Friday, 9 April 2021

April 9, 2021

1,530 years ago
491


Died on this date
Zeno, 65-66 (?)
. Emperor of the Roman Empire, 474-475; Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, 476-491. Zeno was born Tarasis in Isauria (now part of Turkey), and was thus regarded by the Romans as a barbarian. He was a military leader before succeeding his father Leo I as Emperor in February 474, with his 7-year-old son Leo II as co-Emperor. Leo II died in November 474, leaving Zeno as sole Emperor. He was deposed in 475, but was restored to the throne after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476. Zeno put down several revolts and issued the Henotikon (482) in an attempt to mediate the debate between the Chalcedonian and Miaphysite views about the nature of Christ. Zeno died of dysentery or epilepsy, and was succeeded as Emperor by Flavius Anastasius, a favured member of the imperial court.

780 years ago
1241


War
Mongol forces defeated the Polish and German armies in the Battle of Liegnitz (aka the Battle of Legnica).

290 years ago
1731

War

Robert Jenkins, master of the English ship Rebecca, had an ear cut off by Spanish coast guards. The incident eventually led to the War of Jenkins’ Ear between England and Spain from 1739-1741.



260 years ago
1761


Died on this date
William Law, 74-75
. U.K. theologian. Mr. Law was an Anglican priest who gave his allegiance to the House of Stuart, and lost his position at Emmanuel College, Cambridge when his conscience would not allow him to take the required oath of allegiance to King George I, the first monarch of the House of Hanover; he then devoted himself to teaching and writing privately. Mr. Law was best known for his books A Practical Treatise Upon Christian Perfection (1726) and A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life (1729), which influenced people such as Charles and John Wesley, George Whitefield, and Samuel Johnson. Mr. Law became an admirer of the Christian mystic Jacob Boehme in the mid-1730s, and Mr. Boehme heavily influenced Mr. Law's later writings, leading to a public break with John Wesley. Many of those who are influenced today by Mr. Law admire his earlier writings, while rejecting his mysticism.

200 years ago
1821


Born on this date
Charles Baudelaire
. French poet. Mr. Baudelaire was associated with the Decadent movement; six of the poems in his most famous book, Les Fleurs du mal (The Flowers of Evil) (1857), were banned on moral grounds because of their subject matter. He was a heavy user of laudanum and opium, and died on August 31, 1867 at the age of 46, a year after suffering a paralytic stroke.

175 years ago
1846


Born on this date
Paolo Tosti
. Italian-born composer. Sir Paolo was mainly known for his light, expressive songs. He began his career in his native Italy, but moved to England in 1875. Sir Paolo began teaching at the Royal Academy of Music in 1894 and became a British subject in 1906, but returned to Italy in 1913, and died in Rome on December 2, 1916 at the age of 70.

120 years ago
1901


Born on this date
Paul Willis
. U.S. actor. Mr. Willis appeared in silent movies from 1913 until his retirement from acting in 1923. He was perhaps best known for his portrayal of Dickon Sowerby in The Secret Garden (1919). He died on November 3, 1960 at the age of 59.

100 years ago
1921


Born on this date
Frankie Thomas
. U.S. actor. Mr. Thomas was best known as the title character in the television series Tom Corbett, Space Cadet (1950-1955). He died on May 11, 2006 at the age of 85 from respiratory failure following a stroke.

Yitzhak Navon. President of Israel, 1978-1983. Mr. Navon was an adviser to Prime Ministers David Ben-Gurion and Moshe Sharett before being elected to the Knesset in 1965 as a member of the centre-left Rafi party, which merged into the Labour Party and became part of the Alignment. He was elected President by the Knesset in 1978, and played an important role in peace talks with Egyptian President Anwar Sadat. Mr. Navon rejected an opportunity for a second term as President to return to active politics; he was re-elected to the Knesset in 1984, and served as Minister of Education (1984-1990). Mr. Navon died on November 6, 2015 at the age of 94.

90 years ago
1931


Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Finals
Chicago 3 @ Montreal Canadiens 2 (Chicago led best-of-five series 2-1)

Cy Wentworth scored the winning goal at 13:50 of the 3rd overtime period at the Montreal Forum. It was the second straight overtime win for the Black Hawks.

