Tuesday, 20 July 2021

July 20, 2021

1,110 years ago
911


War
Rollo laid siege to Chartres.

990 years ago
1031


Died on this date
Robert II, 58-59
. King of the Franks, 987-1031. Robert II "le Pieux" (the Pious), the son of Hugh Capet, was crowned Junior King in 987 and became sole monarch upon the death of his father in 996. He attempted to expand the royal domain, and had two annulled marriages and failed in an attempt to annul his third marriage. King Robert's policies were opposed by three of his sons. Robert II died from a fever, and was succeeded by his son Henri I.

430 years ago
1591


Baptized on this date
Anne Hutchinson
. English-boen American religious figure. Mrs. Hutchinson and her husband William were Puritans who emigrated to Massachusetts Bay in 1634, and became members of the First Church in Boston, pastored by John Cotton, who had been their minister in England. She began hosting Bible studies for women at her home; her claim to receive direct revelation from God and her "free grace" views eventually put her in conflict with the local authorities, whom she regarded as preaching a covenant of works. Mrs. Hutchinson was convicted of "enthusiasm," and was imprisoned before being banished from the colony. She and her family went to Rhode Island, where they established the settlement of Portsmouth, and then moved to New York after her husband died. Mrs. Hutchinson, six of her children, and other household members were killed by Siwanoy Indians in August 1643, when she was 52.

420 years ago
1601


Born on this date
Robert Wallop
. English politician. Mr. Wallop represented various ridings in the House of Commons from 1621-1629 and 1640-1660, and was one of the regicides of King Charles I in 1649. After the restoration of the monarch in 1660, Mr. Wallop was degraded and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1662, and died on November 19, 1667 at the age of 66.

190 years ago
1831


Diplomacy
The Seneca, Shawnee, and Wyandot peoples signed a treaty with the U.S. government, agreeing to relinquish their land in western Ohio to the United States in exchange for 60,000 acres west of the Mississippi River.

160 years ago
1861


Politics and government
The Congress of the Confederate States of America began holding sessions in Richmond, Virginia.

150 years ago
1871


Canadiana
The British Columbia Act went into effect, making B.C. the sixth province to enter Confederation. Canadian Minister of Militia and Defence George-Étienne Cartier promised a rail link to start within two years, with completion within ten years. The Canadian government took over telegraph lines in the province, including the Collins Overland Stage Line. Lieutenant Governor Sir Joseph William Trutch appointed an interim cabinet and issued election writs to choose 25 members of the first provincial legislature from 12 ridings.

140 years ago
1881


Canadiana
The first National Acadian Convention was held in Memramcook, New Brunswick. Over 5,000 delegates met to discuss the future survival of Acadian culture within Confederation, and "La Société Nationale l'Assomption" (La Société National de l'Acadie) was established.

Politics and government
Clement Cornwall was installed as Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia.

125 years ago
1896


Politics and government
George Murray took office as Premier of Nova Scotia, replacing retiring Liberal Premier William Fielding.

120 years ago
1901


Born on this date
Heinie Manush
. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Manush played left field with the Detroit Tigers (1923-1927); St. Louis Browns (1928-1930); Washington Nationals (1931-1935); Boston Red Sox (1936); Brooklyn Dodgers (1937-1938); and Pittsburgh Pirates (1938-1939), batting .330 with 110 home runs and 1,183 runs batted in in 2,008 games. He played 11 seasons in the minor leagues (1920-1922, 1938-1945), including the 1921 season with the Edmonton Eskimos of the Class B Western Canada League. Mr. Manush led the American League in batting in 1926 (.378) and came within one plate appearance of winning the 1928 AL batting title. He led the league in hits twice, in doubles twice, and in triples once. Mr. Manush managed in the minor leagues in the 1940s, and coached and scouted in the 1950s and '60s with the Nationals and the expansion Washington Senators. He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1964, and died after a long battle with cancer on May 12, 1971 at the age of 69.

Died on this date
William Cosmo Monkhouse, 61
. U.K. poet and critic. Mr. Monkhouse was a civil servant who published several collections of poetry and a novel, but devoted himself almost exclusively to art criticism from 1879 until his death.

