Sunday, 20 December 2015

December 20, 2015

225 years ago
1790


Americana
The first cotton mill in the United States began operating in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.

125 years ago
1890


Born on this date
Jaroslav Heyrovský
. Czech chemist. Dr. Heyrovský was awarded the 1959 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis." He died on March 27, 1967 at the age of 76.

100 years ago
1915


War
The last Australian troops were evacuated from Gallipoli, ten months after the unsuccessful Allied invasion.

75 years ago
1940


Diplomacy
Germany, Italy, and Japan established a military and economic commission to implement their alliance, as required by the Tripartite Pact, signed on September 27, 1940.

Law
The Bulgarian Parliament passed a new law limiting the rights of Bulgaria's 50,000 Jews, banning Freemasons and other secret societies, and making anti-nationalist propaganda illegal.

Defense
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced the creation of the Office of Production Management for Defense, with William S. Knudsen as director and Sidney Hillman as associate director.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Chamber of Commerce announced that exports and imports in the first nine months of 1940 totalled $4,901,400,000, about 29% above 1939, with exports exceeding imports by about $1 billion.

Business
Connie Mack, who had recently completed his 40th season as manager of the Philadelphia Athletics, acquired financial control of the American League baseball club by buying stock held by Mrs. Ethel Shibe.

Society
The U.S. Census Bureau announced that American families were shrinking, with the average family now having 3.8 members, down from 4.9 in 1890 and 4.1 in 1930.

70 years ago
1945


Diplomacy
Moscow newspapers published articles demanding that Turkey relinquish a 180-mile strip of Black Sea coast below Batum, held by Russia from 1878-1921. Turkish leaders declared that they would fight if the U.S.S.R. tied to take the Dardanelles or the Kars Plateau by force.

U.S. President Harry Truman signed the United Nations participation bill as the Senate confirmed his nominations to the U.S. delegation in the UN Assembly.

Politics and government
The Austrian National Assembly elected Socialist Karl Renner as President of the Second Austrian Republic.

U.S. President Truman said that he knew nothing to support an ABC radio broadcast saying that Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in Japan General Douglas MacArthur had threatened to resign if the U.S.S.R. was allowed any further participation in the occupation of Japan.

U.S. President Truman signed the Government Reorganization Act passed seven days earlier by Congress, commenting that it would not save 25% as the bill suggested.

Labour
Ford Motor Company and United Auto Worker came to an agreement to end the strike in Windsor, Ontario, in which 17,000 workers had been off the job since September 12, 1945; on December 13, 1945 both parties had agreed to binding arbitration under Justice Ivan Rand of the Supreme Court of Canada.

The Argentine government of President Juan Peron, in what was called in press dispatches a pre-election move, ordered a 10%-25% general wage increase and year-end bonus for lower-bracket workers.

Economics and finance
The Netherlands, Belgium, and Costa Rica approved the Bretton Woods agreement.

The U.S. Office of Price Administration ordered an end to tire rationing effective January 1, 1946.

Scandal
A U.S. grand jury in Kings County, New York charged New York Mayor-elect Bill O'Dwyer with failure to indict and convict Albert Anastasia for the murder of a longshoreman when he had possessed evidence of Mr. Anastasia's guilt in 1940.

Society
U.S. Senator Theodore G. Bilbo (Democrat--Mississippi) criticized former U.S. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt for her pro-Negro statements.

Weather
The Association of American Railroads was reported to have halted rail traffic to Buffalo after a blizzard deposited 73 inches of snow there; New York City received 8 1/2 inches.

60 years ago
1955


Britannica
Cardiff was proclaimed the capital city of Wales.

Diplomacy
The United Nations General Assembly elected Yugoslavia to the hotly-contested temporary seat on the Security Council.

