Thursday, 3 May 2018

May 3, 2018

525 years ago
1493


Politics and government
Pope Alexander VI issued his bull Eximiae devotionis, recognizing the claims of the kings of Castile and León and their successors to any discovered lands not already held by a Christian prince, and protecting their previous rights in the regions of Africa and Guinea.

210 years ago
1808


War
In the Finnish War, Sweden lost the fortress of Sveaborg to Russia.

In the Peninsular War, the invading forces of Napoleon Bonaparte executed captured Spaniards on the Príncipe Pío, a hill just outside Madrid, inspiring Francisco Goya’s famous painting Executions of the Third of May, 1808, which he painted in 1814-1815.

170 years ago
1848


Archaeology
The boar-crested Anglo-Saxon Benty Grange helmet was discovered in a barrow on the Benty Grange farm in Derbyshire, England.

120 years ago
1898

Baseball

Jimmy Sheckard of the Brooklyn Bridegrooms hit a home run, two triples, and a single in a 9-6 victory over the Philadelphia Phillies at Washington Park in Brooklyn. The 11 total bases by Mr. Sheckard was the season's best for a single game.

90 years ago
1928


War
It was reported that many Japanese soldiers and civilians had been killed in civil war at Tsinan, China, which the South Nationalists had captured.

Diplomacy
King Amanullah Khan of Afghanistan and Queen Surrayya arrived at Moscow, from Warsaw.

Adventure
Japanese traveller Ryvkichi Matsui arrived in New York City, 7 days after leaving London, and 27 days after leaving Tokyo to circle the globe heading westward. His friend Toichio Araki had departed Tokyo the same day, heading eastward around the world.

Aviation
The dirigible Italia, under General Emberto Nobile, left Stolp, Germany for Spitzbergen, Norway.

80 years ago
1938


Abominations
The Nazi concentration camp at Flossenburg went into use. Located near Floss and Namering, the Flossenburg camp was the fourth Nazi concentration camp established in Germany. It ended up being supervised by 800 SS troops.

Diplomacy
The Vatican recognized the Spanish regime of Generalissimo Francisco Franco. The Spanish Civil War was still going after two years.

Baseball
Boston Red Sox' pitcher Lefty Grove defeated the Detroit Tigers 4-3 in 10 innings before 4,500 fans for the first of a record 20 consecutive wins at his home field, Fenway Park; he didn't lose there until May 12, 1941.

Lou Gehrig hit his first home run of the season--a 2-run, inside-the-park blow--to climax a 4-run 1st inning as the New York Yankees beat the St. Louis Browns 4-1 before 6,930 fans at Yankee Stadium.

Ken Keltner drove in 6 runs with a pair of home runs and a single to help the Cleveland Indians edge the Washington Nationals 10-9 at Griffith Stadium in Washington. The Nationals scored 3 runs in the bottom of the 9th and had the potential tying run on second base with 2 out, but relief pitcher Denny Galehouse retired Pete Appleton on a ground out to end the game.

75 years ago
1943


Died on this date
Harry Miller, 67
. U.S. automobile designer. Mr. Miller was one of the greatest designers in the history of auto racing. He designed cars that accounted for 83% of the Indianapolis 500 fields from 1923-1928, and designed cars that won the Indianapolis 500 nine times.

Frank Andrews, 59. U.S. military officer. Lieutenant General Andrews was one of the founders of the United States Army Air Forces, and was commander of all U.S. troops in the European Theater of Operations when he and 13 others aboard the B-24 Hot Stuff were killed after an aborted attempt to land at the Royal Air Force station Kaldadarnes, Iceland.

Literature
Columbia University awarded Pulitzer Prizes for Fiction: Upton Sinclair (Dragon's Teeth); History: Esther Forbes (Paul Revere and the World He Lived In); Biography: Samuel E. Morison (Admiral of the Ocean Sea); Poetry: Robert Frost (A Witness Tree); Drama: Thornton Wilder (The Skin of Our Teeth).

Space
Harvard University Observatory Director Dr. Harlow Shapley announced the discovery of 75,000 galaxies averaging more than one billion suns each.

