Monday, 5 July 2021

July 5, 2021

700 years ago

Born on this date
. Queen consort of Scotland, 1329-1362. Joan of the Tower, the daughter of King Edward II and Queen Isabella of England, was born in the Tower of London. She was married at the age of 7 in 1328 to David, 4, son of Robert the Bruce, and became queen consort of Scotland when her husband acceded to the throne as King David II. After the English forces of King Edward III won the Battle of Haldion Hill in 1333, King David and Queen Joan fled into exile in France, living under the protection of King Philippe VI. They were able to return to Scotland in June 1341, with King David ruling under his own power. He was taken prisoner during the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346, and spent 11 years in the Tower of London. Queen Joan was allowed to visit him several times, but didn't become pregnant. After King David's release, Queen Joan decided to remain in England, where she died on September 7, 1362 at the age of 41.

210 years ago

South Americana

Venezuela became the first South American country to declare its independence from Spain.

180 years ago

Thomas Cook organized the first package excursion, from Leicester to Loughborough, England.

140 years ago

The New Zealand Parliament passed the Chinese Immigrants Act. After this received Royal Assent, a "poll tax" of £10 (equivalent to $1,770 today) was imposed on Chinese migrants and the number allowed to land from each ship arriving in New Zealand was restricted. Only one Chinese passenger was allowed for every 10 tons of cargo.

130 years ago

Born on this date
John Howard Northrop
. U.S. biochemist. Dr. Northrop shared the 1946 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with James Sumner and Wendell Stanley "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form." Dr. Northrop died on May 27, 1987 at the age of 95.

110 years ago

Born on this date
Georges Pompidou
. Prime Minister of France, 1962-1968; President of France, 1969-1974. Mr. Pompidou served as Prime Minister under President Charles de Gaulle. After Mr. de Gaulle resigned in 1969, Mr. Pompidou defeated acting President Alain Poher in the presidential election. Mr. Pompidou attempted to modernize Paris and embarked on a plan of national industrialization. He was still in office when he died suddenly of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, a rare form of blood cancer, on April 2, 1974 at the age of 62.

Giorgio Borġ Olivier. Prime Minister of Malta, 1950-1955, 1962-1971. Mr. Borg Olivier, a member of the Partito Nazionale (Nationalist Party), sat in the Council of Government from 1939-1977, and became leader of the party in December 1950. His first term as Prime Minister was characterized by success in gaining British recognition for him as the equal of the Prime Ministers of Northern Ireland and Southern Rhodesia, while his second term was marked by Malta gaining her independence in 1964. Mr. Borg Olivier was forced to resign as party leader in 1977 in the face of widepread desire for a younger leader, and died of lung cancer on October 29, 1980 at the age of 69.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Viktor Kulikov
. U.S.S.R. military officer. Marshal of the Soviet Union Kulikov joined the Red Army in 1940, serving in World War II and receiving several decorations. He rose through the ranks and achieved several commands, including the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (1967-1969). Marshal Kulikov was Chief of General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces (1971-1977) and Warsaw Pact commander-in-chief (1977-1989). He died on May 28, 2013 at the age of 91, after a long illness.

Nanos Valaoritis. Swiss-born Greek writer. Mr. Valaoritis, born in Lausanne to Greek parents, was a surrealist poet, novelist, and playwright who lived in France, U.K., and U.S.A. in addition to Greece in a literary career spanning more than 50 years. He died on September 12, 2019 at the age of 98.

80 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): María Elena--Jimmy Dorsey and His Orchestra with Bob Eberly (2nd week at #1)

Without using a score, 11-year-old Loren Maazell conducted the NBC Summer Symphony Orchestra in a program of Mendelssohn and Wagner.

U.K. Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden said that he anticipated a peace offer from German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler, but that Britain was "not, in any circumstances, prepared to negotiate with him at any time on any subject." German troops reached the Dnieper River in Ukraine. U.S.S.R. forces claimed successful counterattacks in the Ostrov sector east of Estonia.

The Japanese government announced that 109,250 Japanese soldiers had been killed in the war with China, as against 2,015,000 Chinese killed.

The American Youth Congress passed a resolution pledging cooperation "with the people of Britain and the Soviet Union" in their fight against Adolf Hitler, thus reversing the AYC's isolationist stand of the previous year.

Politics and government
Dr. F.A. Hermens of the University of Notre Dame stated in a study of proportional representation voting in the United States and abroad that it had failed in practice, and actually retarded reform in municipal administration.

75 years ago

Popular culture
The bikini first went on sale after debuting during an outdoor fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris.

The U.S. Senate passed and sent to the House of Representatives a bill providing $30.35 million for vocational training and education.

Economics and finance
Canadian Finance Minister J. L. Ilsley introduced a new decontrol program in Parliament; the value of the Canadian dollar was raised from 90c to parity with the American dollar, after U.S. abandonment of price controls. Mr. Ilsley's program included a list of goods to remain under wartime price ceilings.

Sam Snead won the British Open at the Old Course of St. Andrew's, Scotland, with a 2-over-par score of 290, 4 strokes ahead of Johnny Bulla and Bobby Locke. First prize money was £150.

