Wednesday, 25 April 2018

April 25, 2018

340 years ago
1678

War

French troops captured Ypres from Spain.

175 years ago
1843


Born on this date
Alice, Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine
. U.K. Royal Family member. Princess Alice, the third child and second daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, married Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, in 1862. She became a nurse and supervised field hospitals during the Austro-Prussian War (1866), and took care of her children during a diphtheria epidemic before dying from it herself on December 14, 1878 at the age of 35, 17 years to the day since the death of her father.

120 years ago
1898

War

The United States formally declared war on Spain over Cuba, the day after Spain had declared war on the U.S.A.

110 years ago
1908

Born on this date
Edward R. Murrow
. U.S. journalist. Mr. Murrow was probably America’s most famous radio and television journalist in the mid-20th Century. The Washington State University graduate joined the Columbia Broadcasting System in 1935, and remained with CBS for the next 25 years. In 1937 Mr. Murrow was sent to London as director of CBS’s European operations. On March 13, 1938 he co-ordinated a multi-site live broadcast concerning Nazi Germany’s Anschluss of Austria, a landmark broadcast for the time. Mr. Murrow became famous, and remains well-known, for his broadcasts from London during the blitz in 1940. He opened his broadcasts with "This is...London," and soon began closing them with "Good night and good luck." By 1947 Mr. Murrow was back in the United States, doing daily newscasts. A series of spoken-word long-playing records titled I Can Hear it Now led to a CBS radio documentary series called Hear it Now. Mr. Murrow soon added a television version; See it Now began broadcasting on November 18, 1951. The most famous broadcast of See it Now took place on March 9, 1954, when Mr. Murrow attacked Senator Joseph McCarthy because of his methods in addressing the threat of Communism. While most reaction was positive, there were a number of anti-McCarthy commentators who thought that Mr. Murrow was guilty of the same sins of distortion that he accused Mr. McCarthy of. The story (from the point of view of Mr. Murrow) was told in the 2005 movie Good Night and Good Luck, starring David Strathairn as Edward R. Murrow (Mr. Strathairn received a Best Actor Academy Award nomination for his performance). See it Now obtained high ratings only occasionally; it stopped running as a weekly show in 1955, but continued to run as an occasional show until the summer of 1958. Mr. Murrow hosted several other shows during the 1950s. This I Believe ran on radio from 1951-1955. In 1953 he began hosting the television show Person to Person, a program in which Mr. Murrow, from his studio, interviewed celebrities in their homes. Person to Person consistently drew higher ratings than See it Now. Another program of Mr. Murrow’s was Small World, which brought political figures together for one-on-one debates. He continued his daily radio reports until 1959. Mr. Murrow’s last major broadcast was an episode of the documentary television series CBS Reports called Harvest of Shame, about the plight of migrant farm workers in the United States, which was broadcast in November 1960. He also appeared as himself in the 1960 movie Sink the Bismarck! Mr. Murrow left CBS in 1961 when President John F. Kennedy appointed him as director of the United States Information Agency; he remained in this position until 1964, when a heavy smoking habit finally caught up with him, and a losing battle with lung cancer forced his resignation. Edward R. Murrow died on April 27, 1965, two days after his 57th birthday. Among the honours he won were an Emmy in 1956 for best news commentary, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1964. In 1967, he was awarded a posthumous Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for his Edward R. Murrow--A Reporter Remembers, Vol. I The War Years.

Montrealana
The residential area of Westmount, Québec was incorporated as a city.

90 years ago
1928


Died on this date
Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, 49. Russian military officer. Baron Wrangel was an officer in the Imperial Russian army and served in the White Russian army as a major general after the Bolshevik revolution. He became commanding general of the entire Volunteer Army in December 1919. In 1920, facing defeat on two fronts, Baron Wrangel arranged a mass evacuation on the shores of the Black Sea. he gave his soldiers the option of leaving with him or facing the wrath of the Red Army. Baron Wrangel and those with him left Russia on November 14, 1920. Baron Wrangel eventually settled in Brussels. Baron Wrangel took ill and died soon after his butler’s brother departed the household, leading some including Baron Wrangel’s family) to suspect that the butler’s brother, alleged to be a Soviet agent, had poisoned Baron Wrangel.

