Tuesday, 23 March 2021

March 23, 2021

220 years ago
1801


Died on this date
Pavel I, 46
. Czar of Russia, 1796-1801. Pavel I acceded to the throne upon the death of his mother Catherine II "the Great." He adopted the laws of succession to the Russian throne, which lasted until the end of the Romanov dynasty and of the Russian Empire. Czar Paul intervened in the French Revolutionary Wars and added Kartli and Kakheti in Eastern Georgia into the empire. He introduced reforms providing for better treatment of the peasantry, which angered the nobility. Czar Pavel was at St. Michael's Castle in St. Petersburg when he was murdered by a band of military officers who had been dismissed. When Czar Pavel refused to sign his abdication, they struck him with a sword, strangled him, and finally trampled him to death inside his bedroom. He was succeeded on the throne by his son Aleksandr I, 23, who was in the castle and had consented to the abdication, but hadn't thought it would lead to murder.

200 years ago
1821


War
Greek revolutionary forces under the command of Generals Theodoros Kolokotronis, Petros Mavromichalis and Papaflessas took the city of Kalamata, liberating it from Ottoman rule.

140 years ago
1881


Born on this date
Roger Martin du Gard
. French author. Mr. Martin du Gard was awarded the 1937 Nobel Prize in Literature "for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel cycle Les Thibault." He died on August 22, 1958 at the age of 77.

Hermann Staudinger. German chemist. Dr. Staudinger was awarded the 1953 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry." He died on September 8, 1965 at the age of 84.

Lacey Hearn. U.S. runner. Mr. Hearn was a middle-distance runner specializing in the 1500 metre distance. He won a bronze medal in that event and was part of the team that won a silver medal in the 4 mile team race at the 1904 Olympic Games in St. Louis. Mr. Hearn died on October 19, 1969 at the age of 88.

120 years ago
1901


War
Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo was captured at his headquarters in Palanan, Isabela by Macabebe Scouts forces led by General Frederick Funston.

100 years ago
1921


Born on this date
Donald Campbell
. U.K. auto racing and speedboat driver. Mr. Campbell set eight world speed records on land and water during the 1950s and '60s. He was killed on January 4, 1967 at the age of 45 while attempting to break his own record in his speedboat Bluebird K7.

Politics and government
Mary Ellen Smith was appointed as minister without portfolio in the British Columbia government of Premier John Oliver, becoming the first female Cabinet member in the British Empire. She resigned just eight months later, stating that “a Cabinet minister without portfolio is as a fifth wheel on the political couch, a superfluity.”

90 years ago
1931


On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Richard Gordon and Leigh Lovell, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Lion’s Mane

Died on this date
Sukhdev Thapar, 23
; Bhagat Singh, 23; Shivaram Rajguru, 22. Indian revolutionists. Messrs. Singh and Rajguru were socialists who assassinated Assistant Police Superintendent John P. Saunders on December 17, 1928 in reprisal for the recent death of Indian independence activist Lala Lajpat Rai, who had died a month earlier, 18 days after being beaten by British police while leading a peaceful protest in Lahore. Mr. Thapar was involved in the assassination of Mr. Saunders, and was arrested and sentenced to death after bombings at the Central Assembly Hall in New Delhi in 1929. The three men were hanged in the Lahore jail.

80 years ago
1941


War
German aircraft bombed Malta for the third straight day.

Diplomacy
Japanese Foreign Minister Yōsuke Matsuoka stopped over in Moscow on his way to Berlin.

Transportation
The Vichy French government authorized construction of a railroad across 1,500 miles of the Sahara Desert to link France's northern and Equatorial African possessions.

Academia
The Rapp-Coudert Committee investigating Communist activity in New York colleges reported to the New York state legislature that the New York college system should not be judged on the basis of the Communist activities exposed in recent weeks.

Labour
The eight-day Congress of Industrial Organizations strike at the Los Angeles plant of Harvill Aircraft Die Casting Corporation was settled.