70 years ago

Time, Inc. announced plans to discontinue The March of Time newsreels after 16 years. The last newsreel, Formosa — Island of Promise, was released in August.

Hungary ordered two U.S. legation staff members in Budapest to leave the country within 24 hours because of alleged implication in the espionage case of Archbishop Josef Groesz.

14 former New York college basketball players pled guilty to charges of conspiring with gamblers to fix the outcome of games.

The International Court of Justice granted the United Kingdom a temporaty injunction against Iran in the oil nationalization dispute, directing Iran to permit the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company to continue operations pending a final court decision over the firm's nationalization.

Economics and finance
United Nations Secretary-General Trygve Lie reported that aid pledged for Korean reconstruction totalled $228,844,948 to date in addition to the $85 million supplied by the U.S. through the military command.

Big Four representatives resumed meetings broken off two years earlier on a new trade agreement between East and West Berlin.

Cuban President Carlos Prio Socarras ruled that machinery may be used in making cigars for export but not for domestic consumption, following a series of demonstrations for cigar workers afraid of losing their jobs to automation.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Eagle Rock--Daddy Cool (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Mata Au Hi Made--Kiyohiko Ozaki (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Qué Será (Che Sará)--José Feliciano (8th week at #1)

Politics and government
The Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, lowering the voting age from 21 to 18 years, was formally certified by President Richard Nixon.

Winnipeg (1-0) 19 @ Ottawa (0-1) 17
Edmonton (1-0) 17 @ British Columbia (0-1) 15

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Stars on 45--Stars on 45 (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Bette Davis Eyes--Kim Carnes

The day after performing in Washington, D.C., the Beach Boys headlined a free concert from the deck of the ocean liner Queen Mary in Long Beach, California. The opening acts included Three Dog Night and Rick Springfield.

As many as 30 police officers were injured by flying missiles during riots by white and Negro youths in Liverpool.

Hamilton (1-0) 33 @ Winnipeg (0-1) 23

30 years ago

Died on this date
Mildred Dunnock, 90
. U.S. actress. Miss Dunnock was a character actress who appeared in plays, movies, and television programs in a career spanning more than 50 years. She was nominated for Academy Awards for her supporting performances in Death of a Salesman (1951) and Baby Doll (1956), reprising in the former the role that she had played on Broadway in 1949.

Regulators in eight countries, including Canada, shut down the Bank of Credit and Commerce International. The BCCI was charged with fraud, drug money laundering, and illegal infiltration into the U.S. banking system.

Politics and government
Joe Clark, President of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, accepted a parallel constitutional reform process run by First Nations, to provide input to the parliamentary unity committee.

Canadian Energy, Mines and Resources Minister Jake Epp concluded that closing the Sarnia-Montréal pipeline would not threaten the oil supply. The pipeline had been built during the energy crisis 15 years earlier.

Denver and Miami were approved by major league owners as cities to receive franchises to begin play in 1993.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Killing Me Softly--The Fugees (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Killing Me Softly--The Fugees (4th week at #1)

Died on this date
Fred Davis, 74
. Canadian broadcaster. Mr. Davis, a native of Toronto, was a jazz trumpeter in his youth, but was best known for hosting the television news quiz show Front Page Challenge, replacing Alex Barris a few weeks after its debut in 1957, and hosting it until its cancellation in 1995. Mr. Davis died after a series of strokes.

Dolly the sheep became the first mammal cloned from an adult cell.

Montreal (0-2) 13 @ Edmonton (2-0) 16

Danny McManus's 22-yard touchdown pass to Shalon Baker in the 4th quarter gave the Eskimos their win over the Alouettes before 26,211 fans at Commonwealth Stadium. Tony Burse rushed 2 yards for the other Edmonton touchdown.

20 years ago

Died on this date
Ernie K-Doe, 68
. U.S. musician. Mr. K-Doe, born Ernest Kador, was a rhythm and blues drummer, but was best known as a singer. He had seven singles that appeared on the Billboard Hot 100 or Rhythm and Blues chart from 1961-1967, but his first, Mother-in-Law, was his biggest, reaching #1 on both charts in the spring of 1961. Mr. K-Doe hosted radio shows in New Orleans in the 1980s; he died from kidney and liver failure after years of heavy drinking.

Greg Maddux (10-5) picked up his 250th career major league win as the Atlanta Braves beat the Philadelphia Phillies 9-5 before 32,031 fans at Turner Field in Atlanta. Mr. Maddux allowed 7 hits and 2 runs--both earned--in 6 innings, leaving with a 7-2 lead. Atlanta right fielder Brian Jordan batted 3 for 4 with 2 home runs, 2 runs, and 4 runs batted in.

10 years ago

Soldiers of the Royal 22e Regiment stood down and formally handed over their battlefield of the western Kandahar district of Panjwaii to American units, ending Canada's war in Afghanistan. The combat mission, which began in 2002, cost the lives of 157 soldiers, one diplomat and one journalist. About 950 Canadian soldiers and support staff carried out a training mission in Kandahar until 2014.

A jury in Orlando, Florida found Casey Anthony, 25, not guilty of murder, manslaughter and child abuse in the 2008 disappearance and death of her 2-year-old daughter Caylee, but found her guilty of four misdemeanor counts of providing false information to a law enforcement officer.

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