Thursday, 1 April 2021

April 1, 2021

1,025 years ago
996


Died on this date
John XV
. Roman Catholic Pope, 985-996. John XV, son of a Roman presbyter, succeeded John XIV as Pope. He became the first pope to canonize a saint when he canonized Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg in 993. A dispute over the deposition of Archbishop Arnulf of Reims by French churchmen in 991 was a precursor to the investiture controversy between kings and popes. Pope John XV died from a fever and was succeeded by Gregory V.

580 years ago
1441


Died on this date
Blanche I, 53
. Queen consort of Sicily, 1402-1409; Queen of Navarre, 1425-1441. Blanche I, the second daughter of King Charles III of Navarre, became Queen consort of Sicily upon her marriage to King Martin I, who died in 1409. Blanche continued as regent of Sicily until 1415, when Sicily was annexed to Aragon. She married John, Duke of Peñafiel, the second son of Ferdinand I of Aragon, in 1419, and acceded to the throne of Navarre upon the death of her father. John became King of Navarre in her right as John II, and continued as King after her death.

140 years ago
1881


Born on this date
Octavian Goga
. Prime Minister of Romania, 1937-1938. Mr. Goga was a member of various parties. He was with the National Christian Party (the Romanian equivalent of the Nazi Party) when he was appointed Prime Minister on December 28, 1937 by King Carol II in an attempt by the king to increase his own power. Mr. Goga's government introduced a series of anti-Semitic laws in January 1938; Mr. Goga resigned on February 10, and died on May 7, 1938 at the age of 57, two days after suffering a stroke.

130 years ago
1891


Business
The Wrigley Company was founded in Chicago.

120 years ago
1901


Born on this date
Whittaker Chambers
. U.S. journalist and spy. Mr. Chambers, born Jay Vivian Chambers, attended Columbia University before joining the Workers Party of America--later known as the Communist Party USA--in 1925. He wrote for Communist publications and spied on behalf of the U.S.S.R. from 1932-1938, but his faith in Communism gradually waned, especially after fellow spy and friend Juliet Stuart Poyntz was summoned to Moscow in 1937 and was never heard from again. Mr. Chambers broke with Communism in 1938, and met with U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Adolf Berle in 1939, warning him of Communist agents within the federal government. Mr. Chambers' warnings went unheeded, and he spent the next nine years with Time magazine, writing numerous articles and becoming a senior editor. He also became a Quaker. In August 1948, he testified before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Un-American Activities and named individuals involved with the "Ware group" of Communists working underground in Washington in the 1930s. One of those named was former State Department official Alger Hiss, who responded by suing Mr. Chambers for libel. Mr. Chambers presented evidence that resulted in Mr. Hiss being tried twice for perjury, convicted in the second trial in 1950. Mr. Chambers published his autobiography Witness (1952), which became a bestseller, and was a senior editor at National Review (1957-1959). He long suffered from heart problems, and died of a heart attack at his farm in Maryland on July 9, 1961 at the age of 60.

Canadiana
Canada's fourth census was taken. The population was reported at 5,371,315, consisting of 3,063,000 English-speaking and 1,649,000 French-speaking.

Defense
The Kaiserliche Marine gunboat SMS Panther was launched at Danzig.

100 years ago
1921


Born on this date
William Bergsma
. U.S. composer and teacher. Professor Bergsma wrote two symphonies, two oeras, and instrumental, orchestral, and choral works. He taught at the Juilliard School (1946-1963) and then at the University of Washington. Prof. Bergsma died of a heart attack on March 18, 1994, two weeks before his 73rd birthday.

Arthur "Guitar Boogie" Smith. U.S. musician. Mr. Smith was a country guitarist, banjoist, and composer who was best known for Banjo Boogie (1948); Guitar Boogie (1948); and Feudin' Banjos (1950), all of which reached the top 10 on the Billboard Country and Western singles chart. He hosted The Arthur Smith Show, the first nationally syndicated country music television program, for 32 years, and also produced radio and television programs for himself and others. Mr. Smith died on April 3, 2014, two days after his 93rd birthday.