Floyd Bennett, 37. U.S. aviator. Mr. Bennett was Richard Byrd’s pilot when Admiral Byrd attempted to reach the North Pole in 1926; Mr. Bennett received the Medal of Honor. Mr. Byrd was a leading candidate for the Orteig Prize in 1927, to be awarded for the first non-stop flight from the United States to France. He again chose Mr. Bennett as his pilot. Unfortunately, Mr. Bennett was seriously injured during a practice takeoff. While he was recuperating, and his plane was being repaired, Charles Lindbergh won the Orteig Prize for his flight in the Spirit of St. Louis. On April 23, 1928, Mr. Bennett and Bernt Balchen flew a Ford monoplane from Detroit to Greenly Island, near Newfoundland, to take supplies to the crew of the German Junker Bremen, which had become stranded there on an attempt at a transatlantic flight from Dublin to New York. Mr. Bennett took ill during the flight and was flown back to Quebec City, where he died in hospital of pneumonia which he had contracted as a result of his injuries in that 1927 crash. Charles Lindbergh made an emergency flight to Quebec with medicine in a desperate attempt to save Mr. Bennett’s life, but Colonel Lindbergh arrived too late. Admiral Byrd was devastated by the loss, and blamed himself for Mr. Bennett’s death. He named the plane that he used on his South Pole flight in 1929 the Floyd Bennett. New York City’s first municipal airport was named Floyd Bennett Field.

Frank Lockhart, 25. U.S. auto racing driver. Mr. Lockhart was a last-minute substitute driver for Peter Kreis in the 1926 Indianapolis 500; he started in 20th position, but ended up as the winner. He was almost two laps ahead of the field when the race was shortened by rain after 160 laps (400 miles). Mr. Lockhart won four more American Automobile Association races in 1926, and five more in 1927. He won the pole at the Indianapolis 500 that year, and led the first 81 laps ( a record that stood for 64 years), but his race ended after 107 laps when a connecting rod broke. On April 25, 1928, Mr. Lockhart was attempting to set a land speed record on the beach at Daytona Beach, Florida, when a tire was cut (probably on a sea shell), which sent his car, the Black Hawk Special, tumbling out of control. Mr. Lockhart was thrown from the car and killed instantly, 17 days after his 25th birthday; his speed was below that which would have set the record. Frank Lockhart was inducted into the Motorsports Hall of Fame in 1999.

Politics and government
Administration leaders in the United States Senate, assisted by Democrats, defeated the Norris-Blaine proposal to amend the Naval Appropriation Bill by a rider that provided that "after Feb. 1, 1929, none of the appropriation made shall be used in Nicaragua to pay expenses incurred in connection with acts of hostility against that nation." The vote was 52-22.

80 years ago
1938


Law
The United States Supreme Court ruled 6-2 in Erie Railroad Company v. Harry J. Tompkins that under the Rules of Decision Act, federal district courts in diversity jurisdiction cases had to apply the law of the states in which they sat, including the judicial doctrine of the state's highest court, where it did not conflict with federal law. There was no general federal common law. The decision overturned almost a century of U.S. federal civil procedure case law.

75 years ago
1943


War
Soviet troops occupied the hills surrounding Novorossiisk on the Black Sea. French and American troops in Tunisia advanced slowly along a wide front, as British forces pressed on toward Hallouf on the Tunisian coast.

70 years ago
1948


On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring John Stanley and Alfred Shirley, on MBS
Tonight’s episode: The Return of the Jack of Diamonds

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Suzie Martin!

War
The Jewish terrorist organization Irgun Zvai Leumi attacked the Arab city of Jaffa, claiming that it served as a base for Arab raids on Jewish settlements in Palestine.

Politics and government
Communal elections in the U.S.-occupied German states of Hesse and Bavaria resulted in gains for the moderate Liberal Democrats, the conservative National Democrats, and the separatist Bavarian People's Party.

Music
The Congress of Soviet Composers concluded its conference in Moscow after criticizing six Russian composers, including Sergei Prokofiev and Aram Khatchaturian, for following an "individualistic" line in their music, opposed to the Communist Party's "collective" line.

Britannica
The British government of Prime Minister Clement Attlee offered citizenship to all Polish exiles living in the United Kingdom for at least five years.

Baseball
Larry Doby of the Cleveland Indians tied a major league record by striking out five times in the Indians’ 7-4 victory over the Detroit Tigers before 48,880 fans at Briggs Stadium in Detroit. Third baseman Ken Keltner led the Cleveland attack, batting 3 for 4 with 2 home runs, 3 runs, and 4 runs batted in. Ray Murray made his major league debut with the Indians, flying out as a pinch hitter in the 3rd inning.

Joe DiMaggio hit a 3-run home run in the bottom of the 1st inning to open the scoring, and the New York Yankees withstood a 4-run 9th-inning rally to defeat the Boston Red Sox 5-4 before 68,021 fans at Yankee Stadium.