War
Allied troops continued to advance along the entire Tunisian front, with French forces attacking Pont du Fahs in the southwest sector and American troops occupying Mateur, 19 miles south of Bizerte.

Law
The U.S. Supreme Court reversed itself in two 5-4 decisions, invalidating municipal ordinances that compelled Jehovah's Witnesses to pay license fees for the distribution of religious tracts in Texas.

70 years ago
1948


Died on this date
John H. Newton, 66
. U.S. military officer. Admiral Newton was deputy commander of Allied forces in the South Pacific theatre during World War II.

Literature
Columbia University awarded Pulitzer Prizes for Fiction: James A. Michener (Tales of the South Pacific); History: Bernard De Voto (Across the Wide Missouri); Poetry: W.H. Auden (The Age of Anxiety); Drama: Tennessee Williams (A Streetcar Named Desire); and Journalism: The St. Louis Post-Dispatch (public service reporting of the Centralia mine disaster).

The Linden Tree by J.B. Priestley won the annual Ellen Terry Award in the London as the best British play of 1948.

Diplomacy
Colombia severed relations with the U.S.S.R., citing ideological differences between the countries.

Defense
The U.S. House of Representatives Armed Services Committee approved a bill providing for two-year conscription of men aged 19-25.

Politics and government
King George VI named West Bengal Governor Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari to succeed Lord Louis Mountbatten as Governor General of the Dominion of India.

Missouri's Democratic Party convention instructed its 34 delegates to support U.S. President Harry Truman's renomination at the national convention.

Law
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that covenants prohibiting the sale of real estate to Negroes and other minorities were legally unenforceable.

Medicine
The University of Minnesota announced the isolation of human poliomyelitis virus in concentrated form for the first time.

Economics and finance
The British government of Prime Minister Clement Attlee froze prices of most manufactured goods at the midwinter level.

Disasters
A tornado devastated McKinney, Texas, killing 3 people and injuring 300.

60 years ago
1958


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Catch a Falling Star--Perry Como (5th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): March from the River Kwai and Colonel Bogey--Mitch Miller and his Orchestra (4th week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Hello, le soleil brille--Annie Cordy (8th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Mirror): Whole Lotta Woman--Marvin Rainwater (3rd week at #1)

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Twilight Time--The Platters
2 Witch Doctor--David Seville
3 He's Got the Whole World (In His Hands)--Laurie London
4 Wear My Ring Around Your Neck--Elvis Presley
5 All I Have to Do is Dream--The Everly Brothers
6 Return to Me--Dean Martin
7 Chanson d'Amour--Art and Dotty Todd
8 Tequila--The Champs
9 Book of Love--The Monotones
10 Lollipop--The Chordettes
--Ronald and Ruby

Singles entering the chart were Padre by Toni Arden (#48); I'm Sorry I Made You Cry by Connie Francis (#49); Jacqueline by Bobby Helms (#50); Make Me a Miracle (#54)/Secretly (#58) by Jimmie Rodgers; Sugar Moon (#57)/Cherie, I Love You (#60) by Pat Boone; Endless Sleep, with versions by Jody Reynolds, and Gene Ross (#59); and Nee Nee Na Na Na Na Nu Nu by Dicky Doo and the Don'ts (also #60).

Radio
New York station WINS suspended disc jockey Alan Freed for allegedly causing a riot in Boston; he then quit the station.

Diplomacy
The U.S.A. invited the U.S.S.R. and 10 other nations to a conference to insure that Antarctica would be "used only for peaceful purposes."

The U.S.A., U.K., and France rejected Soviet suggestions for the inclusion of Poland and Czechoslovakia in current talks in Moscow on preparation for an East-West summit.

Defense
The U.S.A. rejected Polish proposals for the creation of a nuclear-free zone in Central Europe.

Terrorism
Mayors, police chiefs, and other officials from 28 southern U.S. cities meeting in Jacksonville, Florida approved plans for joint action to halt a series of anti-Jewish and anti-Negro bombings.