80 years ago
1941


War
The Eritrean capital of Asmara surrendered to British troops; the United Kingdom claimed that 130,000-150,000 Italian troops and civilains were trapped in central Ethiopia. Mexico, Venazuela, Peru, and Ecuador seized 23 Axis merchant ships, 16 Italian and 7 German; seven of the ships were seat afire by their crews. The Royal Canadian Navy armed merchant cruiser Prince Henry intercepted two German ships off Peru; the ships were scuttled. U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull defended the seizure of 69 Italian, German, and Danish ships as entirely legal; U.S. Attorney General Robert H. Jackson announced that 875 Axis seamen would be prosecuted on sabotage charges. The Blockade Runner Badge for the German Kriegsmarine was instituted.

Abominations
Between 200 and 2,000 Romanian civilians were massacred by Soviet border troops.

Diplomacy
The Yugoslavian government reported that Italian Duce Benito Mussolini had offered to mediate the German-Yugoslav dispute. German radio charged that atrocities had been committed against German nationals in Yugoslavia.

Defense
U.S. Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles and Mexican Ambassador to the United States Francisco Castillo Najera signed an agreement providing for reciprocal use of airfields to strengthen hemispheric defense plans. The U.S. House of Representatives completed congressional action on a Senate resolution opposing the transfer of Western Hemisphere possessions to non-American powers.

World events
A military coup in Iraq overthrew the regime of 'Abd al-Ilah and installed Rashid Ali al-Gaylani as Prime Minister.

Labour
Despite an appeal from U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, 400,000 soft coal miners went on strike in 12 states. 8,000 members of the Congress of Industrial Organizations United Auto Workers closed the River Rouge plant of Ford Motor Company with a sit-down strike, claiming that several union men had been discharged. Wisconsin Governor Julius Heil ordered Allis-Chalmers to close its Milwaukee plant after 32 workers were injured in a battle between police and 3,500 strikers.

75 years ago
1946


Hit parade
U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Oh! What it Seemed to Be--Frankie Carle and his Orchestra (3rd week at #1)
--Frank Sinatra
--Dick Haymes and Helen Forrest
--Charlie Spivak and his Orchestra
2 Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief--Betty Hutton
--Les Brown and his Orchestra
3 Personality--Johnny Mercer
4 You Won't Be Satisfied (Until You Break My Heart)--Les Brown and his Orchestra
--Perry Como
5 Symphony--Freddy Martin and his Orchestra with Clyde Rogers
--Bing Crosby
--Benny Goodman and his Orchestra
--Jo Stafford
6 I'm Always Chasing Rainbows--Perry Como
--Dick Haymes and Helen Forrest
7 Let it Snow! Let it Snow! Let it Snow!--Vaughn Monroe and his Orchestra with Vaughn Monroe and the Norton Sisters
--Woody Herman and his Orchestra
8 One-zy, Two-zy (I Love You-zy)--Freddy Martin and his Orchestra
--Phil Harris and his Orchestra
9 Shoo Fly Pie (And Apple Pan Dowdy)--Stan Kenton and his Orchestra
--Dinah Shore
10 Day by Day--Frank Sinatra

Singles entering the chart were Sioux City Sue by Bing Crosby and the Jesters (#27); Madame Butterball by the Pied Pipers (#44); and Coax Me a Little Bit, with versions by Dinah Shore; and the Andrews Sisters (#48). Madame Butterball was the other side of In the Moon Mist, charting at #35.

On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on MBS
Tonight's episode: The April Fool's Day Adventure

Died on this date
Noah Beery, Sr., 64
. U.S. actor. Mr. Beery, the older brother of actor Wallace Beery and father of actor Noah Beery, Jr., was a character actor who appeared in over 200 movies, including The Mark of Zorro (1920); The Vanishing American (1925); Beau Geste (1926); and She Done Him Wrong (1933). He died of a heart attack at his brother's home while they were celebrating Wallace's birthday and rehearsing a radio drama they were to appear in that night.