Walker Cooper hit a grand slam with 2 out in the top of the 10th inning to enable the New York Giants to defeat the Boston Braves 6-2 in the first game of a doubleheader before 35,954 fans at Braves Field. Sheldon Jones pitched a 2-hitter for the Giants as they completed the sweep with a 6-0 win in the second game. Jim Prendergast made his major league debut as the Braves' starting pitcher in the second game, allowing 7 hits and 5 runs--4 earned--in 2 2/3 innings, with 2 bases on balls and no strikeouts, 1 assist in the field, and a strikeout in his only plate appearance in taking the loss. Ray Martin, the third and last Boston pitcher, pitched 2 scoreless innings, allowing 1 base on balls and no hits in the fifth and last game of his 3-year major league career.

Hank Sauer hit a solo home run with 1 out in the bottom of the 9th inning to give the Cincinnati Reds a 7-6 win over the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first game of a doubleheader before 28,086 fans at Crosley Field in Cincinnati. Mr. Sauer drove in 5 runs with a pair of homers in the second game, but the Pirates scored 6 runs in the 3rd inning and 5 in the 7th and won 13-10. Pittsburgh center fielder Wally Westlake drove in 6 runs in the second game with a grand slam and a double, and first baseman Ed Stevens added 5 RBIs.

60 years ago
1958


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Whole Lotta Woman--Marvin Rainwater

On television tonight
Harbor Command, starring Wendell Corey
Tonight's episode: Arson

Politics and government
Japanese Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi dissolved the House of Representatives in preparation for general elections.

George Price, leftist leader of the British Honduras People's United Party, was acquitted of charges that he had made seditious statements about Queen Elizabeth II.

Protest
The Maltese General Workers Union called a general strike to protest Governor Sir Robert Laycock's takeover of the civil administration.

Environment
The United Nations Law of the Sea Conference rejected a U.S. compromise proposal for a six-mile territorial limit with an additional six-mile zone for shared fishing rights.

Science
German physicist Werner Heisenberg outlined a theoretical equation to explain the basic nature of all matter.

50 years ago
1968


Space
The U.S.S.R. launched the satellite Cosmos 218, which was aloft for less than one Earth orbit. The probe was probably a test of the Soviet Fractional Orbital Bombardment System for delivering bombs through space.

Politics and government
President Lyndon Johnson named former Undersecretary of State George W. Ball to succeed Arthur Goldberg as the U.S.A.'s chief representative to the United Nations, when he announced Mr. Goldberg's resignation. The event was marked with a coolness in the exchanges between President Johnson and Mr. Goldberg, who reportedly wanted a bigger role in Vietnam policy.

Protest
Columbia University President Grayson Kirk rejected the demands of student protesters for a complete amnesty for their violent behaviour of the previous two days, which included the ransacking of Dr. Kirk’s office.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Semi-Finals
Montreal 1 @ Chicago 2 (Montreal led best-of-seven series 3-1)
Minnesota 5 @ St. Louis 1 (Minnesota led best-of-seven series 2-1)

Basketball
ABA
Finals
Pittsburgh 106 @ New Orleans 105 (Best-of-seven series tied 2-2)

40 years ago
1978


Crime
Juanita Broadrick, in Little Rock, Arkansas to attend a nursing conference, was reportedly raped by Bill Clinton in her hotel room.

Defense
Gen. Alexander Haig, North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s supreme allied commander, denied a New York Times story that he would resign over U.S. President Jimmy Carter’s decision to defer production of the "neutron bomb." The President, in a press conference, replied that the Soviet proposal of mutual renunciation of the "neutron bomb" had "no significance at all," since the Soviets had no need for a neutron bomb. The weapon was designed to offset superior Soviet tank forces in Europe.

Politics and government
South African Prime Minister John Vorster announced that his government would accept a western plan for independence of Namibia (South-West Africa). South Africa would withdraw its troops as soon as the United Nations approved the plan, but not until there was a "complete cessation" of South-West African People’s Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla activities. The future of Walvis Bay, the only deep-water port in the territory, was left up to the future Namibian government and South Africa.

Law
The United States Supreme Court ruled 6-2 to outlaw pension plans that had higher costs for women than for men. The court also ruled 5-4 that a Massachusetts law prohibiting corporations from financing campaigns relating to ballot issues not directly affecting their interests was unconstitutional.

A city ordinance in St. Paul, Minnesota prohibiting discrimination in housing, employment, and public accommodations on the basis of sexual or affectional preference was repealed in a referendum.

