Wednesday, 26 June 2019

June 26, 2019

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Beth Stover!

610 years ago

The Roman Catholic Church was led into a double schism as Petros Philargos was crowned Pope Alexander V after the Council of Pisa, joining Pope Gregory XII in Rome and Pope Benedict XII in Avignon.

440 years ago

The Livonian campaign of Stephen Báthory began.

225 years ago

French forces commanded by General Jean-Baptiste Jourdan defeated a Coalition Army (Great Britain, Hanover, Dutch Republic, and Habsburg Monarchy) commanded by Prince Josias of Coburg in the Battle of Fleurus in the Netherlands, leading to the permanent loss of the Austrian Netherlands and the destruction of the Dutch Republic. The French use of the reconnaissance balloon l'Entreprenant marked the first successful use of aircraft to influence a battle.

200 years ago

Born on this date
Abner Doubleday
. U.S. military officer. Mr. Doubleday was a general in the Union army in the U.S. Civil War who fired the first shot in defense of Fort Sumter, South Carolina in 1861, and had a major role in the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863. He was erroneously credited with having created the game of baseball in Cooperstown, New York in 1839. Gen. Doubleday died on January 26, 1893 at the age of 73.

The bicycle was patented by W.K. Clarkson.

130 years ago

Died on this date
Simon Cameron, 90
. U.S. politician. Mr. Cameron was a journalist, railroad executive, and banker before entering politics. As a Democrat, he represented Pennsylvania in the United States Senate from 1845-1849. Mr. Cameron was then a member of the American Party before joining the Republican Party in 1856. He represented Pennsylvania in the Senate again from 1857-1861, and served as U.S. Secretary of War in the administration of President Abraham Lincoln from 1861-1862, resigning amid accusations of corruption. Mr. Cameron served as U.S. Minister to Russia from June-September 1862, and returned to the Senate in 1867, representing Pennsylvania until 1877.

Bangui, the capital and largest city of the Central African Republic, was founded by Albert Dolisie and Alfred Uzac in what was then the upper reaches of the French Congo.

125 years ago

Politics and government
Premier Sir Oliver Mowat led his Liberal Party to its seventh consecutive victory in the Ontario provincial election. The Liberals took 45 of 94 seats in the Legislative Assembly--a decrease of 8 from the most recent election in 1890--but Liberals running under the joint banners of Patrons of Industry (12) and Protestant Protective Association (1) provided a majority. The Conservative Party, led by W.R. Meredith, won 23 seats--a decrease of 11 from 1890--and Conservatives running under the joint banners of Protestant Protective Association (6) and Patrons of Industry (1) gave them a total of 30. The Patrons of Industry (3) and PPA (2) won seats without party affiliation, and one independent candidate was elected.

The cornerstone of Wesley College was laid in downtown Winnipeg; the college later became a founding college of what is now the University of Winnipeg.

The American Railway Union, led by Eugene Debs, called a general strike in sympathy with Pullman sleeping car workers.

120 years ago

Born on this date
Maria Nikolaevna
. Russian royal family member. Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna was the third daughter of Czar Nicholas II and Czarina Alexandra. She was murdered on July 17, 1918, three weeks after her 19th birthday, with the rest of her family, in Yekaterinburg by the Communists who had seized power the previous November.

110 years ago

Born on this date
Colonel Tom Parker
. Dutch-born U.S. talent manager. "Colonel" Parker was born in the Netherlands as Andreas Cornelis van Kuijk, illegally entered the United States at the age of 18 by jumping ship, and never became a legal resident or citizen of the United States. He worked as a carnival barker before managing singers such as Gene Austin, Eddy Arnold, and Tommy Sands, but was best known for managing Elvis Presley from 1955 until Mr. Presley's death in 1977. "Col." Parker died at the age of 87 on January 21, 1997, the day after suffering a stroke, after years of declining health.