Americana
The auction of the late U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's stamp collection concluded with total sales estimated at $211,000.

Asiatica
The Malayan Union, a federation of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca, came into existence with Kuala Lumpur as its capital and Sir Edward Gent as Governor.

Defense
The U.S. House of Representatives passed a bill providing for a peacetime Navy of 500,000 men and 100,000 Marines, and also called for burial of an unknown soldier of World War II at Arlington National Cemetery.

U.S. Secretary of State James Byrnes informed Cuba that on May 20, 1946 the United States would give up its wartime bases in Cuba. U.S. Army General Albert Wedemeyer announced that U.S. forces in the China theatre would disband on May 1, 1946.

Politics and government
Nationalist Chinese leader Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek said that Communist demands for control of Manchuria would not be considered until the government completed occupation of the area.

The U.S. Supreme Court refused to review a lower court ruling sustaining the right of Negroes to vote in primary elections in Georgia.

Representative B. Carroll Reece (Tennessee) was elected national chairman of the U.S. Republican Party.

Transportation
U.S. President Harry Truman named James M. Landis as chairman of the Civil Aeronautics Board to succeed L. Welch Pogue, whose resignation was to take effect on June 8, 1946.

Agriculture
The U.S.S.R. rejected an invitation to join 18 nations in an emergency conference on cereal supplies on April 3 in London.

Economics and finance
To encourage colonization, the Quebec government of Premier Maurice Duplessis adopted a policy of bonuses for land clearing, increasing the premium paid to the settler for land clearing from $ 15 to $ 20 per acre. Organizational credits were also added to this bonus.

Business
The U.S. Supreme Court upheld a controversial clause of the 1935 utility holding company act, which compelled public utilities to confine themselves to a single, integrated system.

Labour
A nationwide strike of 400,000 United Mine Workers of America soft coal miners began after the failure of U.S. Labor Department mediation in a wage dispute.

Disasters
An 8.6-magnitude earthquake near the Aleutian Islands created a tsunami that struck the Hawaiian Islands and killed 159, mostly in Hilo.

Baseball
The Mexican League, an eight-team circuit backed by the $60-million fortune of Jorge Pasquel, signed catcher Mickey Owen of the Brooklyn Dodgers. Other American players who had already signed with ML teams were pitcher Sal Maglie, second baseman George Hausmann, and first baseman Roy Zimmerman, all of whom had played with the New York Giants in 1945.

70 years ago
1951


On the radio
Paul Harvey News and Comment debuted on ABC, where it continued 6 days a week until his death in 2009.

Literature
The New York Herald Tribune listed Joy Street by Frances Parkinson Keyes as the best-selling fiction book and Kon-Tiki by Thor Heyerdahl the best-selling non-fiction book.

War
Israel and Syria agreed on a 24-hour cease-fire while United Nations officials tried to settle a dispute concerning the demilitarized zone in the Galilee area.

Defense
In his first quarterly report to U.S. President Harry Truman, Defense Mobilization Director Charles Wilson predicted that in two years the U.S.A. and her allies would "have military and economic strength sufficient to give us reasonable safety against aggression."

C. D. Howe was appointed Minister of the new Department of Defence Production in the Canadian government of Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent.

Communications
Canada's postal service was reduced to home mail deliveries of only once per day.

Economics and finance
Israel and Poland signed a one-year, $7.5-million trade agreement.

The U.S. Agriculture Department resumed price support purchases of butter at 64c per pound.

Labour
West German Socialist leader Kurt Schumacher told party representatives that Germany's coal miners and steel workers faced higher unemployment in the European Coal and Steel community, which he labelled an "anti-democratic and technocratic dictatorship" over the German people.