Protest
Anti-American students heckled U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon during a forum at the University of Buenos Aires.

Crime
Robbers stole $3.3 million dollars in bonds and securities from a trust company in Brockville, Ontario.

Horse racing
Tim Tam, with Ismael Valenzuela up, won the 84th running of the Kentucky Derby at Churchill Downs in Louisville in a time of 2:05. Lincoln Road placed second, and Noureddin finished third.



50 years ago
1968


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): The Legend of Xanadu--Dave Dee, Dozy, Beaky, Mick and Tich

Edmonton’s top 10 (CJCA)
1 Love is All Around--The Troggs (3rd week at #1)
2 The Good, the Bad and the Ugly--Hugo Montenegro, his Orchestra and Chorus
3 Honey--Bobby Goldsboro
4 Take Time to Know Her--Percy Sledge
5 Lady Madonna--The Beatles
6 Call Me Lightning--The Who
7 Jennifer Eccles--The Hollies
8 The Unknown Soldier--The Doors
9 Me, the Peaceful Heart--Lulu
10 Delilah--Tom Jones
Pick of the week: Chain Around the Flowers--The Lewis and Clarke Expedition
New this week: The River is Wide--Bobby Rydell
If You Loved Me--Peggy March
If I were a Carpenter--Four Tops
Love in Every Room--Paul Mauriat and his Orchestra

Died on this date
Leonid Sabaneyev, 86
. Russian music critic and composer. Mr. Sabaneyev was an authority on the music of Aleksandr Scriabin, and wrote several works of his own, including numerous pieces for piano.

War
After a 34-day delay in selecting a site for preliminary peace negotiations, the United States and North Vietnam agreed on Paris.

Israeli authorities reported that their troops had killed 17 Arab guerrillas in three separate clashes from April 30-May 2.

Protest
Protests by 1,000 students at the 715-year-old Sorbonne, heart of the University of Paris, led to its closing after pitched battles with police and precipitated 10 days of fierce Latin Quarter street fighting, with students behind barricades of burned cars tossing paving stones and gasoline bombs. The bloody fighting won the sympathy of France overnight, and thousands of students also took to the streets in provincial cities, fired by the deep discontent permeating the country’s overcrowded, inadequate, and archaic university system. The young people of France in 1968 were certainly different from those of a similar age 25 years earlier, who were less than enthusiastic about fighting the Nazis.

At Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, Negro students seized the business office for 36 hours, demanding separate housing, more scholarships for Negroes, more Negro faculty, and more Negro art and literature taught by teachers that they approved. Typical of the cowardice that so characterizes university administrators, the school agreed to the demands.

Politics and government
At Kent State University, a small group of students walked out of a speech by U.S. Vice President and Democratic Party presidential candidate Hubert Humphrey. Republican Party candidate Richard Nixon, speaking in Fort Wayne, Indiana, stressed the need for a "moratorium" on Vietnam discussion, adding: "Let’s not destroy the chance for peace with a mouthful of words from some irresponsible candidate."

A bill to abolish parliamentary representation for South Africa’s coloured (mixed-race) population was passed in the House of Assembly. The measure, one of three designed to reinforce the government’s Apartheid policy, ended coloured representation by four white deputies at the end of the current parliament in 1971.

Medicine
Britain's first heart transplant was successfully carried out by a team of 18 doctors and nurses at the National Heart Hospital in Marylebone, London. The operation, which was led by South African-born surgeon Donald Ross, was undertaken on an unnamed 45-year-old man, and took more than seven hours to complete. The donor, Patrick Ryan, a 26-year-old labourer, was transferred from King's College Hospital and his heart removed immediately after his death. The British operation was the tenth heart transplant to be undertaken in the world since Dr. Christiaan Barnard carried out the first one in Cape Town, South Africa, the previous December. Britain's first heart transplant patient, who was later named Frederick West, died 46 days after receiving the donor heart; the hospital said he died from an "overwhelming infection" which he had been fighting for nine days. He had been given a series of drugs to encourage the acceptance of the new heart but this lowered his resistance to infection and ultimately led to his death. Mr. West had also been suffering from kidney complications before he died. After that, British surgeons adopted a cautious approach to heart surgery, and only six more transplants were carried out in the U.K. over the next decade. It wasn't until the 1980s that heart transplants became more common. Today around 300 heart transplant operations are carried out in the U.K. every year.