The Science Museum in London came into existence as an independent entity.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Freddie Mills
. U.K. boxer. Mr. Mills, a middleweight and then a light heavyweight, compiled a record of 77-18-6 in a professional career from 1936-1950, and was world light heavyweight champion from 1948-1950. He appeared in several movies and hosted radio and television programs after his boxing career ended. Mr. Mills operated a Chinese restaurant in the Soho area of London, which he later converted into a nightclub. On July 25, 1965, at the age of 46, Mr. Mills was found dead in his car with a gun in the car, and a bullet having been shot through his right eye. He was known to have suffered bouts of depression, and a verdict of suicide was returned. Those who knew Mr. Mills said that he would never have taken his own life, and there was speculation that he had been killed by gangsters after refusing to pay protection money. Conspiracy theories abound.

Jimmy Newberry. U.S. baseball pitcher. Mr. Newberry played with the Birmingham Black Barons (1944-1950) of the Negro American League, compiling a record of 15-13 in 36 games. In 1952 he joined the Hankyu Braves of the Japanese Pacific League, as he and third baseman Jack Britton became the first Negro Americans to play professionally in Japan. Mr. Newberry posted a record of 11-10 with an earned run average of 3.23 in 36 games with the Braves. He returned to the United States and played in the minor leagues from 1954-1956, compiling a record of 9-18 in 71 games, mostly in relief. Mr. Newberry died on June 23, 1983, three days before his 64th birthday.

Richard Neustadt. U.S. political scientist. Dr. Neustadt specialized in the United States presidency, teaching at Harvard University and serving as an adviser to Democratic Party Presidents Harry Truman, John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, and Bill Clinton. He was known for his book Presidential Power (1960), published in a revised edition as Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents: The Politics of Leadership (1990). Dr. Neustadt died at the age of 84 on October 31, 2003, of complications from a fall.

The Illustrated Daily News--later renamed the New York Daily News--published its first edition.

The Winnipeg General Strike, which had begun on May 15, officially ended at 11 A.M. Future Canadian Co-operative Commonwealth Federation founder J. S. Woodsworth was charged with seditious conspiracy for participating in the strike; the charges were later dropped.

90 years ago

The Canadian National Railway and Canadian Pacific Railway acquired, for joint operation, 857 miles of Northern Alberta Railways: Edmonton, Dunvegan & British Columbia Railway (447 miles); Alberta & Great Waterways Railway (286 miles); Central Canada Railway (98 miles); and Pembina Valley Railway (26 miles).

80 years ago

Died on this date
Ford Madox Ford, 65
. U.K. author. Born Ford Hermann Hueffer, Mr. Ford was known for his novels The Fifth Queen (trilogy, 1906-1908); The Good Soldier (1915); and Parade's End (tetralogy, 1924-1928).

75 years ago

On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on MBS
Tonight's episode: The Dissimilar Body

The Battle of Osuchy in Poland ended with the defeat of the Polish resistance forces. Soviet forces took Vitebsk and Zhlobin and pushed to within 35 miles of the Polish border in western Russia. U.S. troops in France mopped up the remaining German resistance in Cherbourg. San Marino, a neutral state, was mistakenly bombed by the U.K. Royal Air Force based on faulty information, leading to 35 civilian deaths.

Politics and government
California Governor Earl Warren delivered the keynote speech at the opening of the Republican National Convention in Chicago, pledging the party to cooperation in international affairs and internal reconstruction.

More than 50,000 fans packed the Polo Grounds in New York for a unique exhibition game among the city's three major league teams to raise war bonds for World War II. The teams rotated, with one team sitting out an inning. The final score was Brooklyn Dodgers 5, New York Yankees 1, New York Giants 0.

70 years ago

On the radio
Pat Novak For Hire, starring Jack Webb, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Little Jake Siegel

This was the last episode of the series.