60 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Wooden Heart--Elvis Presley (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy: Come sinfonia--Pino Donaggio (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Pigalle--Bill Ramsey

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Mirror): Wooden Heart--Elvis Presley (2nd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Blue Moon--The Marcels
2 Surrender--Elvis Presley
3 Pony Time--Chubby Checker
4 Dedicated to the One I Love--The Shirelles
5 Don’t Worry--Marty Robbins
6 Apache--Jorgen Ingmann and his Guitar
7 Think Twice--Brook Benton
8 Runaway--Del Shannon
9 Gee Whiz (Look at his Eyes)--Carla Thomas
10 Where the Boys Are--Connie Francis

Singles entering the chart were (Theme from) My Three Sons, by Lawrence Welk and his Orchestra (#78); Fell in Love on Monday by Fats Domino (#81); Trees by the Platters (#83); I’m in the Mood for Love by the Chimes (#84); The Blizzard by Jim Reeves (#88); Brass Buttons by the String-A-Longs (#89); I'll Just Have a Cup of Coffee (Then I'll Go) by Claude Gray (#94); That Lucky Old Sun by the Velvets (#97); You Can Depend on Me by Brenda Lee (#98); Bonanza by Al Caiola and his Orchestra (#99); Hop Scotch by Santo and Johnny (#100); and California Sun by Joe Jones (also #100). The version of (Theme from) My Three Sons by Bob Moore and his Orchestra was listed with the version by Lawrence Welk and his Orchestra but not charted.

Vancouver's Top 10 (CFUN)
1 Runaway--Del Shannon
2 Blue Moon--The Marcels
3 After the Hurricane--Paul Evans
4 Ling-Ting-Tong--Buddy Knox
5 Bumble Boogie--B. Bumble and the Stingers
6 Donald, Where's Your Troosers?--Andy Stewart
7 Mother-in-Law--Ernie K-Doe
8 The Corruptibles--The Good Guys
9 Theme from Dixie--Duane Eddy
10 I've Told Every Little Star--Linda Scott

Singles entering the chart were Super Skier by Bob Gibson (#26); You Can Depend on Me by Brenda Lee (#33); Shy Away by Jerry Fuller (#34); Bonanza by Al Caiola and his Orchestra (#39); Abdul's Party by Larry Verne (#41); Theme for a Dream by Cliff Richard (#43); Momma-Poppa by the Kalin Twins (#44); Love Theme from One Eyed Jacks by Ferrante and Teicher (#46); Some Kind of Wonderful by the Drifters (#47); Three Little Fishes by Buzz Clifford (#49); and Tenderly by Bert Kaempfert and his Orchestra.

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKWX)
1 Runaway--Del Shannon
2 Blue Moon--The Marcels
3 I've Told Every Little Star--Linda Scott
4 Bumble Boogie--B. Bumble and the Stingers
5 Two--Del Erickson
6 Mother-in-Law--Ernie K-Doe
7 Ling-Ting-Tong--Buddy Knox
8 Memphis--Donnie Brooks
9 After the Hurricane--Paul Evans
10 "D" in Love--Cliff Richard and the Shadows

Singles entering the chart were Sleepy-Eyed John by Johnny Horton (#32); (Theme from) My Three Sons by Lawrence Welk and his Orchestra (#36); All Hands on Deck (EP) by Pat Boone (#37); You Can Depend on Me by Brenda Lee (#38); Hide Away by Freddy King (#39); and Shu Rah by Fats Domino (#40).

On television tonight
The Roaring 20's, on ABC
Tonight's episode: The Salvation of Killer McFadden

Music
The Beatles--John, Paul, George, Stu, and Pete--began a 13-week engagement at the Top Ten Club in Hamburg.

Diplomacy
Lyndon Johnson left Washington to begin his first trip overseas since becoming Vice President of the United States. His first stop was Dakar, Senegal.

Boxing
Emile Griffith (23-2) won the world welterweight title with a knockout of defending champion Benny "Kid" Paret (34-10-3) at 1:11 of the 13th round at Convention Hall in Miami Beach, Florida.



50 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in France (IFOP): She's a Lady--Tom Jones

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (10th week at #1)

Abominations
The Pakistan Army massacred over 1,000 civilians in Keraniganj Upazila, Bangladesh.