80 years ago
1941


Died on this date
Morris Sheppard, 65
. U.S. politician. Mr. Sheppard, a Democrat, represented Texas in the United States House of Representatives from 1902-1913 and in the Senate from 1913 until his death from a brain hemorrhage. He was chairman of the Senate Military Affairs Committee and was an author of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution, thus earning the nickname "the father of national Prohibition."

War
German troops captured Salonika, Greece. The British Royal Air Force made a heavy night raid on Berlin, while German bombers pounded Birmingham. U.K. Prime Minister Winston Churchill appealed for more American merchant ships, declaring that only more escorts for convoys could win the Battle of the Atlantic. 50 more Italian seamen were indicted in Tampa, Florida on charges of sabotage. The U.S. State Department disclosed that Italy had requested the recall of an assistant military attache at the U.S. embassy in Rome, apparently in retaliation for the ouster of the Italian naval attache in Washington.

Defense
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the transfer of 10 U.S. Coast Guard cutters to the United Kingdom for convoy purposes.

Diplomacy
The Ecuadorian government wired all other governments that Ecuador was willing to settle her boundary controversy with Peru by arbitration.

Economics and finance
Brazilian President Getulio Vargas issued a decree forbidding foreign-owned banks from accepting deposits after July 1, 1946.

Edward Clayton Eicher, a member of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission since 1938, was elected chairman to succeed Jerome Frank.

William McChesney Martin, Jr. announced his resignation as president of the New York Stock Exchange, effective April 16, 1941.

Golf
Professional Golfers' Association President Tom Walsh announced the creation of the Golf Hall of Fame, with the first members being Bobby Jones, Francis Ouimet, Walter Hagen, and Gene Sarazen.

75 years ago
1946


Defense
The U.S. Senate Military Affairs Committee submitted to the full Senate a bill to unify the armed forces into a Department of Common Defense under a civilian head. The U.S. House of Representatives Military Affairs Committee voted to extend the draft of men aged 18-30 until February 15, 1947, with fathers and farmers exempted.

Crime
Lieutenant Nikolai Redin of the Russian Purchasing Commission in Seattle, arrested by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation on March 26, was indicted on charges of espionage.

Agriculture
The Kansas City, Missouri wheat market received the smallest amount of grain in 43 years as growers held back wheat in the hope of higher prices.

Economics and finance
Canada granted France a $242.5-million credit at 3% annual interest.

U.K. Chancellor of the Exchequer Hugh Dalton presented the House of Commons with a $15-billion budget for 1946-47, down 31% from the previous year.

The U.S. House of Representatives passed and sent to President Harry Truman the veterans temporary housing bill.

Business
A consent decree signed in a U.S. District Court in New York ended American participation in what the U.S. Justice Department charged was a a world match cartel formed by Swedish, British, and American producers.

Labour
The Congress of Industrial Organizations United Farm and Metal Workers settled an 80-day strike of 30,000 International Harvester Company workers with agreement on an 18c hourly wage increase.

American Federation of Musicians President James Petrillo demanded in contract negotiations with major film studios that they virtually triple their staffs of musicians and increase the annual wage by 100% to $10,400.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Finals
Boston 3 @ Montreal 6 (Montreal won best-of-seven series 4-1)

Toe Blake scored with 8:54 remaining in regulation time to break a 3-3 tie, and the Canadiens scored twice more as they defeated the Bruins at the Montreal Forum to win the Stanley Cup for the second time in the previous three years.

70 years ago
1951


War
The U.S.A. urged Syria and Israel to abstain from border incidents because "the critical condition of world affairs can ill afford such a situation" in the Middle East.

Law
The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously reversed the death sentences of two Florida Negroes convicted of rape, ruling that freedom of rhe press had been abused to prevent the defendants from getting a fair trial.

Labour
On the advice of U.S. Economic Stabilization Agency Director Eric Johnston, the Army refused to authorize a 6c hourly pay raise granted by the nation's railroads to one million non-operating workers.