Died on this date
Kim Koo, 72
. President of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, 1927, 1939-1948. Mr. Kim was a nationalist politician who was a leader in the movement for Korean independence from Japanese rule, and of the movement for Korean reunification after World War II. He murdered a Japanese man in 1896 and was sentenced to death, but escaped two years later. Mr. Koo established the Korean Liberation Army in China, which served the Allied cause during World War II. He was reading poetry at his home in Seoul when South Korean Army Lieutenant Ahn Doo-hee burst in and fatally shot him four times. Lt. Ahn claimed that he killed Mr. Kim because he believed him to be an agent of the U.S.S.R. Lt. Ahn claimed sole responsibility for the assassination, but in 1992 claimed that the assassination had been ordered by Kim Chang-ryong, head of national security in the regime of President Syngman Rhee. Lt. Ahn was sentenced to 15 years in prison, but was released after one year, and was in turn assassinated in 1996. Mr. Kim is widely regarded by Koreans as a national hero.

Politics and government
The Christian Social Party, led by Gaston Eyskens, won a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies in the Belgian general election, barely short of a majority. The Christian Social party took 105 seats, an increase of 13 from the most recent election in 1946, and 2 short of a majority. The Socialist Party, led by Prime Minister Paul-Henri Spaak, was second with 66 seats, a decrease of 3 from 1946. The Liberal Party, led by Roger Motz, increased from 17 to 29, while the Communist Party, led by Julien Lahaut, dropped from 23 to 12. The Christian Social Party won 54 of 105 seats in the Senate, an increase of 3 from 1946. The Socialists dropped from 34 to 33, while the Liberals increased from 4 to 14 and the Communists dropped from 11 to 5. It was the first Belgian general election in which women were allowed to vote.

Newly-elected Syrian President Colonel Husni al-Za'im named Muhsen Bey Berazi as Prime Minister and head of a five-member cabinet.

Roman Catholic bishops in Czechoslovakia accused the government of mounting an anti-church campaign, with kidnappings, robbery, and other measures designed to destroy religious freedom in Czechoslovakia.

The U.S. Federal Security Administration announced grants totalling $1,504,718 for cancer research.

Delegates from 33 countries voted in Geneva to set up an anti-Communist international labour organization rivalling the World Federation of Trade Unions.

Bobby Riggs won the men's singles title at the U.S. professional championships in New York, while Don Budge and Frank Kovacs won the men's doubles title.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Roulette--Russ Conway (2nd week at #1)

World events
Bolivian troops crushed a revolt in Santa Cruz, an oil refinery centre in southeastern Bolivia.

Israeli Prime Ministe David Ben-Gurion said that he would fulfill a contract with West Germany for the sale of 250,000 mortar shells despite the opposition of most Israeli newspapers and leftist parties.

Politics and government
Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru told parliamentary leaders that the dispute in the state of Kerala could best be solved by new state elections. A campaign of mass disobedience was taking place against Kerala's Communist government.

Louisiana Governor Earl Long (Democrat) gained his release from Southeast Louisiana State Hospital in Mandeville by firing Jesse Bankston, head of the state hospital system, and replacing him with a supporter who had Gov. Long released. Gov. Long had been confined for several weeks because of alleged mental instability, but there was nothing in Louisiana state law requiring him to relinquish power while institutionalized.

Queen Elizabeth II and U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower opened the 2,300-mile St. Lawrence Seaway, connecting the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean. The seaway was a joint project between Canada and the U.S.A. that cost $470 million, $336.2 million of which was paid by Canada and $133.8 by the United States. Also on hand for the ceremony were Prince Philip, Canadian Prime Minister John Diefenbaker, and U.S. Secretary of State Christian Herter.

Economics and finance
Spanish officials initialled agreements in Madrid with representatives of several international monetary organizations providing for devaluation of the paseta and a strict austerity program.

U.S. President Eisenhower asked Congress to appropriate $1.6 billion for 1960 military aid; $835 million for defense support; $700 million for the Development Loan Fund; and $584 million for special aid.

European champion Ingemar Johansson (22-0) of Sweden scored a technical knockout of defending champion Floyd Patterson (35-2) at 2:03 of the 3rd round to win the world heavyweight title before 30,000 fans at Yankee Stadium in New York. The challenger knocked Mr. Patterson down 7 times before referee Ruby Goldstein stopped the fight. Mr. Johansson became the last white heavyweight to wear the championship belt before boxing became divided into various ruling bodies, recognizing various champions.