Business
Shareholders of Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada, the nation’s largest life insurance company, voted to move company headquarters from Montreal to Toronto. The presence in Quebec of the Parti Quebecois government and legislation making French the official language of Quebec were factors in the decision. The federal government reported that 23,000 people had emigrated from Quebec, mostly to Ontario, in the year ending May 31, 1977, up from 13,000 the year before.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Quarter-Finals
Detroit 2 @ Montreal 4 (Montreal won best-of-seven series 4-1)
Toronto 1 @ New York Islanders 2 (OT) (New York led best-of-seven series 3-2)
Buffalo 2 @ Philadelphia 4 (Philadelphia won best-of-seven series 4-1)

The Canadiens eliminated the Red Wings at the Montreal Forum in a game that marked the end of the 14-year National Hockey League career of Detroit left wing Dennis Hull.



Bob Nystrom scored at 8:02 of the 1st overtime period to give the Islanders their win over the Maple Leafs at Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Uniondale.

WHA
Avco World Trophy
Quarter-Finals
Houston 2 @ Quebec 11 (Quebec won best-of-seven series 4-2)

The Nordiques routed the Aeros at Le Colisee in the last game the Aeros ever played.

Basketball
NBA
Eastern Conference
Semi-Finals
Washington 105 @ San Antonio 116 (Washington led best-of-seven series 3-2)

Western Conference
Semi-Finals
Denver 118 @ Milwaukee 104 (Denver led best-of-seven series 3-1)

Baseball
The obnoxious mascot known as the Phillie Phanatic made his first appearance at Veterans Stadium. Jim Kaat pitched a 3-hitter and drove in a run with a fielder's choice as the Phillies won 7-0 before 17,227 fans.

Jim Beattie allowed 5 hits and 1 run--earned--in 6 1/3 innings to get the win in his major league debut as the New York Yankees edged the Baltimore Orioles 4-3 before 14,159 fans at Memorial Stadium in Baltimore. Jim Spencer's home run leading off the top of the 9th gave the Yankees a 4-1 lead, and proved to be the deciding run, as the Orioles scored 2 runs in the bottom of the 9th and had the potential trying run at third base with 1 out, but relief pitcher Sparky Lyle retired pinch hitters Carlos Lopez and Rich Dauer to end the game.

The Detroit Tigers scored 3 runs in the top of the 9th inning and 4 in the 10th to defeat the Chicago White Sox 8-4 before 13,496 fans at Comiskey Park in Chicago. Detroit designated hitter Rusty Staub was the hero, driving in the first Tiger run with a ground out in the 1st inning; doubling home the first of the 9th-inning runs; and hitting a 3-run home run to close the scoring.

Miguel Dilone singled home Gary Thomasson with 2 out in the bottom of the 14th inning to give the Oakland Athletics a 4-3 win and a sweep of their doubleheader against the Minnesota Twins before 4,808 fans at Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum. Mr. Thomasson had driven in all the earlier Oakland runs with a 3-run home run in the 2nd inning, and had opened the scoring in the first game with a homer in the 5th inning. Teammate Gary Alexander's 2-run homer with 2 out in the 7th broke a 3-3 tie as the Athletics won 5-3.

30 years ago
1988


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Australian Music Report): Get Outta My Dreams, Get Into My Car--Billy Ocean

Died on this date
Clifford D. Simak, 83
. U.S. writer. Mr. Simak worked with the Minneapolis Star and Tribune from 1939-1976, but was better known as the author of numerous science fiction novels and short stories from the 1930s to the 1980s. His best-known book may have been the novel City (1952).

Lanny Ross, 82. U.S. musician. Mr. Ross, a singer, pianist, and songwriter whose career included radio, vaudeville, recordings, movies, and night clubs, became a major in the U.S. Army in World War II. He introduced the popular song Stay As Sweet As You Are in the 1934 movie College Rhythm, and had a hit when the song was subsequently released as a single. His composition Listen to My Heart was sung by Patricia Gilmore in the 1939 short film Tempo of Tomorrow. Mr. Ross also had a five-year run on the radio program Show Boat.

Carolyn Franklin, 43. U.S. singer and songwriter. Miss Franklin, the younger sister of Aretha Franklin, attempted a recording career of her own in the 1960s, but didn't have any hits. She did, however, achieve success writing songs for her sister, most notably Ain't No Way (1968) and Angel (1973), both of which reached the Billboard Hot 100 top 20. Carolyn Franklin sang occasionally with Aretha in the 1970s and '80s, but died of breast cancer, 18 days before her 44th birthday.

