Academy Award in 1958 as a "motion picture pioneer."

Radio
CFCT aka Radio Tuktoyaktuk, Canada's first indigenous broadcaster, began broadcasting in English and Inuktutuk to about 650 residents of the Mackenzie River Delta in the Northwest Territories at 6:45 P.M..

Space
The U.S.S.R. launched Meteor 7, the first of three meterological satellites launched in 1971 to form part of the Soviet Union's weather satellite system.

Protest
A demonstration of 1,500 people in support of the movement in defense of Quebec "political prisoners" took place in downtown Montreal.

Labour
In an unprecedented walkout, more than 220,000 British postal workers went on strike for a 15% wage increase.

Disasters
All 31 people aboard were killed when a Peruvian air force transport crashed in the central Andes mountains.

40 years ago
1981


Politics and government
Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as the 40th President of the United States of America. The ceremony was the first presidential inaugural to be held on the western front of the United States Capitol building.





Terrorism
After 444 days in captivity, 52 hostages were freed from the U.S. embassy in Tehran and were escorted out of Iran by Algerian diplomats aboard an Algerian airliner. Following a refuelling stop in Athens, the former hostages were flown to Algiers where they were transferred to the custody of U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Warren Christopher.



30 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Ice Ice Baby--Vanilla Ice (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Sadeness Part I--Enigma (6th week at #1)

Austria's Top 10 (Ö3)
1 Sadeness Part I--Enigma (7th week at #1)
2 Keep on Running--Milli Vanilli
3 Unchained Melody--The Righteous Brothers
4 Ice Ice Baby--Vanilla Ice
5 I'll Be Your Baby Tonight--Robert Palmer and UB40
6 Fantasy--Black Box
7 Crazy for You--David Hasselhoff
8 I've Been Thinking About You--Londonbeat
9 Mary Had a Little Boy--Snap!
10 The Joker--Steve Miller Band

Singles entering the chart were Hello Afrika by Dr. Alban featuring Leila K. (#16); Kränk di net by Jazz Gitti & her Disco Killers (#20); Don't Worry by Kim Appleby (#25); and A Little Time by the Beautiful South (#28).

Died on this date
Joseph Carroll, 80
. U.S. military officer. Lieutenant General Carroll obtained a law degree and worked as a special agent with the Federal Bureau of Investigation from 1940-1947 before joining the newly-created United States Air Force. He was the first director of the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI) (1948-1955), and the first director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (1961-1969). Lt. Gen. Carroll died after a decade-long battle with Alzheimer's disease.

War
Iraq broadcast a videotape of seven captured Allied pilots--Three Americans, two Britons, one Italian, and one Kuwaiti--being paraded blindfolded through the streets of Baghdad. The American pilots appeared dazed and bruised. Several pilots made statements condemning the attacks on Iraq. U.S. General Norman Schwarzkopf said that the Allies had not yet achieved air superiority because Iraqi missiles were still being fired, and Iraq still had airplanes it could use. He said the Allies were attacking the elite Iraqi Republican Guard units in southern Iraq.

Soviet paramilitary troops stormed a government building in the Latvian capital of Riga, killing four Latvians.

Protest
100,000-300,000 people demonstrated in Moscow against the Soviet invasion and occupation of the Baltic republics.

Law
Sudan's government imposed Islamic law nationwide, worsening the civil war between the country's Muslim north and Christian south.

Football
NFL
AFC Championship
Los Angeles Raiders 3 @ Buffalo 51

The Bills scored 21 points in the 1st quarter and 20 in the 2nd as they routed the Raiders before 80,325 fans at Rich Stadium in Orchard Park, New York.



NFC Championship
New York Giants 15 @ San Francisco 13

Matt Bahr kicked 5 field goals, including one from 42 yards on the final play of regulation time, to lead the Giants over the 49ers before 65,750 fans at Candlestick Park.



25 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): Jesus to a Child--George Michael

#1 single in Flanders (VRT): Knockin'--Double Vision (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Wallonia (Ultratop 40): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (8th week at #1)

#1 single in France (SNEP): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (8th week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Ademnood--Linda, Roos & Jessica (7th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Jesus to a Child--George Michael

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 One Sweet Day--Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men (8th week at #1)
2 Exhale (Shoop Shoop)--Whitney Houston
3 Hey Lover--LL Cool J
4 Missing--Everything But the Girl
5 Breakfast at Tiffany's--Deep Blue Something
6 Name--Goo Goo Dolls
7 Diggin' on You--TLC
8 One of Us--Joan Osborne
9 Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V.
10 You'll See--Madonna

Singles entering the chart were Cumbersome by Seven Mary Three (#59); Caught a Lite Sneeze by Tori Amos (#70); Stayin' Alive by N-Trance (#90); All Cried Out by Denine with Collage's Adam Marano (#91); and Energy by Devone (#92).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 One Sweet Day--Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men (6th week at #1)
2 Exhale (Shoop Shoop)--Whitney Houston
3 Hey Lover--LL Cool J
4 Breakfast at Tiffany's--Deep Blue Something
5 Name--Goo Goo Dolls
6 Diggin' on You--TLC
7 Fantasy--Mariah Carey
8 Missing--Everything But the Girl
9 Before You Walk Out of My Life/Like This and Like That--Monica
10 Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V.