50 years ago
1965


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): El Mundo (Il Mondo)--Jimmy Fontana (10th week at #1)

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Don't Think Twice--The Wonder Who?
2 It's My Life--The Animals
3 I Can Never Go Home Anymore--The Shangri-Las
4 Over and Over--The Dave Clark Five
5 Let's Get Together--We Five
6 Something About You--Four Tops
7 Poor Little Fool--Terry Black
8 I'm a Man--The Yardbirds
9 Crawling Back--Roy Orbison
10 Take the First Train Home--Dee and the Yeomen

Singles entering the chart were Five O'Clock World by the Vogues (#16); Young Girl by Noel Harrison (#31); For You by Spellbinder (#32); Wind Me Up by Cliff Richard (#33); Lies by the Knickerbockers (#34); Jealous Heart by Connie Francis (#35); Attack by the Toys (#36); We Can Work it Out by the Beatles (#37); The Hoochi Coochi Coo by Wes Dakus (#38); Like a Dribblin' Fram by the Race Marbles (#39); and No Matter What Shape (Your Stomach's In) by the T-Bones (#40).

Music
The single Barbara Ann/Girl Don't Tell Me by the Beach Boys was released on Capitol Records.

Baseball
The California Angels signed third baseman Frank Malzone, 26 days after he was released by the Boston Red Sox, with whom he had played from 1955-1965. In 11 seasons with Boston, Mr. Malzone batted .276 with 131 home runs and 716 runs batted in in 1,359 games, and played in five major league All-Star games. In 1965 he hit .239 with 3 homers and 34 RBIs in 106 games.

40 years ago
1975


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Profondo rosso--Goblin (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (Veronica Top 40): Mississippi--Pussycat (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K.: Bohemian Rhapsody--Queen (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): That's the Way (I Like It)--K.C. and the Sunshine Band (2nd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Let's Do it Again--The Staple Singers
2 Saturday Night--Bay City Rollers
3 That's the Way (I Like It)--K.C. and the Sunshine Band
4 Fly, Robin, Fly--Silver Convention
5 Sky High--Jigsaw
6 I Write the Songs--Barry Manilow
7 Do You Know Where You're Going To--Diana Ross
8 Convoy--C.W. McCall
9 Love Rollercoaster--Ohio Players
10 I Love Music (Part 1)--O'Jays

Singles entering the chart were Take it to the Limit by the Eagles (#69); Christmas for Cowboys by John Denver (#72); Tracks of My Tears by Linda Ronstadt (#73); Love or Leave by the Spinners (#76); Fanny (Be Tender with My Love) by the Bee Gees (#77); Let the Music Play by Barry White (#79); Inseparable by Natalie Cole (#82); Easy as Pie by Billy "Crash" Craddock (#85); Almost Saturday Night by John Fogerty (#86); Love is the Drug by Roxy Music (#91); Sweet Loving Man by Morris Albert (#95); Fanny (Be Tender with My Love) by Gino Cunico (#96); Yesterday's Hero by John Paul Young (#98); Sweet Love by the Commodores (#99); and I Believe in Father Christmas by Greg Lake (#100).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 That's the Way (I Like It)--K.C. and the Sunshine Band (2nd week at #1)
2 Saturday Night--Bay City Rollers
3 Nights on Broadway--Bee Gees
4 Island Girl--Elton John
5 The Way I Want to Touch You--Captain & Tennille
6 Eighteen with a Bullet--Pete Wingfield
7 Fly, Robin, Fly--Silver Convention
8 Fox on the Run--Sweet
9 My Little Town--Simon and Garfunkel
10 Bad Blood--Neil Sedaka

Singles entering the chart were Times of Your Life by Paul Anka (#70); Saturday Night by the Bay City Rollers (#74); Evil Woman by Electric Light Orchestra (#76); Wake Up Everybody by Harold Melvin & the Bluenotes (#79); Fly Away by John Denver (#81); Winners and Losers by Hamilton, Joe Frank and Reynolds (#82); Roll You Over by Marty Simon (#83); Love Hurts by Nazareth (#84); Get Out of the Kitchen by Shawne Jackson (#85); Goin' Down Slowly by the Pointer Sisters (#87); Somewhere in the Night by Helen Reddy (#88); 50 Ways to Leave Your Lover by Paul Simon (#89); Art for Art's Sake by 10 C.C. (#90); Free Ride by Tavares (#91); I Cheat the Hangman by the Doobie Brothers (#92); Hey There Little Firefly by Firefly (#93); In the Winter by Janis Ian (#94); For a Dancer by Prelude (#95); The Blind Man in the Bleachers by Kenny Starr (#96); Growing Up by Dan Hill (#97); Love Machine (Part 1) by the Miracles (#98); Breaking Up is Hard to Do by Neil Sedaka (#99); and I Want to Dance with You (Dance with Me) by the Ritchie Family (#100). The single Saturday Night charting at #2 had the record number Arista 0149, while the one charting at #74 had the number Arista 0158.