75 years ago
1946


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Oh! What it Seemed to Be--Frankie Carle and His Orchestra with Marjorie Hughes (Best Seller--2nd week at #1; Airplay--1st week at #1; Juke Box--2nd week at #1; Honor Roll of Hits--3rd week at #1)

Died on this date
Francisco Largo Caballero, 76
. Prime Minister of Spain, 1936-1937. Mr. Largo was a member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), which formed part of the government of the Second Spanish Republic. He led the Marxist wing of the party, and took office as Prime Minister on September 4, 1936, several months into the Spanish Civil War. He was forced to resign on May 17, 1937, and was succeeded by fellow PSOE member Juan Negrín. When the Republic was defeated by the forces of Francisco Franco in 1939, Mr. Largo fled to France. He spent most of World War II in a Nazi concentration camp, but was liberated at the end of the war, and died in exile in Paris.

Gilbert Lewis, 70. U.S. chemist. Dr. Lewis was known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize 35 times, but never won, while his rival Irving Langmuir had won the Nobel Prize in 1932. After having lunch with Dr. Langmuir, Dr. Lewis played a game of bridge and then went to his laboratory to work on an experiment with hydrogen cyanide. He was found dead, as broken lines had allowed deadly fumes into the room. The official cause of death was coronary artery disease, but many suspected suicide.

Diplomacy
United Nations Secretary-General Trygve Lie named John B. Hutson of the United States as assistant Secretary-General in charge of administrative and financial services.

U.S. President Harry Truman named Averell Harriman as U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom.

Labour
Walter Reuther announced that he would run against R.J. Thomas for the presidency of the Congress of Industrial Organizations United Auto Workers.

70 years ago
1951


On the radio
Hear it Now, hosted by Edward R. Murrow, on CBS

Tonight's program included news about crime boss Frank Costello's testimony before the U.S. Senate Crime Investigating Committee's hearings in New York.

War
U.S. paratroops landed near Munsan, northwest of Seoul, eliminating the last major Communist pocket in Korea below the 38th Parallel.

World events
The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine announced plans to settle 50,000 Arab refugees from Palestine in Egypt's Sinai desert.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Harry Truman signed a 90-day extension of federal rent controls.

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the cost-of-living index had risen 1.3% between January 15 and February 15, to a record 184.2% of the 1935-1939 average.

60 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (Lever Hit Parade): Sailor--Petula Clark

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): Wooden Heart--Elvis Presley

On television tonight
The Untouchables, starring Robert Stack, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Murder Under Glass



At the movies
Wings of Chance, a movie filmed in Jasper National Park and Edmonton, Alberta had its world premiere screening at the Rialto Theatre in Edmonton. The film was directed by Edward Dew, and starred James Brown and Frances Rafferty. In addition to the feature, a highlight film was shown of the March 13 world heavyweight championship fight between champion Floyd Patterson and former champion Ingemar Johansson.

Diplomacy
The United Kingdom, after consultations with the United States, submitted to the Soviet Union proposals for ending the civil war in Laos. The British note called on the U.S.S.R. to join in an appeal to both the Laotian government and the Pathet Lao rebels for an immediate cease-fire, and proposed that the U.K. and U.S.S.R., as co-chairs on the 1954 Geneva conference on Indo-China, then call on India to reconvene the International Control Commission for Laos to verify the effectiveness of the cease-fire. The note agreed to a Soviet proposal for an international conference "to consider a settlement of Laotian problems," but stipulated that the conference would be held only after the commission had confirmed a cease-fire.The British proposed that the conferees include those from the 1954 Geneva conference--U.K.; U.S.A.; U.S.S.R.; France; Communist China; Laos; Cambodia; Vietnam; and the Communist Viet Minh.

Defense
In a nationally-televised press conference, U.S. President John F. Kennedy said that the United States would not permit Laos to be taken over by externally supported pro-Communist rebel forces: "No one should doubt our resolution on this point. We are faced with a clear and one-sided threat of a change in the internationally agreed position of Laos. This threat runs counter to the will of the Laotian people, who wish only to be independent and neutral. It is posed rather by the military operation of internal dissident elements directed from outside the country. This is what must end, if peace is to be achieved in Southeast Asia." President Kennedy used three large maps to point out the areas of Laos captured by Communists. He said that if the Communist attacks in Laos did not stop, the U.S. and its allies, particularly within SEATO, "will have to consider their response." He expressed strong support for the Western proposals for a cease-fire and negotiations contained in a British note to the U.S.S.R.



Politics and government
U.S. President Kennedy was interviewed by NBC correspondent Ray Scherer for the special program JFK Report No. 2. Mr. Kennedy talked about the members of his staff and their duties.