Don Kildoo pitched a no-hitter for the New Orleans Pelicans as they shut out the Birmingham Barons 5-0 in a Southern Association game.

Emperor Hirohito and his wife were in attendance at Korakuen Stadium in Tokyo as the Yomiuri Giants edged the Hanshin Tigers 5-4. Rookie Sadaharu Oh tied the game with a 2-run home run in the 7th inning, and Shigeo Nagashima won the game with a homer in the bottom of the 9th.

50 years ago

On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Carleton Hobbs and Norman Shelley, on BBC 2
Tonight’s episode: A Case of Identity

Nine supermarkets in Buenos Aires were hit by bombs, which destroyed seven of them. The stores were part of a chain owned by the Rockefeller family’s International Basic Economy Corporation. New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller was scheduled to visit the city soon.

The American Civil Liberties Union filed suit in federal court on behalf of several antiwar and black power organizations challenging the United States Department of Justice’s new doctrine that wiretapping of domestic groups could be justified.

40 years ago

Died on this date
A.A. Afrifa, 43
; Frederick Akuffo, 42. Ghanaian military and political leaders. Lieutenant General Afrifa was Ghana's head of state from 1969-1970. Lieutenant General Akuffo ruled Ghana from 1978-1979, until deposed on June 4 by a coup led by air force Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings. Both were accused of using their positions to accumulate personal wealth, and were publicly executed in Accra by a firing squad.

Economics and finance
The United States Labor Department reported that consumer prices paid by urban residents had risen 1.1% in May, with energy prices replacing food prices as the major area of increase.

The United States House of Representatives voted 368-25 to fund the large-scale production of synthetic fuels. The bill would have the federal government encourage the production of 500,000 barrels per day of synthetic fuels by 1985 with the guarantee that the U.S. Defense Department would buy that amount. The government was to then encourage the production of 2,000,000 barrels per day by 1990. The House also agreed to authorize $3 billion for price supports for synthetic fuels.

The United States Supreme Court eased restrictions in libel suits, ruling that individuals who do not by choice become involved in public controversy are not public figures, and thus need not prove malice in such civil suits.

Calgary (2-1) 23 @ Hamilton (0-3) 8
Winnipeg (0-3) 8 @ British Columbia (3-0) 12

The New York Yankees traded pitcher Paul Semall and cash to the Chicago Cubs for outfielder Bobby Murcer, who had previously played for the Yankees from 1965-1974. Mr. Semall was 6-3 with an earned run average of 3.88 in 13 games with the Columbus Clippers of the AAA International League in 1979, and was assigned by the Cubs to the Wichita Aeros of the AAA American Association. Mr. Murcer was batting .258 with 7 home runs and 22 runs batted in in 58 games with Chicago in 1979.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Australian Music Report): Wind Beneath My Wings--Bette Midler (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): The Look--Roxette

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Pop Singer--John Mellencamp
2 Satisfied--Richard Marx
3 Good Thing--Fine Young Cannibals
4 Wind Beneath My Wings--Bette Midler
5 I Won't Back Down--Tom Petty
6 Rock On--Michael Damian
7 Cry--Waterfront
8 Buffalo Stance--Neneh Cherry
9 Soldier of Love--Donny Osmond
10 Express Yourself--Madonna

Singles entering the chart were Batdance by Prince (#78); How Long by Blue Rodeo (#80); A Friend is a Friend by Pete Townshend (#84); Boy with a Beat by Trooper (#87); Cover of Love by Michael Damian (#89); Bye Bye Mon Cowboy by Mitsou (#91); and Hangin' High and Dry by Brighton Rock (#93).

Died on this date
Howard Green, 93
. Canadian politician. Mr. Green was a Conservative and Progressive member of the House of Commons from 1935-1963. He was Minister of Public Works in the government of Prime Minister John Diefenbaker from 1957-1959 and Secretary of State for External Affairs from 1959-1963. Mr. Green was known for his support of the Commonwealth of Nations and nuclear disarmament. His support for Mr. Diefenbaker's refusal to allow nuclear-tipped Bomarc missiles into Canada helped lead to his, and the government's defeat in the 1963 federal election.