Disasters
A Braniff International 4-engine turboprop crashed during a lightning storm near Dawson, Texas, killing all 85 aboard. I flew in an Electra a few times in the '70s, and it was the worst plane I've ever been on.

A coal mine explosion near St. Etienne, France killed six.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Semi-Finals
Minnesota 1 @ St. Louis 2 (2OT) (St. Louis won best-of-seven series 4-3)

Ron Schock scored at 2:50 of the 2nd overtime period to give the Blues their win over the North Stars at St. Louis Arena.

40 years ago
1978


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Night Fever--Bee Gees (3rd week at #1)

Died on this date
Bill Downs, 63
. U.S. journalist. Mr. Downs was a radio (and occasional television) reporter with CBS from 1942-1962. He was one of the original "Murrow Boys," those who were associated with famed correspondent Edward R. Murrow. Mr. Downs was the first reporter to deliver a live broadcast from Normandy to the United States after D-Day in 1944, and was among the first Americans in Hiroshima and Nagasaki after the atomic bombings in 1945. He later covered the Berlin Blockade in 1948 and the Korean War. Mr. Downs joined ABC in time to report on U.S. President John F. Kennedy's assassination on November 22, 1963, and worked with the network into the 1970s. He died of laryngeal cancer.

Technology
The first unsolicited bulk commercial email--later known as "spam"--was sent by a Digital Equipment Corporation marketing representative to every ARPANET address on the west coast of the United States.

Hockey
WHA
Avco World Trophy
Semi-Finals
New England 5 @ Quebec 4 (New England led best-of-seven series 2-1)

Basketball
NBA
Eastern Conference
Finals
Washington 104 @ Philadelphia 110 (Best-of-seven series tied 1-1)

Western Conference
Semi-Finals
Milwaukee 110 @ Denver 116 (Denver won best-of-seven series 4-3)

30 years ago
1988


Politics and government
In the contest for the U.S. presidential nomination for the Democratic Party, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis won primaries in Ohio and Indiana, while his now-distant rival, Rev. Jesse Jackson, won in the District of Columbia.

Protest
Anti-government protesters clashed with police in several Polish cities, including Warsaw.

Crime
4,200 kilograms of Colombian cocaine were seized at Tarpon Springs, Florida.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Clarence S. Campbell Conference
Finals
Detroit 1 @ Edmonton 4 (Edmonton led best-of-seven series 1-0)

Basketball
NBA
Playoffs
Eastern Conference
First Round
Chicago 102 @ Cleveland 110 (Chicago led best-of-five series 2-1)

Western Conference
First Round
Dallas 93 @ Houston 92 (Houston led best-of-five series 2-1)
Denver 125 @ Seattle 114 (Denver led best-of-five series 2-1)
Los Angeles Lakers 109 @ San Antonio 107 (Los Angeles won best-of-five series 3-0)

25 years ago
1993


Hit parade
#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Informer--Snow

Politics and government
Premier Clyde Wells led his Liberal Party to another victory in the Newfoundland provincial election, capturing 35 seats in the House of Assembly. The Progressive Conservatives, led by Len Simms, won 16, while New Democratic Party leader Jack Harris remained his party's only successful candidate.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Clarence S. Campbell Conference
Division Finals
St. Louis 1 @ Toronto 2 (2OT) (Toronto led best-of-seven series 1-0)

Doug Gilmour scored at 3:16 of the 2nd overtime period to give the Maple Leafs their win over the Blues at Maple Leaf Gardens. St. Louis goalie Curtis Joseph made 61 saves.