Politics and government
The governing Kuomintang party retained power in parliamentary elections in Taiwan, capturing 42 of 52 seats in the Yuan. The Chinese Youth Party won 1 seat, and 9 independent candidates were elected.

Football
NFL
Minnesota (12-2) 35 @ Buffalo (8-6) 13
Denver (6-8) 13 @ Miami (10-4) 14
Pittsburgh (12-2) 3 @ Los Angeles (12-2) 10

John Hufnagel played the entire game at quarterback for the Broncos in their loss to the Dolphins at the Orange Bowl. It was the only start for Mr. Hufnagel in his 2-year National Football League career, and came in his last regular season NFL game.

30 years ago
1985


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Nikita--Elton John (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Take on Me--A-Ha (4th week at #1)

At the movies
The Trip to Bountiful, starring Geraldine Page and Rebecca De Mornay, opened in theatres.

Personal
This blogger was hired for a short-term job as archives assistant at the University of Alberta Archives to begin in January 1986.

Weather
The temperature reached 49 F. in Edmonton.

Abominations
Pope John Paul II announced the institution of World Youth Day.

Hockey
NHL
New York Islanders 2 New York Rangers 2

On a goal by Mike Bossy of the Islanders, Denis Potvin picked up an assist for his 916th career point, breaking the NHL record for defensemen held by Bobby Orr.

25 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): The Christmas No 1--Zig and Zag (2nd week at #1)

Politics and government
The Bélanger-Campeau Committee, a special joint commission set up by Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa and Parti Quebecois leader Jacques Parizeau to study Quebec's relationship with Canada, finished hearings after receiving some 200 briefs and 600 submissions.

Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze astonished the 2,250-member Congress of People’s Deputies by announcing his resignation. He said he was tired of defending his policies against "conservative" Communist critics. Although Mr. Shevardnadze predicted that democracy and freedom were the way of the future, he said that dictatorship was on the horizon, but he added, "No one knows what this dictatorship will be like." President Mikhail Gorbachev, apparently taken by surprise, deplored the resignation as "unforgivable" at a time of crisis in the Soviet Union, and he denied that the country was on the brink of any form of dictatorship.

The new German Bundestag met in the old Reichstag in Berlin.

Diplomacy
The United States joined in a unanimous vote for a United Nations Security Council resolution that called the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip "occupied territories" and deplored Israel’s treatment of Arab civilians there. Under the resolution, the UN Secretary-General would monitor the safety of Palestinians in the territories. The resolution also opposed Israel’s plan to resume the deportation of Arabs from the territories. Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir and other Israeli leaders denounced the resolution.

20 years ago
1995


Music
Burton Cummings recorded his album Up Close and Alone before a live audience at CBC's Glenn Gould Studio in Toronto; the album was on released March 27, 1996.

War
NATO began peacekeeping operations in Bosnia.

Aid workers with Medecins Sans Frontiers reported that 15,000 people in Burundi had been massacred in clashes between Hutus and Tutsis since January 1, 1995.

Defense
Lieutenant-General Jean Boyle was appointed Canada's new Chief of Defence Staff, taking over from General John de Chastelain effective January 1, 1996.

Environment
Canadian Fisheries Minister Brian Tobin announced a plan to trim the Atlantic fishery to a core of 13,250 licensed fishermen, down from the current 24,600.

Health
The Canadian Tobacco Manufacturers Council said that it would voluntary restrict advertising in an effort to head off new government restrictions.

Disasters
American Airlines Flight 965, a Boeing 757, crashed into a mountain 50 kilometres north of Cali, Colombia, killing 159.

10 years ago
2005


War
A Canadian police officer serving as a United Nations peacekeeper in Port-au-Prince was shot to death near a slum on the outskirts of the city.

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