Saturday, 23 January 2021

January 24, 2021

1,980 years ago
41


Died on this date
Caligula (Caius Caesar), 28. Roman Emperor, 37-41. A nut case who made his horse a priest and consul and attempted to erect a statue of himself in the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, Caligula was assassinated by a tribune of the Praetorian Guard and replaced by Claudius I.

370 years ago
1651


War
Spanish and Mapuche authorities met at the Parliament of Boroa, renewing the fragile peace established at the parliaments of Quillín in 1641 and 1647 in attempts to end the Arauco War in Chile.

310 years ago
1711

Music

George Frideric Handel's opera Rinaldo premiered at Queen's Theatre in London's Haymarket.

130 years ago
1891


Born on this date
Walter Model
. German military officer. Generalfeldmarschall Model was known as the Third Reich's best defensive commander, achieving relative success with the Ninth Army in the eastern Front retreats of 1941-1942. His forces experienced failure during the Battle of Bulge (1944-1945), and Fuehrer Adolf Hitler then limited Generalfeldmarschall Model's operational freedom. In early April 1945, with his forces surrounded in the Ruhr pocket by the U.S. 1st and 9th Armies, Generalfeldmarschall Model disobeyed Mr. Hitler's order to keep fighting, and dissolved Army Group B, discharging the oldest and youngest soldiers from service and giving the others the option of surrendering to the Allies or attempting to break out at their discretion. Generalfeldmarschall Model committed suicide at the age of 54 on April 21, 1945 by shooting himself in the head in a forest, after finding out that the Soviets were going to try him for war crimes, and the day after he was denounced by the German Propaganda Ministry as a traitor.

80 years ago
1941


Music
Philadelphia Orchestra director Leopold Stokowski announced that he would train an 85-piece U.S. Army band in California in an experiment to develop more "typically American music," and "modernize" Army bands.

Diplomacy
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt broke diplomatic precedent when he welcomed Viscount Halifax, the new British Ambassador to the United States, when he arrived aboard the new battleship King George V in Chesapeake Bay.

Politics and government
Vichy French Prime Minister Marshal Philippe Petain created a 188-man advisory National Council.

Argentine Foreign Minister Julio Roca tendered his resignation to acting President Ramon Castillo.

Protest
Romanian President Ion Antonescu blamed Vice President Horia Sima, chief of the Iron Guard, for the four-day revolt in Romania, and said that the German army had lend "moral support" in crushing the rebellion.

Labour
U.S. Labor Secretary Frances Perkins reported the largest employment increase in 11 years, bringing the total number of workers to 37.1 million in December 1940.

75 years ago
1946


Movies
The New York State Board of Censors lifted its ban on Scarlet Street (1945) after reviewing the film and persuading producer Walter Wanger to revise and delete some portions.

War
At the trial of accused Nazi war criminals in Nuremberg, the French prosecution charged that at least 29,660 French hostages had been executed by the Nazis during World War II. The first war crimes trial in China held by Americans began with 18 Japanese charged with the torture and execution of U.S. airmen.

Defense
The U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff announced that airborne atomic bomb tests against warships would be held in May and July at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands.

General Carl Spaatz was named head of the United States Army Air Forces by President Harry Truman, and called for a peacetime air force of 400,000 men and 6,000 planes.

Politics and government
National Democratic Front leader Julio Ernesto Portugal headed a new Peruvian government which, for the first time, included three members of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA).

Diplomacy
The U.S. State Department reported that Siam had agreed to respect treaties made with the United States before World War II.

Energy
The United Nations General Assembly passed its first resolution, establishing the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission.

Economics and finance
The United Kingdom and Greece signed an agreement giving Greece a £10-million loan to stabilize the drachma, and £500,000 in direct assistance.

Allied headquarters in Japan ordered the Japanese government to cease deficit financing or printing additional banknotes, and directed the government to try to balance the budget.

Labour
U.S. President Harry Truman ordered the Agriculture Department to seize and operate 134 plants of 17 meat packing companies at midnight January 25 if striking workers did not resume their jobs by then.

70 years ago
1951


Television
The Emmy Awards for 1950 were presented at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. It was the third and last year in which the awards were primarily for shows produced or broadcast in the Los Angeles area. Winners included: Dramatic Show--Pulitzer Prize Playhouse (KECA); Actor--Alan Young; Actress--Gertrude Berg; Outstanding Personality--Groucho Marx (KNBH).

Diplomacy
Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, in a broadcast from New Delhi, blamed both sides for the current Korean War impasse, and criticized the Untied States for continuing to keep Communist China out of the United Nations and for advancing beyond the 38th Parallel in October 1950.