80 years ago
1941


Died on this date
Lew Fields, 74
. U.S. comedian. Mr. Fields, born Moses Schoenfeld, teamed with Joe Weber to form the comedy team Weber and Fields, who were popular from the 1880s to the 1900s.

Movies
Will Hays, President of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, said that "the great function of the entertainment screen is to entertain" and not to spread propaganda.

Politics and government
The cabinet of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was shuffled, with Information Minister Alfred Duff Cooper becoming Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster; he was replaced as Information Minister by Brendan Bracken.

U.S.S.R. Vice-Premier Lavrenti Beria was put in charge of the Soviet secret police force NKVD.

World events
Former Bolivian Finance Minister Victor Paz Estenssoro was arrested in Tarija on a charge of being connected with a proposed "Nazi putsch." Several newspapers were suspended, while the government claimed to have proof that the German embassy had sought to interfere in Bolivia's internal affairs.

Defense
Colombian President Eduardo Santos declared that Colombia would make certain that the Panama Canal would never be attacked "from our territory."

Labour
Congress of Industrial Organizations United Federal Workers Secretary-Treasurer Eleanor Nelson charged that U.S. government employees were undergoing a "virtual reign of terror in which Gestapo methods are being used" to ferret out suspected subversives.

CIO United Auto Workers official Loren Houser wrote a letter to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt urging him to order the government seizure of the strike-bound Bendix, New Jersey plant of Air Associates, Inc.

75 years ago
1946


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): The Gypsy--The Ink Spots (Best Seller--9th week at #1; Juke Box--8th week at #1); Prisoner of Love--Perry Como with Russ Case and his Orchestra (Airplay--2nd week at #1); The Gypsy--The Ink Spots; Dinah Shore (Honor Roll of Hits--9th week at #1)

War
The report of the U.S. Senate committee investigating the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii was released. The Democratic majority section accused Army General Walter Short and Navy Admiral Husband Kimmel of errors of judgement, while the Republican minority section blamed members of the cabinet of President Franklin D. Roosevelt for failing "to perform the responsibilities...essential to the defense of Pearl Harbor."

Defense
The U.S. House of Representatives passed and sent to the Senate the amended version of the MacMahon atomic energy control bill, providing for military representation on the proposed control commission and allowing the Army and Navy to manufacture nuclear weapons without supervision. In their final report to U.S. President Harry Truman, members of the Strategic Bombing Survey suggested the creation of an air arm having equal status with the Army and Navy.

Politics and government
Bolivian President Gualberto Villaroel named a three-man military cabinet after a three-day uprising of students and workers in which 100 had been reported killed.

Scandal
U.S. military authorities in Frankfurt revealed that they were investigating two more cases of art looting by American officers in Germany, one involving a Rubens painting valued at $20,000.

Economics and finance
General Joseph McNary of the U.S. military government in Germany told the Allied Control Council in Berlin that the U.S. would join any other occupying power in treating their zones as a single economic unit.

Disasters
33 people were killed when a cyclone struck the Rimini beach area in Italy.

70 years ago
1951


Died on this date
Abdullah I, 69
. Emir of Transjordan, 1921-1946; King of Jordan, 1946-1951. An architect of the great Arab revolt with Lawrence of Arabia against Ottoman rule during World War I, Abdullah I became Emir of Transjordan after the war and King of Jordan when the country achieved independence from the U.K. in 1946. He was assassinated by 21-year-old Palestinian terrorist Mustafa Ashu while visiting the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem with his grandson Prince Hussein for Friday prayers.

Wilhelm, 69. German royal family member. Crown Prince Wilhelm was the eldest child of Kaiser Wilhelm II, and held the title of Crown Prince from 1888, commanding forces in World War I until the monarchy ended on November 9, 1918, and he and his father went into exile in the Netherlands. Five years to the day after Kaiser Wilhelm II's abdication, Crown Prince Wilhelm returned to Germany on condition that he not engage in politics. He broke that promise and expressed interest in running for President in 1932, but was forbidden to do so by his father. Crown Prince Wilhelm supported Adolf Hitler's rise to power, but withdrew from all political activity in 1934, and his relationship with Mr. Hitler cooled after it became apparent that the monarchy would not be restored. He became head of the House of Hohanzollern upon he death of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1941, and was interned after World War II. Crown Prince Wilhelm died of a heart attack in Hechingen, Württemberg-Hohenzollern.