World events
A three-judge panel sentenced John Demjanjuk to death, a week after an Israeli court had found him guilty of war crimes against Jews at the Treblinka death camp in Poland during World War II. Mr. Demjanjuk, a United States citizen, had been extradited to Israel in 1986.

Politics and government
Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis won the Utah caucus in the contest for the 1988 Democratic Party nomination for President of the United States.

Labour
In Poland, workers struck at Bydgoszcz, and were awarded a big pay hike.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Clarence S. Campbell Conference
Division Finals
Detroit 3 @ St. Louis 1 (Detroit led best-of-seven series 3-1)
Calgary 4 @ Edmonton 6 (Edmonton won best-of-seven series 4-0)

25 years ago
1993


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand: Give in to Me--Michael Jackson (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): All that She Wants--Ace of Base (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: All that She Wants--Ace of Base

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Informer--Snow

Politics and government
Russian President Boris Yeltsin won a major victory over the Congress of People's Deputies in a national referendum that attracted a voter turnout of 65.7%. Mr. Yeltsin's presidency received the support of 58% of the voters, with 53% voting in favour of his economic reforms. Opposition leaders dismissed the result as not representing a clear majority of registered voters.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Prince of Wales Conference
Division Semi-Finals
Pittsburgh 1 @ New Jersey 4 (Pittsburgh led best-of-seven series 3-1)

Clarence S. Campbell Conference
Division Semi-Finals
Chicago 3 @ St. Louis 4 (OT) (St. Louis won best-of-seven series 4-0)
Detroit 2 @ Toronto 3 (Best-of-seven series tied 2-2)
Vancouver 3 @ Winnipeg 1 (Vancouver led best-of-seven series 3-1)
Calgary 1 @ Los Angeles 3 (Best-of-seven series tied 2-2)

Craig Janney scored at 10:43 of the 1st overtime period to give the Blues their win over the Blackhawks at St. Louis Arena and the series sweep. Chicago goalie Ed Belfour complained that Brett Hull of the Blues had interfered with him on the play, and Mr. Belfour went on a rampage of vandalism in the visitors' dressing room after the game. The Blackhawks had tied the game on a goal by Jeremy Roenick with 2:58 remaining in regulation time.

IIHF World Men's Championship @ Munich
Canada 3 Russia 1

20 years ago
1998


Died on this date
Wright Morris, 88
. U.S. writer and photographer. Mr. Morris twice won the National Book Award, for The Field of Vision (1956) and Plains Song: For Female Voices (1980). His books The Inhabitants (1946) and The Home Place (1948) combined photographs and fiction in a genre which Mr. Morris called "photo-text." Mr. Morris’s 33 books didn’t sell well, making him a much-honoured but little-read writer.

Defense
Lieutenant-Cololnel Karen McCrimmon took command of a transport squadron at Canadian Forces Base Trenton, Ontario, becoming the first woman to lead a front-line operations unit in the Canadian military.

Scandal
Hillary Rodham Clinton was interrogated for five hours about her legal work related to the Whitewater savings and loan institution.

Crime
A student shot and killed a chaperoning science teacher and wounded another teacher and two students at a high school graduation dance in Edinboro, Pennsylvania.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Eastern Conference
Quarter-Finals
Montreal 1 @ Pittsburgh 4 (Best-of-seven series tied 1-1)

Western Conference
Quarter-Finals
Los Angeles 1 @ St. Louis 2 (St. Louis led best-of-seven series 2-0)

Basketball
NBA
Playoffs
Eastern Conference
First Round
Atlanta 85 @ Charlotte 92 (Charlotte led best-of-five series 2-0)
Cleveland 86 @ Indiana 92 (Indiana led best-of-five series 2-0)

Western Conference
First Round
San Antonio 101 @ Phoenix 108 (Best-of-five series tied 1-1)
Houston 90 @ Utah 105 (Best-of-five series tied 1-1)

10 years ago
2008


Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Eastern Conference
Semi-Finals
New York Rangers 4 @ Pittsburgh 5 (Pittsburgh led best-of-seven series 1-0)

Western Conference
Semi-Finals
Dallas 3 @ San Jose 2 (OT) (Dallas led best-of-seven series 1-0)

Brenden Morrow scored his second goal of the game at 4:39 of the 1st overtime to give the Stars their win over the Sharks at HP Pavilion.

Basketball
NBA
Playoffs
Eastern Conference
First Round
Detroit 75 @ Philadelphia 95 (Philadelphia led best-of-seven series 2-1)

Western Conference
First Round
New Orleans 87 @ Dallas 97 (New Orleans led best-of-seven series 2-1)
San Antonio 115 @ Phoenix 99 (San Antonio led best-of-seven series 3-0)

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