Politics and government
Dutch Prime Minister Willem Drees' coalition cabinet resigned in a dispute over Indonesian policy. Foreign Minister Dirk Stikker quit when his own Liberal Party criticized him for offering to share administration of West New Guinea with Indonesia.

Education
Governor James Byrnes assured the South Carolina legislature that the state's public schools would continue to be segregated despite the demands of "Negro agitators" and Washington "politicians."

Medicine
Dr. Gregory Schwartzman, writing in Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology amd Medicine, reported tests which revealed that the adrenal gland hormone cortisone increased susceptibility to polio.

Economics and finance
The American Iron and Steel Institute predicted that annual capacity of the U.S. steel industry would be expanded by 17.5 million tons during the next two years from its present 104,229,650-ton yearly level.

Disasters
A race of 20 yachts celebrating the centenary of Canterbury, New Zealand turned tragic when a severe southerly storm struck, resulting in the loss of the yachts Husky and Argo, and their 10 crew members.

60 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in Norway (VG-lista): Seemann--Lolita (2nd week at #1)

On television tonight
Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond, hosted by John Newland, on ABC
Tonight's episode: The Sacred Mushroom

This episode was a documentary about the use of psychedelic drugs.



Alfred Hitchcock Presents, on NBC
Tonight's episode: A Crime for Mothers, starring Claire Trevor and Biff Elliot

Thriller, hosted by Boris Karloff, on NBC
Tonight's episode: Choose a Victim, starring Larry Blyden, Susan Oliver, and Vaughn Taylor



Died on this date
A.C. Gilbert, 76
. U.S. athlete and businessman. Alfred Carlton Gilbert set a world record for consecutive chin-ups (39) in 1900, set two world records in pole vault, and shared the gold medal in the pole vault at the 1908 Olympic Games in London. He had a medical degree, but in 1907 founded the company that became the A. C. Gilbert Company, manufacturing erector sets, more than 30 million of which were sold by 1935. Mr. Gilbert became known as "the man who saved Christmas" in 1918 when he successfully argued against a proposed U.S. government ban on toy production during World War I. He branched out in to educational toys, accumulating more than 130 patents, and co-founding the Toy Association. In 1941, Mr. Gilbert opened the Gilbert Hall of Science in New York City, promoting interest in science and his products. In 1950, the Gilbert Hall of Science produced its most notorious toy, the Gilbert U-238 Atomic Energy Laboratory, which contained radioactive material. Mr. Gilbert turned his company over to his son in 1954; it was sold to film and television producer Jack Wrather in 1961, and went out of business six years later.

Divorced on this date
Marilyn Monroe. U.S. actress; Arthur Miller. U.S. playwright. The divorce, after a marriage of less than five years, took place in Mexico, shortly before The Misfits--a movie written by Mr. Miller and starring Miss Monroe--was about to be released in theatres.

Disasters
A Boeing B-52 Stratofortress carrying two 3–4-megaton Mark 39 nuclear bombs broke up in mid-air, dropping its nuclear payload near Goldsboro, North Carolina. Five crewmen successfully ejected and landed safely, another ejected but didn't survive the landing, and two more died in the crash of the plane. One bomb came close to detonating, and was found upright as a result of its parachute being caught in a tree. The other plunged into a muddy field at about 700 miles per hour and disintegrated without detonating; parts of that bomb were recovered, but much of it remains where it landed.

50 years ago
1971


Died on this date
Bill Wilson, 75
. U.S. social reformer. Mr. Wilson, better known as Bill W., was a drunkard who co-founded Alcoholics Anonymous with Bob Smith in 1935. Mr. Wilson and AA were enormously influential in changing the view of drunkenness from a sin to an illness. John Lanagan, in his blog The Word Like Fire, provides much useful information on the occult roots of AA. Mr. Wilson practiced necromancy and was a heavy smoker who died of emphysema complicated by pneumonia.

War
For the fifth time since January 1966, South Vietnam released Communist prisoners of war. 37 sick or disabled captives were freed, bringing the total to 231.

Environment
Panarctic Oils capped a natural gas well on King Christian Island in the Northwest Territories that had burned out of control for three months.