The Democratic Party won 44 of 82 seats in the Legislative Council in the Ugandan general election. It was the first time direct elections to the Legislative Council had been held across the entire country. The Uganda People's Congress was second with 35 seats.

50 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Kvällstoppen): Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson

#1 single in Switzerland (Swiss Hitparade): Butterfly--Danyel Gérard (5th week at #1)

World events
A three-man junta led by Argentina’s Army Commander Alejandro Agustin Lanusse ousted President Roberto Marcelo Levingston, following a week of severe rioting in Cordoba.

Politics and government
Brian Faulkner was elected leader of the Ulster Unionist Party and was sworn in as Prime Minister of Northern Ireland the same day, three days after the resignation of James Chichester-Clark from both positions.

The United States House of Representatives voted 400-19 to ratify the proposed 26th Amendment to the Constitution, lowering the voting age to 18 years in all elections. Within an hour of the House vote, the state legislatures of Minnesota and Delaware had ratified the measure, and Tennessee, Connecticut, and Washington followed within a few hours.

Diplomacy
U.S. Senator Henry Jackson (Democrat--Washington) cast doubt on the U.S. position on the Middle East, asserting that legitimizing a Soviet military presence in Egypt under the guise of a peacekeeping role would be "courting disaster." Senate majority leader Mike Mansfield (Democrat--Montana) cautioned against setting U.S. troops in the midst of a world tinderbox. Senator J. William Fulbright (Democrat--Arkansas), chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and an opponent of the Vietnam policy of the administration of President Richard Nixon, backed Secretary of State William Rogers’ support for a multinational peacekeeping force, charging that Israel "leaves the impression that as long as we support her she will not withdraw from anything."

40 years ago
1981


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Antmusic--Adam and the Ants

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Machikado Twilight--Chanels (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Another One Bites the Dust--Queen

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Fade to Grey--Visage (3rd week at #1)

Died on this date
Beatrice Tinsley, 40
. U.K.-born astronomer. Dr. Tinsley moved to New Zealand with her family at the age of 5, and moved permanently to the United States in 1963. She taught at the University of Texas and then at Yale University, making fundamental contributions to the understanding of how galaxies evolve, grow and die. Dr. Tinsley died of cancer.

Law
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states could require, with some exceptions, parental notification when teenage girls sought abortions.

Crime
Ronnie Biggs, the leader of Britain’s "Great Train Robbery" of 1963 who had escaped from prison in 1970 and had been reported missing from his Brazilian home on March 18 after being carried out of a Rio de Janeiro restaurant two days earlier, turned up as a prisoner in Barbados, having been kidnapped by agents of a London-based security company.

Health
The British government banned all animal transport on the Isle of Wight and in southern Hampshire in an attempt to contain a new outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. Infected animals had been discovered in Jersey the week before, the first cases in the U.K. in 13 years.

30 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Australian Music Report): Sucker DJ (A Witch for Love)--Dimples D.

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Se Stiamo Insieme--Riccardo Cocciante (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): The Grease Megamix--John Travolta & Olivia Newton-John (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Crazy--Seal (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France (SNEP): Wind of Change--Scorpions (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (CIN): The Stonk-- Hale and Pace

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Liefde Voor Muziek--Raymond v/h Groenewoud (2nd week at #1)
2 Do the Bartman--The Simpsons
3 Crazy--Seal
4 The Grease Megamix--John Travolta & Olivia Newton-John
5 Because I Love You (The Postman Song)--Stevie B.
6 (I Wanna Give You) Devotion--Nomad featuring Mc Mikee Freedom
7 3 A.M. Eternal (Live at the S.S.L.)--The KLF
8 Papa--Stef Bos
9 Joyride--Roxette
10 Goede Tijden Slechte Tijden--Lisa Boray & Louis De Vries

Singles entering the chart were Unfinished Sympathy by Massive (#16); Let There Be Love by Simple Minds (#24); Should I Stay or Should I Go by the Clash (#31); Nobody Else by Rene Froger (#34); Uptown by Womack & Womack (#36); and Get the Funk Out by Extreme (#38).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 One More Try--Timmy -T-
2 Someday--Mariah Carey
3 Coming Out of the Dark--Gloria Estefan
3 Show Me the Way--Styx
4 This House--Tracie Spencer
5 Get Here--Oleta Adams
6 Hold You Tight--Tara Kemp
7 You're in Love--Wilson Phillips
8 I've Been Thinking About You--Londonbeat
9 Rescue Me--Madonna
10 Sadeness Part 1--Enigma