Politics and government
Argentina legalized activities of political parties, ending a ban that had been in effect since 1964.

Law
Justice Patrick Hartt headed the new Law Reform Commission of Canada as it began to examine changes to Canada's Criminal Code.

Boxing
World Boxing Association world flyweight champion Masao Ohba (28-2-1) retained his title with a 15-round unanimous decision over Betulio Gonzalez (25-3-1) at Nihon University Auditorium in Tokyo.



40 years ago
1981


Hit parade
Austria's Top 10 (Ö3)
1 Flash--Queen
2 Angel of Mine--Frank Duval & Orchestra
3 Woman--John Lennon
4 Imagine--John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band
5 Stop the Cavalry--Jona Lewie
6 Some Broken Hearts Never Mend--Telly Savalas
7 In the Air Tonight--Phil Collins
8 Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre
9 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon
10 Amoureux solitaires--Lio

Singles entering the chart were Flash; In the Air Tonight; Shaddap You Face; Amoureux solitaires; Fade to Grey by Visage (#14); and Zweierbeziehung by Rainhard Fendrich (#16).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKLG)
1 Kiss on My List--Daryl Hall & John Oates
2 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
3 Woman--John Lennon
4 Morning Train (Nine to Five)--Sheena Easton
5 Rapture--Blondie
6 The Best of Times--Styx
7 A Little in Love--Cliff Richard
8 While You See a Chance--Steve Winwood
9 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
10 Precious to Me--Phil Seymour

Singles entering the chart were Angel of the Morning by Juice Newton (#13); and Somebody's Knockin' by Terri Gibbs (#18).

On the radio
On CFRN in Edmonton, morning man Pat Murphy observed April Fool’s Day with some humourous editing of Bruce Hogle’s "morning minitorial."

World events
Thai army generals overthrew the one-year-old government of General Prem Tinsulanonda and established a revolutionary committee under the direction of General Sant Chitpatima. The Thai constitution was abolished and the cabinet and parliament were dissolved. Gen. Prem was allowed to remain commander of the army.

War
Clashes between Syrian troops and Christian militiamen near Zahle, Lebanon began, signalling an end to the cease-fire that had been in place.

An attempt by a nine-man mission led by Guinean President Sekou Toure to negotiate an end to the war between Iran and Iraq ended in failure. Iraq insisted that Iran recognize Iraqi sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway, and Iran refused to talk peace while Iraqi forces were in Iran.

Hockey
NHL
Quebec 4 @ Hartford 5
Chicago 2 @ Toronto 2
Colorado 2 @ Edmonton 4
Winnipeg 4 @ Vancouver 4

30 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Oh! Yeah!/Love Story wa Totsuzen ni--Kazumasa Oda (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Se mustamies--Hausmylly (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)--C+C Music Factory featuring Freedom Williams (5th week at #1)

Died on this date
Martha Graham, 96
. U.S. dancer and choreographer. Miss Graham was probably the most influential American modern dancer of the 20th century. She formed her own company in 1926, and her dance technique is still taught today. Miss Graham choregraphed ballets from the mid-1920s until her death.

World events
A coalition of Kurdish insurgent groups appealed to the United States and other western nations to help the Kurds, whose insurgency was being beaten down by Iraqi government forces.

Basketball
NCAA
Men's Championship Final @ Hoosier Dome, Indianapolis
Duke 72 Kansas 65

After five trips to the Final Four under Coach Mike Krzyzewski since 1986, Duke finally won its first NCAA championship. Christian Laettner led the Blue Devils with 18 points and 10 rebounds, and was named the Final Four's Most Valuable Player.