Football
NFL
Pro Bowl @ Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
NFC 27 AFC 6

40 years ago
1981


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Anna Dai Capelli Rossi--I Ragazzi Dai Capelli Rossi (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Santa Maria--Roland Kaiser (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland: (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Imagine--John Lennon (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Imagine--John Lennon (3rd week at #1)

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Lola (Live)--The Kinks (3rd week at #1)
2 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
3 Runaway Boys--Stray Cats
4 Funkin' for Jamaica (N.Y.)--Tom Browne
5 Baggy Trousers--Madness
6 Mama He's a Soldier Now--Saskia & Serge
7 Santa Maria--Roland Kaiser
8 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon
9 Stop the Cavalry--Jona Lewie
10 Een barg die hé un krul in de steert--De Aal

Singles entering the chart were Stars on 45 by Stars on 45 (#25); Flip Fluitketel/Er Staat Een Paard In De Gang by André Van Duin (#27); Ik Wil Op M'n Kop Een Kamerbreed Tapijt by Barry Hughes & De Kwaffeurs (#29); Net as Gisteren by Normaal (#34); Midnight Cowboy by John Barry (#38); and Fred Astaire by Mo (#39). Stars on 45 was a medley of Venus; Sugar, Sugar; and eight Beatles' songs, and was the first of what fortunately was a short-lived fad; it was the worst single of its time. Midnight Cowboy was the title theme of the movie, and had been released in North America in 1969.

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (5th week at #1)
2 Love on the Rocks--Neil Diamond
3 The Tide is High--Blondie
4 Guilty--Barbra Streisand (Duet with Barry Gibb)
5 Hungry Heart--Bruce Springsteen
6 Every Woman in the World--Air Supply
7 Passion--Rod Stewart
8 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
9 It's My Turn--Diana Ross
10 De Do Do Do, De Da Da Da--The Police

Singles entering the chart were The Best of Times by Styx (#31); Crying by Don McLean (#37); Hearts on Fire by Randy Meisner (#65); Kiss on My List by Daryl Hall & John Oates (#69); Too Tight by ConFunkShun (#75); Precious to Me by Phil Seymour (#78); Staying with It by Firefall (#81); Living in a Fantasy by Leo Sayer (#85); I Don't Want to Know Your Name by Glen Campbell (#87); Wynken, Blynken and Nod by the Doobie Brothers (#88); Seasons by Charles Fox (#89); and Lipstick by Suzi Quatro (#90).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (5th week at #1)
2 The Tide is High--Blondie
3 Lady--Kenny Rogers
4 Love on the Rocks--Neil Diamond
5 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
6 Hungry Heart--Bruce Springsteen
7 Passion--Rod Stewart
8 Guilty--Barbra Streisand (Duet with Barry Gibb)
9 Every Woman in the World--Air Supply
10 Hit Me with Your Best Shot--Pat Benatar

Singles entering the chart were The Best of Times by Styx (#31); Crying by Don McLean (#43); Kiss on My List by Daryl Hall & John Oates (#73); Hearts on Fire by Randy Meisner (#74); Guitar Man by Elvis Presley (#79); Living in a Fantasy by Leo Sayer (#85); Too Tight by ConFunkShun (#86); I Don't Want to Know Your Name by Glen Campbell (#87); Staying with It by Firefall (#88); Fly Away by Peter Allen (#90); Remote Control by the Reddings (#96); and Look Up by Patrice Rushen (#98). Guitar Man was a new recording of the song that had been a hit for Mr. Presley in 1968, using the original vocal track and a new instrumental track.

U.S.A. Top 10 (Record World)
1 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (4th week at #1)
2 The Tide is High--Blondie
3 Every Woman in the World--Air Supply
4 Another One Bites the Dust--Queen
5 Hit Me with Your Best Shot--Pat Benatar
6 Passion--Rod Stewart
7 More than I Can Say--Leo Sayer
8 Guilty--Barbra Streisand (Duet with Barry Gibb)
9 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
10 I Made it Through the Rain--Barry Manilow

Singles entering the chart were The Best of Times by Styx (#33); Crying by Don McLean (#36); Kiss on My List by Daryl Hall & John Oates (#74); Flash's Theme aka Flash by Queen (#79); Hearts on Fire by Randy Meisner (#84); Living in a Fantasy by Leo Sayer (#87); I Just Love the Man by the Jones Girls (#98); and Staying with It by Firefall (#100).

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (4th week at #1)
2 Lady--Kenny Rogers
3 Woman in Love--Barbra Streisand
4 Don't Stand So Close to Me--The Police
5 Wasn't That a Party--The Rovers
6 The Tide is High--Blondie
7 Turning Japanese--The Vapors
8 More than I Can Say--Leo Sayer
9 Hungry Heart--Bruce Springsteen
10 Another One Bites the Dust--Queen

Singles entering the chart were Hey Nineteen by Steely Dan (#29); Turn Me Loose by Loverboy (#34); Looking for Clues by Robert Palmer (#39); He Can't Love You by the Michael Stanley Band (#40); Keep on Loving You by REO Speedwagon (#41); Fashion Victim by Rough Trade (#45); Turn and Walk Away by the Babys (#47); and Giving it Up for Your Love by Delbert McClinton (#50).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CFUN)
1 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (5th week at #1)
2 Passion--Rod Stewart
3 Switchin' to Glide--The Kings
4 The Tide is High--Blondie
5 Tell it Like it Is--Heart
6 De Do Do Do, De Da Da Da--The Police
7 Looking for Clues--Robert Palmer
8 Love on the Rocks--Neil Diamond
9 Whip It--Devo
10 Guilty--Barbra Streisand (Duet with Barry Gibb)

Singles entering the chart were Games People Play by the Alan Parsons Project (#28); and The Winner Takes it All by ABBA (#30).