Singles entering the chart were Silent Lucidity by Queensryche (#67); More than Words by Extreme (#81); Another Like My Lover by Jasmine Guy (#82); My Heart is Failing Me by Riff (#83); Wrap My Body Tight by Johnny Gill (#88); Do You Want Me by Salt-N-Pepa (#91); and Here I Am (Come and Take Me) by UB40 (#97).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Someday--Mariah Carey (2nd week at #1)
2 One More Try--Timmy -T-
3 Coming Out of the Dark--Gloria Estefan
4 All the Man that I Need--Whitney Houston
5 This House--Tracie Spencer
6 All This Time--Sting
7 Hold You Tight--Tara Kemp
8 Show Me the Way--Styx
9 You’re in Love--Wilson Phillips
10 I’ve Been Thinking About You--Londonbeat

Singles entering the chart were Save Some Love by Keedy (#61); I Like the Way (The Kissing Game) by Hi-Five (#74); Silent Lucidity by Queensryche (#79); Heartbreak Station by Cinderella (#81); More than Words by Extreme (#87); One in a Million by Trixter (#88); How Much is Enough by the Fixx (#89); and My Heart is Failing Me by Riff (#90).

Canada’s Top 10 (RPM)
1 Someday--Mariah Carey (2nd week at #1)
2 All This Time--Sting
3 Coming Out of the Dark--Gloria Estefan
4 Wicked Game--Chris Isaak
5 Waiting for Love--Alias
6 You’re in Love--Wilson Phillips
7 Show Me the Way--Styx
8 Rescue Me--Madonna
9 Waiting for that Day--George Michael
10 Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)--C+C Music Company featuring Freedom Williams

Singles entering the chart were Highwire by the Rolling Stones (#34); Rhythm of My Heart by Rod Stewart (#37); I Gotta Go by Barney Bentall (#64); That's Freedom by John Farnham (#66); Heartbreak Station by Cinderella (#70); Baby Baby by Amy Grant (#75); Animal Heart by Glass Tiger (#79); Valentine by Nils Lofgren (#81); and Right Here, Right Now by Jesus Jones (#85).

Died on this date
Parkash Singh, 77
. Indian soldier. Major Singh was serving with the British Indian Army during World War II when he was awarded the Victoria Cross for driving off Japanese soldiers while aiding Indian comrades in combat on the Mayu Peninsula in Burma in Jaunary 1943. He died in London while undergoing heart surgery, eight days before his 78th birthday.

War
The Revolutionary United Front, with support from the special forces of Charles Taylor's National Patriotic Front of Liberia, invaded Sierra Leone in an attempt to overthrow Joseph Saidu Momoh, sparking the 11-year Sierra Leone Civil War.

Politics and government
British Prime Minister John Major outlined plans for a "citizen's charter" to maintain standards and improve "every part of the public services."

Economics and finance
Los Angeles Kings' owner Bruce McNall and centre Wayne Gretzky bought a rare 1910 Honus Wagner baseball card at auction at Sotheby's in New York for $451,000, breaking the record price of $115,000 in 1989 for another Honus Wagner card.

Hockey
NHL
Los Angeles 8 @ Calgary 4
Winnipeg 3 @ Edmonton 0

CIAU
Men's championship semi-finals
Alberta 5 Waterloo 4 (2 OT)

25 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): One of Us--Joan Osborne (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (VRT): Con te partirò--Andrea Bocelli (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Wallonia (Ultratop 40): Children--Robert Miles

#1 single in France (SNEP): Children--Robert Miles

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Per spoor (Kedeng kedeng)--Guus Meeuwis & Vagant (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): How Deep Is Your Love--Take That (3rd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Because You Loved Me--Celine Dion
2 Nobody Knows--The Tony Rich Project
3 Sittin' Up in My Room--Brandy
4 Not Gon' Cry--Mary J. Blige
5 One Sweet Day--Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men
6 Down Low (Nobody Has to Know)--R. Kelly featuring Ronald Isley
7 Ironic--Alanis Morissette
8 Missing--Everything But the Girl
9 Follow You Down/Til I Hear it from You--Gin Blossoms
10 One of Us--Joan Osborne