Walter Martin, 60. U.S. Christian apologist. Dr. Martin was the founder of the Christian Research Institute and author of numerous books, most notably The Kingdom of the Cults (originally published in 1965). He died of a heart attack the day after debating apostate Anglican Bishop John Shelby Spong. Dr. Martin's messages and writings can be found at Walter Martin's Religious Info Net, a site operated by his daughter, Jill Martin Rische.

Time, Inc. rejected an offer of $12.2 billion ($200 per share) from Paramount Communications Corporation to purchase the company.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand: The Most Beautiful Girl in the World--The Artist Formerly Known as Prince (Love Symbol) (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Without You--Mariah Carey (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Without You--Mariah Carey (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Chart Information Network): Love is All Around--Wet Wet Wet (5th week at #1)

Damian Moss pitched a no-hitter for the Danville Braves as they shut out the Bluefield Orioles 6-0 in an Appalachian League game.

20 years ago

Died on this date
Tim Layana, 35
. U.S. baseball pitcher. Mr. Layana played with the Cincinnati Reds (1990-1991) and San Francisco Giants (1993), compiling a record of 5-5 with an earned run average of 4.56 and 2 saves in 78 games. He played 10 seasons in minor and independent leagues from 1986-1997, compiling a record of 43-48 with 40 saves in 315 games. Mr. Layana was killed in an auto accident.

The 47,500 members of the Quebec Federation of Nurses (FIIQ) launched an unlimited and illegal general strike.

The Boston Red Sox scored 11 runs in the 1st inning en route to a 17-1 rout of the Chicago White Sox before 32,758 fans at Fenway Park in Boston. Pedro Martinez allowed 3 hits and 1 earned run in pitching just the first 5 innings for the Red Sox, improving his 1999 record to 14-2.

Joe Mays allowed 4 hits in 6 innings to get his first major league win with the help of two relief pitchers as the Minnesota Twins edged the Detroit Tigers 1-0 before 19,667 fans at Tiger Stadium. Doug Mientkiewicz led off the top of the 6th inning with a base on balls and scored the only run on a 1-out single by Chad Allen. Losing pitcher Dave Mlicki pitched a 6-hit complete game.

The Kansas City Royals, trailing 7-0 after 6 1/2 innings, scored a run in the 7th and erupted for 10 in the bottom of the 8th to defeat the Cleveland Indians 11-7 before 29,358 fans at Kauffman Stadium in Kansas City.

Charles Gipson drew a base on balls to lead off the bottom of the 8th inning and scored on a 1-out single by David Bell to break a 4-4 tie as the Seattle Mariners edged the Texas Rangers 5-4 before 37,992 fans at the Kingdome in Seattle.

Alberto Castillo scored Edgar Renteria with a sacrifice fly in the top of the 10th inning to break a 1-1 tie as the St. Louis Cardinals edged the Arizona Diamondbacks 2-1 before 48,053 fans at Bank One Ballpark in Phoenix.

Todd Hundley hit a 2-run home run in the 3rd inning and a 3-run homer with none out in the top of the 9th to enable the Los Angeles Dodgers to defeat the San Francisco Giants 7-6 before 44,766 fans at 3Com Park at Candlestick Point in San Francisco. The Giants had scored 4 runs in the bottom of the 8th to take a 6-4 lead, with Ellis Burks' 3-run homer the big blow.

The San Diego Padres scored 5 runs in each of the 2nd and 7th innings as they beat the Colorado Rockies 13-6 before 47,808 fans at Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego.

10 years ago

Five months after filing for bankruptcy protection, Nortel Networks Corporation was de-listed from the Toronto Stock Exchange at a price of 18.5c per share, down from its high in 2000, when it had comprised a third of the S&P/TSX composite index. The move came after a plan to sell off all the company's assets, and allegations of fraud.

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