Divorced on this date
Woolworth heiress Barbara Hutton divorced Prince Igor Troubetzkoy, her fourth husband, in Cuernavaca, Mexico.

War
The U.S.A. formally invited 50 nations, including the U.S.S.R., to a September conference in San Francisco to produce a Japanese peace treaty.

A New York Times report charged that 37,000 Koreans cleared out of battle areas near the 38th Parallel were living "worse than any animal kept by an American farmer" in a crowded camp near Seoul, where 7-8 refugees died each day.

World events
A Colombian military court in Colombia sentenced eight officers to prison terms of 2-6 years for inciting revolt over a secret radio station.

Diplomacy
East Germany banned its vehicles from travelling through West Berlin.

Politics and government
In the aftermath of the assassination of King Abdullah I, Jordanian Prime Minister Samir Pasha Rifai proclaimed martial law in all Jordanian territories as King Abdullah's second son Emir Naif became regent.

Scandal
A jury in Jackson, Mississippi indicted 12 leaders of the Mississippi State Democratic Committee for conspiring to sell federal jobs.

Disasters
Winds of up to 100 miles per hour struck Minnesota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin, causing 13 deaths and extensive property damage.

60 years ago
1961


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (Lever Hit Parade): Moody River--Pat Boone

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): Temptation--The Everly Brothers

War
French forces broke the Tunisian siege of Bizerte.

Football
CFL
Pre-season
Winnipeg (0-1) 15 @ Ottawa (1-0) 28
British Columbia (0-1) 17 @ Toronto (1-0) 28

50 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Kvällstoppen): Butterfly--Danyel Gérard (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland (Swiss Hitparade): Chirpy Chirpy Cheep Cheep--Middle of the Road (7th week at #1)

Died on this date
Amanda Clement, 83
. U.S. baseball umpire. Miss Clement played various sports, and sometime during the period 1903-1905, became the first woman to be paid to umpire a game, when she substituted for an absent umpire in a semi-professional game in Hawarden, Iowa. She umpired regularly for six years and occasionally for many years thereafter, and may have been the first woman to referee a high school basketball game. Miss Clement worked at several occupations, and was a social worker in Sioux Falls, South Dakota for 25 years until her retirement in 1966.

War
The U.S. Selective Service System, despite a congressional stalemate in extending the draft law, set a new draft lottery to determine which 19-year-olds would be called for induction in 1972.

40 years ago
1981


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Medley--Stars on 45

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Nagai Yoru--Chiharu Matsuyama (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Stars on 45--Stars on 45 (6th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Bette Davis Eyes--Kim Carnes (2nd week at #1)

Economics and finance
Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau hosted the Group of Seven Economic Summit of leaders of major Western trading nations--U.S.A., Japan, West Germany, France, U.K., Italy and Canada--at Montebello, Québec. Canada annnounced that it would provide $12.3 million for rural development in Nepal over three years.

Disasters
Somali Airlines Flight 40, a Fokker F27-600 Friendship en route from Mogadishu to Hargeisa, Somalia, crashed in the Balad District of Somalia, killing 40 people.

Baseball
The Albuquerque Dukes, Pacific Coast League affiliate of the Los Angeles Dodgers and probably the best minor league team of the 1980s, improved their record to 67-26 (21-4 in the second half of the season) with a 6-4 win over the Edmonton Trappers before a turnaway crowd of 4,100 at Renfrew Park in Edmonton. Mike Marshall hit his 23rd home run of the season for the Dukes, while Gary Holle hit his 16th of the season for the Trappers. The large size of the crowd was due in no small part to the Trappers' jacket night promotion, where 3,000 team jackets were to be given to fans. Unfortunately, they were just cheap plastic windbreakers, with the same quantity in each size (adult large, medium, small; child large, medium, small). The adult large ones were snapped up first, and adults who were forced to settle for smaller sizes quickly found out that the jackets ripped when they tried them on. The promotion ended up as a fiasco.