25 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Jesus to a Child--George Michael (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Norway (VG-lista): Firestarter--The Prodigy (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Children--Robert Miles (2nd week at #1)

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 Ironic--Alanis Morissette
2 1979--Smashing Pumpkins
3 I Want to Come Over--Melissa Etheridge
4 Follow You Down--Gin Blossoms
5 Missing--Everything But the Girl
6 Nobody Knows--The Tony Rich Project
7 Birmingham--Amanda Marshall
8 Wonderwall--Oasis
9 Don't Cry--Seal
10 Jesus to a Child--George Michael

Singles entering the chart were Always Be My Baby by Mariah Carey (#87); Everything Falls Apart by Dog's Eye View (#89); Heroine by Wild Strawberries (#90); This is the Stuff by Carolyn Arends (#92); Don't Leave Me Alone by Amy Sky (#95); Don't Wanna Lose You by Lionel Richie (#97); and Brown Shoe by Junkhouse (#98).

Died on this date
Jean Le Moyne, 83
. Canadian journalist and politician. Mr. Le Moyne was known for his book Convergences (1961). He was appointed to the Canadian Senate by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1982, and represented Rigaud as a Liberal from 1982-1988.

John McSherry, 51. U.S. baseball umpire. Mr. McSherry was an umpire in the National League from 1971-1996, working in eight NL Championship Series and the 1977 and 1987 World Series. He was officially listed at 6' 2" and 328 pounds, but some sources said his weight was closer to 400 pounds; he was considered the umpire most likely to die of a heart attack on the diamond. Mr. McSherry was working behind home plate in the season opener between the Montreal Expos and Cincinnati Reds at Riverfront Stadium in Cincinnati, when he called time out after just seven pitches and motioned for the second base umpire to replace him; he started to walk off the field, and collapsed with a heart attack. Mr. McSherry was pronounced dead at the hospital an hour later. There were 2 out and nobody on base in the top of the 1st inning when the game was called, and play was not resumed.



Defense
Detachment London, formerly Canadian Forces Base London, closed. It had been downsized from a base to a detachment of CFB Toronto in 1992.

Business
The Bank of Tokyo and Mitsubishi Bank merged to create the world's largest bank, with assets of US$722.4 billion.

20 years ago
2001


Died on this date
Trịnh Công Sơn, 62
. Vietnamese musician. Trịnh Công Sơn was a guitarist and singer-songwriter who wrote over 500 songs in South Vietnam during the 1960s and 1970s, many of them protesting the Vietnam War. The South Vietnamese government disapproved of his pacifist lyrics, and when South Vietnam fell to the Communists in 1975, he celebrated the realization of Vietnamese unity. The Communist government soon sentenced Trịnh Công Sơn to re-education in a labour camp, but honoured him in later years.

World events
A 36-hour armed standoff at the Belgrade villa of former Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic ended when he was arrested and taken to prison.

An EP-3E U.S. Navy spy plane collided with a Chinese People's Liberation Army Shenyang J-8 fighter jet. The U.S. claimed that the incident took place 50 miles southeast of the Chinese island of Hainan over international waters, while China claimed the incident occurred over Chinese waters. The Chinese jet plunged into the South China Sea, and the pilot, Wang Wei, reportedly parachuted from the plane but was missing and presumed dead. The slow-moving American propeller plane damaged a wing and an engine, and landed on Hainan. The plane was seized and its 24-man crew were detained for 11 days.

Abominations
Same-sex marriage became legal in the Netherlands, the first contemporary country to allow it.

Environment
Halifax became the first city in North America to restrict the use of insecticides, pesticides, and herbicides.

Economics and finance
The U.S. unemployment rate in March was reported at 4.3%; consumer prices had increased 0.1% over February, while producer prices had declined 0.1%; the U.S. trade deficit stood at $31.17 billion; and the index of leading economic indicators had declined 0.3% from February.

Basketball
NCAA
Women's championship @ Savvis Center, St. Louis
Final
Notre Dame 68 Purdue 66





10 years ago
2011


Protest
After protests against the burning of the Qur'an turned violent, a mob attacked a United Nations compound in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan, resulting in the deaths of 13 people, including 8 foreign workers.

Politics and government
Five Maa-Nulth First Nations in British Columbia settled their final agreement with the government of Canada, covering several regions on Vancouver Island; it included special rights pertaining to fish, migratory birds and animal life used in ceremonies and social rituals.

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