Basketball
NBA
Playoffs
Eastern Conference
First Round
Boston 89 @ Charlotte 119 (Charlotte led best-of-five series 2-1)

Western Conference
First Round
Houston 111 @ Los Angeles Clippers 99 (Houston led best-of-five series 2-1)

20 years ago
1998


Died on this date
Gene Raymond, 89
. U.S. actor. Mr. Raymond, born Raymond Guion, was a supporting actor in movies in the 1930s such as Red Dust (1932); Zoo in Budapest (1933); and Flying Down to Rio (1933). He was a lieutenant in the U.S. Army Air Forces during World War II, and spent the 1950s working mostly in television.

Space
The U.S. space shuttle Columbia and its seven-member crew commanded by Richard Searfoss landed at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida to conclude mission STS-90, with live and dead animals aboard after two weeks of laboratory work that advanced brain research.

Economics and finance
The European Union nations agreed on a single currency. A monetary plan for all nations was approved at a conference in Brussels after France and Germany resolved a dispute over the choice of a candidate to head the central bank.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Eastern Conference
Quarter-Finals
Pittsburgh 0 @ Montreal 3 (Montreal won best-of-seven series 4-2)
Washington 3 @ Boston 2 (OT) (Washington won best-of-seven series 4-2)

Western Conference
Quarter-Finals
Detroit 5 @ Phoenix 2 (Detroit won best-of-seven series 4-2)

Brian Bellows scored for the Capitals at 15:24 of the 1st overtime period as they eliminated the Bruins at Fleet Center.

Basketball
NBA
Playoffs
Eastern Conference
First Round
New York 98 @ Miami 81 (New York won best-of-five series 3-2)

Semi-Finals
Charlotte 70 @ Chicago 83 (Chicago led best-of-seven series 1-0)

Western Conference
First Round
Houston 70 @ Utah 84 (Utah won best-of-five series 3-2)

Baseball
Sandy Alomar, Jr. hit a grand slam with 2 out in the bottom of the 9th inning to give the Cleveland Indians a 10-8 win over the Tampa Bay Devil Rays before 42,597 fans at Jacobs Field in Cleveland.

Mike Mussina allowed 2 hits in 7 2/3 innings and Rafael Palmeiro and Eric Davis hit solo home runs to help the Baltimore Orioles defeat the Minnesota Twins 2-0 before 43,930 fans at Oriole Park at Camden Yards. Losing pitcher Eric Milton pitched a complete game, allowing just 4 hits.

Dan Wilson of the Seattle Mariners, in the 1st inning of a game against the Detroit Tigers before 44,488 fans at the Kingdome in Seattle hit the first inside-the-park grand slam in Mariners' history, opening the scoring as the Mariners scored 5 runs in each of the first 2 innings and held on to defeat the Tigers 10-6.

Jesus Sanchez allowed 4 hits in 6 innings to win the pitchers' duel over Andy Ashby as the Florida Marlins edged the San Diego Padres 1-0 before 18,644 fans at Pro Player Stadium in Miami. Florida first baseman Jim Eisenreich batted 3 for 4 and scored the game's only run in the 2nd inning on a ground out by Craig Counsell.

10 years ago
2008


Died on this date
Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo, 82
. Prime Minister of Spain, 1981-1982. Mr. Calvo-Sotelo, a member of the Union of the Democratic Centre, held various cabinet posts before serving as Prime Minister. He left politics after his UCD government was defeated in the 1982 general election, and was raised to the nobility in 2002 as 1st Marquis of the Ría of Ribadeo. Mr. Calvo-Sotelo died of cardiac arrest 19 days after his 82nd birthday.

Horse racing
Big Brown, with Kent Desormeaux up, won the 134th running of the Kentucky Derby at Churchill Downs in Louisville in a time of 2:01.82, 4 3/4 lengths ahead of Eight Belles, with Denis of Cork finishing third in a 20-horse field. Eight Belles, a filly, was euthanized following the race after breaking both front ankles shortly after the finish.



Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Eastern Conference
Semi-Finals
Philadelphia 6 @ Montreal 4 (Philadelphia won best-of-seven series 4-1)

Basketball
NBA
Eastern Conference
Semi-Finals
Orlando 72 @ Detroit 91 (Detroit led best-of-seven series 1-0)

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