30 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Australian Music Report): Read My Lips--Melissa (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Gypsy Woman (She's Homeless)--Crystal Waters (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Gypsy Woman (She's Homeless)--Crystal Waters (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Gypsy Woman (She's Homeless)--Crystal Waters (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in France (SNEP): La Zoubida--Lagaf'

#1 single in the U.K. (CIN): (Everything I Do) I Do it for You--Bryan Adams (2nd week at #1)

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Driver's Seat--Sniff 'n' the Tears
2 More than Words--Extreme
3 I Wanna Sex You Up--Color Me Badd
4 Burbujas de Amor--Juan Luis Guerra y 4;40
5 Mooi Man--Mannenkoor Karrespoor
6 Gypsy Woman (La Da Dee La Da Da)--Crystal Waters
7 La Cumbia--Sailor
8 The Shoop Shoop Song (It's in his Kiss)--Cher
9 Rush Rush--Paula Abdul
10 Kozmik--Ziggy Marley and the Melody Makers

Singles entering the chart were Now that We Found Love by Heavy D and the Boyz (#23); Send Me an Angel by the Scorpions (#26); Chocolate Cake by Crowded House (#28); You and Your Sister by This Mortal Coil (#32); Unforgettable by Natalie Cole with Nat 'King' Cole (#36); and Gonna Catch You by Lonnie Gordon (#37).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Unbelievable--EMF
2 Rush Rush--Paula Abdul
3 Right Here, Right Now--Jesus Jones
4 (Everything I Do) I Do it for You--Bryan Adams
5 P.A.S.S.I.O.N.--Rythm Syndicate
6 I Wanna Sex You Up--Color Me Badd
7 Piece of My Heart--Tara Kemp
8 Place in this World--Michael W. Smith
9 Summertime--D.J. Jazzy Jeff & the Fresh Prince
10 Here I Am (Come and Take Me)--UB40

Singles entering the chart were The Promise of a New Day by Paula Abdul (#40); Things that Make You Go Hmmmm... by C + C Music Factory featuring Freedom Williams (#49); It Hit Me Like a Hammer by Huey Lewis and the News (#80); Good Vibrations by Marky Mark & the Funky Bunch featuring Loleatta Holloway (#82); Something to Talk About by Bonnie Raitt (#83); Everybody Plays the Fool by Aaron Neville (#87); Latin Active by Lighter Shade of Brown featuring Teardrop & Shiro (#92); There She Goes by the La's (#94); Gotta Have You by Stevie Wonder (#98); and Wanna Dance by Yasmin (#99).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Unbelievable—EMF (2nd week at #1)
2 Right Here, Right Now--Jesus Jones
3 Place in this World--Michael W. Smith
4 Rush Rush--Paula Abdul
5 P.A.S.S.I.O.N.--Rythm Syndicate
6 I Wanna Sex You Up—Color Me Badd
7 More than Words—Extreme
8 Here I Am (Come and Take Me)--UB40
9 Lily was Here--David A. Stewart introducing Candy Dulfer
10 Piece of My Heart--Tara Kemp

Singles entering the chart were The Promise of a New Day by Paula Abdul (#43); It Hit Me Like a Hammer by Huey Lewis and the News (#61); Things that Make You Go Hmmmm... by C + C Music Factory featuring Freedom Williams (#82); and The Sound of Your Voice by 38 Special (#88).

Canada’s Top 10 (RPM)
1 Rush Rush—Paula Abdul (3rd week at #1)
2 More than Words—Extreme
3 A Better Love--Londonbeat
4 Unbelievable--EMF
5 (Everything I Do) I Do it for You--Bryan Adams
6 Walking in Memphis—Marc Cohn
7 Fading Like a Flower--Roxette
8 It Ain't Over 'Til It's Over--Lenny Kravitz
9 Chocolate Cake--Crowded House
10 The Rhythm of Your Love--Glass Tiger

Singles entering the chart were The Motown Song by Rod Stewart (with the Temptations) (#59); 3 A.M. Eternal by KLF (#67); P.A.S.S.I.O.N. by Rythm Syndicate (#90); Honest Man by Electric Light Orchestra (#92); Hey Stoopid by Alice Cooper (#96); Call Me by Acosta-Russell (#97); Monkey Business by Skid Row (#98); and Rollin' On by the Doobie Brothers (#99).