Singles entering the chart were Sittin' Up in My Room by Brandy (#29); Let's Play House by Tha Dogg Pound featuring Michel’le (#54); Visions of a Sunset by Shawn Stockman (#60); Just a Girl by No Doubt (#68); Glycerine by Bush (#71); and Fu-Gee-La by the Fugees (Refugee Camp) (#83).

Died on this date
Gerry Mulligan, 68
. U.S. musician. Mr. Mulligan was a jazz baritone saxophonist and pianist, and one of the major figures in the genre of cool jazz.

Politics and government
Palestinian elections endorsed Yasser Arafat as leader, as his party captured 55 of 88 seats on the council.

Hockey
NHL
All-Star Game @ FleetCenter, Boston
East 5 West 4

Ray Bourque of the hometown Bruins scored with 38 seconds remaining in regulation time to give the East the win before 17,565 fans in an unusually good All-Star Game. The East led 3-0 and 4-1 before the West mounted a comeback, with Teemu Selanne of the Winnipeg Jets scoring with 3:29 remaining in the 3rd period to tie the game 4-4. Mr. Bourque was named the game's most valuable player.







10 years ago
2001


Politics and government
George W. Bush was inaugurated as the 43rd President of the United States of America. In his inaugural address, Mr. Bush appealed for civility among the nation’s leaders and called on all Americans to be good citizens. He said that "compassion is the work of a nation, not just a government," and added that America’s grandest ideal was that "everyone belongs, that everyone deserves a chance, that no insignificant person was ever born."





In an unusual session, the United States Senate approved a number of President George W. Bush’s cabinet nominees: Colin Powell--Secretary of State; Donald Rumsfeld--Secretary of Defense; Paul O’Neill--Secretary of the Treasury; Roderick Paige--Secretary of Education; Spencer Abraham--Secretary of Energy; Donald Evans--Secretary of Commerce; Ann Veneman--Secretary of Agriculture.

Scandal
The day after losing the support of key political and military leaders, Philippines President Joseph Estrada was forced out of office amid accusations he had accepted more than US$11 million in kickbacks from tobacco taxes and illegal gambling. He was succeeded as President by Vice-President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo after the country’s Supreme Court declared the presidency vacant after Mr. Estrada had refused to resign by an agreed-upon deadline.

Among the 176 pardons and commutations issued by Bill Clinton in his final hours as President of the United States were those of former Central Intelligence Agency Director John Deutch, who faced prosecution for storing U.S. government secrets on his home computer; newspaper heiress Patty Hearst Shaw, who had long since served a prison sentence for her part in a 1974 bank robbery with the terrorist Symbionese Liberation Army; Mr. Clinton’s half-brother Roger Clinton, who had pleaded guilty to a charge involving cocaine distribution; four Hasidic Jews from New York who had been convicted of embezzlement and who may have lobbied one of the state’s Hasidic communities to vote for First Lady Hillary Clinton in her 2000 U.S. Senate bid; and crooked commodities trader Marc Rich, who had fled to Switzerland in 1983 after being charged with conspiracy, evading more than $48 million in taxes, racketeering, and trading with Iran while that country was holding U.S. hostages. Mr. Rich’s ex-wife Denise had been a significant contributor to the Democratic party and to the Clinton Library, and had lobbied for Mr. Rich’s pardon.

10 years ago
2011


Died on this date
Bruce Gordon, 94
. U.S. actor. Mr. Gordon, born Boris Grabowsky, was a character actor from the 1940s to the 1980s. He was best known for playing gangster Frank Nitti in the television series The Untouchables (1959-1963). Mr. Gordon died 12 days before his 95th birthday.

José Ortiz, 63. Mr. Ortiz was an outfielder with the Chicago White Sox (1969-1970) and Chicago Cubs (1971), batting .301 with no home runs and 6 runs batted in in 67 games. He hit .286 with 30 homers and 365 RBIs in 1,159 games in 11 seasons in the American minor leagues (1966-1976) and .268 with no homers and 7 RBIs in 23 games in 2 seasons in the Mexican League (1975, 1977). Mr. Ortiz managed the Tucson Mexican All-Stars of the rookie Arizona League (1999-2000), compiling a record of 51-60.

Art
Wheel of Conscience, Daniel Libeskind's memorial sculpture to the Jews who fled Nazi persecution on board the M.S. St. Louis in May 1939, but who were turned away by Cuba, the U.S., and Canada, in spite of a June 7, 1939 petition to Prime Minister Mackenzie King, was unveiled at Canada's Immigration Museum at Pier 21 in Halifax.



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