60 years ago
1961


Died on this date
Zog I, 65
. King of the Albanians, 1928-1939; Prime Minister of Albania, 1922-1925; President of Albania, 1925-1928. Born Ahmet Muhtar Bej Zogolli in what was then part of the Ottoman Empire, the future king fought for Austria-Hungary in World War I. When Albania became an independent nation in the aftermath of the war, he became involved in politics, and changed his surname to Zogu. In 1928 he was crowned Zog I, changing the country from a republic to a constitutional monarchy, similar to that of Italy. Although he was a Muslim, King Zog abolished Islamic law in Albania, adopting a civil code similar to that of Switzerland. Albania became increasingly friendly with the Italian Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini during King Zog's reign, but the king was forced into exile when Italy invaded and seized Albania in 1939. King Zog lived in exile in several countries over the years, finally settling in France. He was reported to have survived at least 55 assassination attempts during his reign, and he died of natural causes in Paris.

Diplomacy
U.K. Prime Minister Harold Macmillan flew from Boston to Ottawa to begin two days of talks with Canadian Prime Minister John Diefenbaker.

Basketball
NBA
Finals
Boston 119 @ St. Louis 104 (Boston led best-of-seven series 3-1)

The Celtics outscored the Hawks 67-48 in the 2nd half before 10,442 fans at St. Louis Arena. Six different Celtics scored at least 12 points, with Bob Cousy and Tom Sanders each scoring 22. St. Louis center Bob Pettit led all scorers with 40 points and grabbed 18 rebounds.

50 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): (I Never Promised You a) Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): (I Never Promised You a) Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson

South Africa's Top 10 (Springbok Radio)
1 A Summer Prayer for Peace--The Archies (2nd week at #1)
2 Knock Three Times--Dawn
3 Silver Moon--Michael Nesmith & the First National Band
4 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
5 Home--Dave Mills
6 Rose Garden--Lynn Anderson
7 Do It--Neil Diamond
8 My Sweet Lord--George Harrison
9 She’s a Lady--Tom Jones
10 Pushbike Song--The Mixtures

The only single entering the chart was Amazing Grace by Judy Collins (#18).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKLG)
1 Oh What a Feeling--Crowbar
2 She's a Lady--Tom Jones
3 I was Wondering--The Poppy Family
4 Doesn't Somebody Want to Be Wanted--The Partridge Family
5 Another Day--Paul McCartney
6 I Am...I Said--Neil Diamond
7 Help Me Make it Through the Night--Sammi Smith
8 Joy to the World--Three Dog Night
9 Free--Chicago
10 No Love at All--B.J. Thomas

Singles entering the chart were We Can Work it Out by Stevie Wonder (#26); Gotta See Jane by R. Dean Taylor (#28); Here Comes the Sun by Richie Havens (#29); and Never Can Say Goodbye by the Jackson 5 (#30).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKVN)
1 Another Day/Oh Woman, Oh Why--Paul McCartney (2nd week at #1)
2 One Toke Over the Line--Brewer and Shipley
3 Wild World--Cat Stevens
4 Oh What a Feeling--Crowbar
5 Free--Chicago
6 A Country Boy Named Willy--Spring
7 Sugar Mountain/When You Dance I Can Really Love--Neil Young
8 Power to the People--John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band
9 I was Wondering--The Poppy Family
10 Lucky Man--Emerson, Lake & Palmer

Singles entering the chart were Broken/Albert Flasher by the Guess Who (#21); Freedom by Jimi Hendrix (#29); and That's the Way by Carly Simon (#30).

Edmonton's Top 10 (CJCA)
1 She’s a Lady--Tom Jones
2 Where Evil Grows--The Poppy Family
3 Amos Moses--Jerry Reed
4 Oh What a Feeling--Crowbar
5 Patricia--Ronnie Hawkins
6 I Am...I Said--Neil Diamond
7 Another Day--Paul McCartney
8 Hats Off to the Stranger--Lighthouse
9 Joy to the World--Three Dog Night
10 Friends--Elton John

40 years ago
1981


World events
The Japanese freighter Nissho Maru and the U.S. nuclear submarine George Washington collided in the East China Sea, and the Japanese ship sank, with the loss of the captain and first officer.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Preliminary Round
Toronto 1 @ New York Islanders 5 (New York led best-of-five series 2-0)
Edmonton 3 @ Montreal 1 (Edmonton led best-of-five series 2-0)
Vancouver 2 @ Buffalo 5 (Buffalo led best-of-five series 2-0)
Quebec 5 @ Philadelphia 8 (Philadelphia led best-of-five series 2-0)
Minnesota 9 @ Boston 6 (Minnesota led best-of-five series 2-0)
Pittsburgh 6 @ St. Louis 4 (Best-of-five series tied 1-1)
Chicago 2 @ Calgary 6 (Calgary led best-of-five series 2-0)
New York Rangers 4 @ Los Angeles 5 (Best-of-five series tied 1-1)