25 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): Killing Me Softly--The Fugees (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Summer is Crazy--Alexia (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (VRT): Macarena--Los Del Rio (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Wallonia (Ultratop 40): Macarena--Los Del Rio (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France (SNEP): Tic, Tic Tac--Carrapicho (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Killing Me Softly--The Fugees (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Forever Love--Gary Barlow

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 How Do U Want It/California Love--2Pac featuring K-Ci and JoJo/2 Pac featuring Dr. Dre & Roger Troutman (2nd week at #1)
2 You're Makin' Me High/Let it Flow--Toni Braxton
3 Give Me One Reason--Tracy Chapman
4 Macarena (Bayside Boys Mix)--Los Del Rio
5 Tha Crossroads--Bone Thugs-N-Harmony
6 Twisted--Keith Sweat
7 I Can't Sleep Baby (If I)--R. Kelly
8 C'mon N' Ride It (The Train)--Quad City DJ's
9 Change the World--Eric Clapton
10 Because You Loved Me--Céline Dion

Singles entering the chart were Change the World; Mint Car by the Cure (#58); Maria by Ricky Martin (#90); Paparazzi by Xzibit (#91); Waiting for Wednesday by Lisa Loeb & Nine Stories (#93); and Never Too Busy by Kenny Lattimore (#94).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 You're Makin' Me High/Let it Flow--Toni Braxton (2nd week at #1)
2 How Do You Want It/California Love--2Pac (featuring KC and JoJo)/(featuring Dr. Dre and Roger Troutman)
3 Tha Crossroads--Bone Thugs-N-Harmony
4 C'mon n' Ride It (The Train)--Quad City DJ’s
5 Macarena (Bayside Boys Mix)--Los Del Rio
6 Give Me One Reason--Tracy Chapman
7 Twisted--Keith Sweat
8 Why I Love You So Much--Monica
9 Always Be My Baby--Mariah Carey
10 Theme from Mission: Impossible--Adam Clayton & Larry Mullen, Jr.

Singles entering the chart were It's a Party by Busta Rhymes (featuring Zhane) (#48); One by One by Cher (#57); All Along by Blessid Union of Souls (#77); Where Do We Go from Here by Vanessa Williams (#80); and The Things that You Do by Gina Thompson (#89).

Terrorism
35 people were killed when a bomb exploded in Reus, Spain. Two more bombs exploded in Spanish resort towns, but warnings had left time for evacuation, while a fourth bomb was defused.

Abominations
330 Tutsi civilians from Rwanda were massacred, the day after the beginning of forced repatriation from refugee camps in Burundi.

Disasters
Torrential rains struck Québec's Saguenay and North Shore regions; up to 277 millimetres fell around the Réserve faunique des Laurentides, bursting dams, dikes and embankments, killing 10 people, destroying 22,488 homes and leaving 10,000 homeless. An inquiry later reported that the region's system of dams was poorly maintained.

Football
CFL
Hamilton (3-1) 22 @ Calgary (4-0) 40

20 years ago
2001


Died on this date
Milt Gabler, 90
. U.S. record producer. Mr. Gabler ran a used record store before founding Commodore Records in 1937, and had success with that label before joining Decca Records in 1941. He produced recordings of artists such as Billie Holiday, Louis Jordan, the Weavers, and Bill Haley and his Comets. Mr. Gabler's experience in selling used records enabled him to be a pioneer in reissuing old recordings. He was the uncle of comedian and actor Billy Crystal, who inducted Mr. Gabler into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1993.

Carlo Giuliani, 23. Italian activist. Mr. Giuliani was protesting against the G8 summit of Western government leaders in Genoa, and was shot dead by a police officer after throwing a fire extinguisher at the police van.

Football
CFL
Hamilton (2-1) 24 @ Toronto (0-3) 18



Montreal (3-0) 37 @ Winnipeg (2-1) 34



Calgary (0-3) 23 @ Edmonton (2-1-0-1) 33

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