World events
South Korean President Chun Doo Hwan lifted martial law in his country after 456 days of total or partial military authority dating back to the 1979 assassination of President Park Chung Hee. The midnight-4 A.M. curfew that had been in place since 1945 remained in effect. President Chun also commuted the death sentence of opposition politician Kim Dae Jung to life imprisonment. The moves were among a series of actions made by Mr. Chun prior to a trip to Washington in February to meet with U.S. President Ronald Reagan.

Protest
Millions of Polish workers obeyed the call of the trade union movement Solidarity to take the day off.

Business
Seven major Japanese commercial banks wrote off a large portion of their claims against Chrysler Corporation. Chrysler had requested an 85% writeoff on the $156 million that it had borrowed from the banks, as a condition laid down by the U.S. Federal Loan Guarantee Board when it approved Chrysler’s application for extra loan guarantees totalling $400 million. The Japanese banks felt that they had no alternative, since Chrysler had to be rescued financially.

Grumman Corporation notified officials in 27 U.S. cities that it had found a flaw in its Flxible buses that might cause the driver to lose control of the bus. Grumman said that the buses should be inspected and taken out of service if necessary, with Grumman paying to repair the defect. A total of 2,600 Flxible buses had been purchased.

Hockey
NHL
Philadelphia 3 @ Montreal 6

30 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Do the Bartman--The Simpsons

Died on this date
Jack Schaefer, 83
. U.S. author. Mr. Schaefer was known for his Western novels, especially Shane (1949) and Monte Walsh (1963).

John M. Kelly, 59. Irish politician. Professor Kelly, a law professor and member of the Fine Gael party, held several cabinet posts in a parliamentary career running from 1973-1989.

War
Canadian warplanes completed their first combat mission of the Gulf War, escorting U.S. fighter bombers over Iraq. Allied forces were able to retake a small Kuwaiti island, the first piece of territory freed from Iraqi occupation. Allied combat missions totalled 8,000, with Allied military casualties--dead and missing--reported at 30.

Health
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control announced that 161,073 people had contracted AIDS in the United States, and that 100,077 had died.

25 years ago
1996


Scandal
Polish Prime Minister Józef Oleksy resigned amid allegations of a close connection with Vladimir Alganov, an official with the Soviet KGB secret police.

Hockey
NHL
Pittsburgh 4 @ Ottawa 3

The game was the first for Jacques Martin as head coach of the Senators; he joined the team that day from the Colorado Avalanche, where he had been an assistant coach. Mr. Martin replaced Dave Allison, who had posted a record of 8-35-1 as head coach of the Senators in 1995-96.

20 years ago
2001


Died on this date
Dick Whittinghill, 87
. U.S. singer and disc jockey. Mr. Whittinghill was an original member of the Pied Pipers singing group in the late 1930s and early '40s. He was the morning disc jockey at KMPC in Los Angeles from 1950-1980, and later hosted a recorded Sunday program on the station. He subsequently worked as the late afternoon DJ on Los Angeles station KPRZ.

Politics and government
The United States Senate approved two more of President George W. Bush's cabinet nominees: Tommy Thompson--Secretary of Health and Human Services; Norman Mineta--Secretary of Transportation.

U.K. Secretary for Northern Ireland Peter Mandelson resigned from the cabinet of Prime Minister Tony Blair over a dispute concerning a passport application from Indian billionaire Srichand Hinduja. A subsequent inquiry cleared Mr. Mandelson of any wrongdoing.

10 years ago
2011


Terrorism
At least 37 people were killed and 173 injured in a suicide bombing at Moscow's Domodedovo International Airport. The bomber was a 20-year-old from the North Caucasus, with the attack aimed "first and foremost" at foreign citizens.

Crime
Jared Lee Loughner pleaded not guilty in Phoenix to federal charges that he'd tried to kill U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords and two of her aides in a shooting rampage in Tucson on January 8 that had claimed six lives.

Politics and government
Dave Taylor, Member of the Alberta Legislative Assembly for Calgary-Currie, announced that he was joining the Alberta Party, becoming the party's first MLA. He was elected in 2004 as a Liberal, but left the party in April 2010 as a result of discontent with the party's leadership under David Swann, and sat as an independent until joining the Alberta Party.

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