Singles entering the chart were Real Love by the Beatles (#11); Count on Me by Whitney Houston and CeCe Winans (#32); Release Me by Angelina (#74); Renee by Lost Boyz (#79); Funkorama by Redman (#82); Can't Get You Off My Mind by Lenny Kravitz (#96); and Esa Nena Linda by Artie the 1 Man Party (#98). Count on Me was from the movie Waiting to Exhale (1995).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Sittin' Up in My Room--Brandy (2nd week at #1)
2 Nobody Knows--The Tony Rich Project
3 Down Low (Nobody Has to Know)--R. Kelly (featuring Ronald Isley and Ernie Isley)
4 Because You Loved Me--Céline Dion
5 One Sweet Day--Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men
6 Not Gon' Cry--Mary J. Blige
7 Til I Hear it from You/Follow You Down--Gin Blossoms
8 Wonderwall--Oasis
9 Lady--D’Angelo
10 Ironic--Alanis Morissette

Singles entering the chart were Ironic; Keep On, Keepin' On by MC Lyte featuring Xscape (#62); Give Me...a Reason by Buffy (#78); High and Dry by Radiohead (#80); Scent of Attraction by Patra with Aaron Hall (#90); Stairway to Heaven by Pure Soul (#92); and Slow Jams by Quincy Jones featuring Babyface & Tamia with Portrait & Barry White (#93).

Politics and government
Incumbent President Lee Teng-hui, representing the Kuomintang, was elected President of Taiwan with Lien Chan as Vice President in the country's first direct presidential election. Mr. Lee took 54.0% of the vote to 21.1% for Democratic Progressive Party candidate Peng Ming‑min.

20 years ago
2001


Died on this date
Rowland Evans, 79
. U.S. journalist. Mr. Evans was a conservative political reporter in Washington, D.C. who partnered with Robert Novak to write a synidcated column, which began running in newspapers in 1963. The newsletter Evans-Novak Political Report began publication in 1967. The pair hosted the television panel program Evans & Novak on CNN from the early 1980s until Mr. Evans' death from esophageal cancer, just over a month before his 80th birthday.

David McTaggart, 68. Canadian badminton player and environmentalist. Mr. McTaggart, a native of Vancouver, won the men's singles competition in the Canadian national championships for three straight years (1956-1958) and was a successful property developer, but became best known for his environmental activism. He was involved with Greenpeace in its early years in the 1970s, and became chairman of Greenpeace International upon its founding in 1979. Mr. McTaggart founded the Third Millennium Foundation, a peace organization, in 1987. He was killed in a car accident near his home in Italy.

Space
The Russian space station Mir, the largest spacecraft (143 tons/130 metric tons) ever to decay, fell to Earth, showering an estimated 1,500 fragments of 44 pounds (20 kilograms) or more over an uninhabited area 120 miles (193 kilometres) wide by 3,600 miles (5795 km) long in the South Pacific Ocean, near Fiji. Mir had been in Earth orbit for 15 years.

World events
U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell announced that he had ordered the expulsion of more than 40 Russian diplomats, saying that they were intelligence officials working as diplomats. Russia retaliated by expelling 4 U.S. diplomats from Moscow and asking 46 more to leave by July.

War
Macedonia used attack helicopters against ethnic Albanian rebels for the first time since the outbreak of violence several weeks earlier.

Politics and government
Former Reform Party of Canada leader Preston Manning said that he was retiring from politics to enter the private sector.

10 years ago
2011


Died on this date
Elizabeth Taylor, 79
. U.K.-born actress. Dame Elizabeth appeared in more than 50 movies and more than a dozen television programs and made-for-television movies in a career spanning almost 60 years. She was one of the biggest stars of the 1950s and '60s, receiving five Academy Award nominations, winning for her starring performances in BUtterfield 8 (1960) and Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966). Dame Elizabeth's career began to decline in the late 1960s, but she maintained her status as a celebrity. She attracted publicity for her eight marriages, and was twice married to actor and frequent co-star Richard Burton. Dame Elizabeth suffered from health problems for much of her life, and died of congestive heart failure, 24 days after her 79th birthday.

Law
The Canadian government of Prime Minister Stephen Harper repealed the controversial "faint hope" clause, which allowed those convicted of first and second-degree murder to request an early parole hearing after serving 15 years.

Science
A Suncor Energy shovel operator discovered bones, believed to be of the Ankylosaur group of dinosaurs from around 110 million years ago, at an oilsands mine north of Fort McMurray, Alberta.

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