30 years ago
1991


Died on this date
Forrest Towns, 77
. U.S. runner and coach. Mr. Towns won a gold medal in the men's 110-metre hurdles at the 1936 Summer Olympic Games in Berlin in world record time. He broke the record at that distance three times, holding the record until 1950. Mr. Towns was track and field coach at the University of Georgia from 1938-1975, and was inducted into the U.S. Track and Field Hall of Fame in 1975.

World events
Following a unanimous vote of its parliament, Georgia became the fifth republic to opt for independence from the U.S.S.R. Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev warned that the economy was "coming apart" and that "institutions of power are paralyzed."

War
The United Nations Security Council authorized a 1,440-member peacekeeping force to patrol the Iraq-Kuwait border.

Diplomacy
During a trip to the Middle East, U.S. Secretary of State James Baker began two days of meetings with Israeli officials and with a delegation of Palestinians from occupied territories.

Economics and finance
Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari concluded a three-day visit to Ottawa to promote the North American Free Trade Agreement.

Politics and government
Gilbert Chartrand, a member of the Canadian House of Commons from the Quebec riding of Verdun—Saint-Paul, defected from the Bloc Québecois back to the Progressive Conservatives, saying the Bloc wanted the destruction of Canada; he was also concerned by the Parti Québecois' decision to support the Bloc.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Division Semi-Finals
Montreal 4 @ Buffalo 6 (Best-of-seven series tied 2-2)
Boston 3 @ Hartford 4 (Best-of-seven series tied 2-2)
Pittsburgh 1 @ New Jersey 4 (Best-of-seven series tied 2-2)
New York Rangers 2 @ Washington 3 (Best-of-seven series tied 2-2)

25 years ago
1996


Died on this date
Richard Condon, 81
. U.S. author. Mr. Condon was known for his novels about corruption and abuse of power. His best known works were The Manchurian Candidate (1959) and four novels about a family of New York gangsters named Prizzi (1982-1994).

20 years ago
2001


Business
American Airlines' parent company acquired bankrupt Trans World Airlines.

Died on this date
Willie Stargell, 61
. U.S. baseball player. In 21 years (1962-1982) with the Pittsburgh Pirates as a left fielder and then a first baseman, Mr. Stargell batted .282 with 475 home runs and 1,540 runs batted in in 2,360 games. He led the National League with 48 home runs in 1971 and 44 in 1973, and hit 32 in 1979 when he shared the NL's Most Valuable Player award and helped to lead the Pirates to a World Series championship. Mr. Stargell was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1988. He died of complications from a stroke after years of declining health.

Baseball
Sean Casey had 4 hits and 5 runs batted in to lead the Cincinnati Reds to an 8-2 win over the Pittsburgh Pirates before 36,954 fans in the first game at PNC Park in Pittsburgh.



10 years ago
2011


Died on this date
Sidney Lumet, 86
. U.S. movie director, producer, and screenwriter. Mr. Lumet worked in theatre and television before directing his first movie 12 Angry Men (1957), for which he received an Academy Award nomination. He was also nominated for Oscars for directing Dog Day Afternoon (1975); Network (1976); and The Verdict (1982), and for his adapted screenplay for Prince of the City (1981). Mr. Lumet didn't win a competitive Academy Award, but received an Honorary Oscar in 2004 for his body of work; he was particularly known for movies set in New York City. Mr. Lumet died from lymphoma.

Zakariya Rashid Hassan al-Ashiri, 40. Bahraini journalist. Mr. Asheri was a blogger and writer for the local news Al Dair who had been reporting on the Bahraini uprising for two months when he was arrested on April 2, 2011 and charged with providing false news, inciting hatred towards the regime and calling for an overthrow of the government. He died a week later from what authorities described as "sickle cell anemia," but the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry reported on November 23, 2011 that he had been tortured and beaten to death.

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