Wednesday, 1 May 2019

April 28, 2019

230 years ago
1789


World events
Mutineers aboard the U.K. Royal Navy ship HMS Bounty mutinied and set her captain, Lieutenant William Bligh and 18 sailors adrift, 1,300 miles west of Tahiti. The rebels returned to Tahiti briefly before setting sail for Pitcairn Island.

225 years ago
1794


World events
Sardinians, led by Giovanni Maria Angioy, started a revolution against Savoy domination, expelling Viceroy Balbiano and his officials from Cagliari, the capital and largest city of the island.

150 years ago
1869


Labour
Chinese and Irish labourers for the Central Pacific Railroad, working on the First Transcontinental Railroad, laid ten miles of track in one day, a feat which has never been matched.

130 years ago
1889


Born on this date
António de Oliveira Salazar
. Prime Minister of Portugal, 1932-1968. Dr. Salazar was an economist who entered politics as Portugal's Finance Minister, serving briefly in 1926 and then again, with greater powers, from 1928-1940. He created the National Union in 1930, and was appointed Prime Minister by President Óscar Carmona in 1932. Although Mr. Carmona constitutionally outranked Dr. Salazar, he allowed the Prime Minister a free hand, and Dr. Salazar wielded the effective power. He instituted the Estado Novo ("New State"), an authoritarian corporatist regime by which he governed the country. Dr. Salazar eschewed Fasicsm, Nazism, and Communism, basing his views on Roman Catholic social doctrine, while not having the church as part of the mechanism of the state. He used oppressive methods to suppress dissent, partly as a reaction to the political chaos that had gripped the country before his coming to power. Under Dr. Salazar, Portugal was officially neutral during World War II, while secretly aiding the Allies. Dr. Salazar maintained his authoritarian regime after World War II, conducting colonial wars while presiding over an era of prosperity. He suffered a brain hemorrhage in 1968 and was replaced by Marcelo Caetano as Prime Minister. Dr. Salazar recovered his lucidity, but was never told that he had been removed from power, and was allowed to "rule" in privacy until his death on July 27, 1970 at the age of 81. The Estado Novo was overthrown by the Carnation Revolution in 1974.

120 years ago
1899


Movies
The short film Stealing a Dinner was filmed on the rooftop of the Biograph Studio in New York City.

80 years ago
1939


Aviation
A twin-engine Russian monoplane attempting a non-stop flight from Moscow to New York ran out of fuel and crash-landed on Miscou Island, New Brunswick.

75 years ago
1944


Died on this date
Frank Knox, 70
. U.S. newspaper executive and politician. Mr. Knox fought in the Spanish-American War and World War I. In peacetime, he owned several newspapers. Mr. Knox was the Republican Party's candidate for Vice President of the United States, serving as Alf Landon's running mate in a landslide loss to incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1940, Mr. Roosevelt, a Democrat, attempted to make his cabinet more bipartisan, and appointed Mr. Knox as Secretary of the Navy. Mr. Knox held the position until he died after a series of heart attacks.

Mohammed Alim Khan, 64. Emirate of Bukhara, 1911-1920. Emir Alim Khan was the last emir of the Manghud dynasty, the last dynasty of the Emirate of Bukhara. He ruled as an absolute monarch, although Bukhara became a Russian protectorate in 1873. Emir Alim Khan lost his throne and fled to Kabul, Afghanistan when the Russian Red Army invaded Bukhara.

Television
James McLean of General Electric announced that nine television stations were currently operating in the United States, covering an area with a population of 22 million.

War
Nine German E-boats attacked U.S. and U.K. units during Exercise Tiger--the rehearsal for the Normandy landings--killing 946. At least 2,000 U.S. planes of all types smashed at Nazi targets in northern France. Japanese troops took Hulao Pass, gateway to Loang in the Chinese province of Honan. U.S. Undersecretary of the Navy James Forrestal, temporarily in charge of the Navy after the death of Navy Secretary Frank Knox, said that any move to unify Army and Navy commands during the war "is unthinkable."

Politics and government
The government of Bolivia announced that a "revolutionary plot" had been broken up with the arrest of several plotters.

Diplomacy
U.S. Senator Arthur Vandenberg (Republican--Michigan) said that if in power, the Republican Party would be committed to postwar cooperative organizations.

Labour
U.S. Undersecretary of Commerce Wayne Taylor, operating the Chicago plant of Montgomery Ward, ejected the company's president, Clement Ryan, for refusing to cooperate with an order from U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt that Montgomery Ward recognize a Congress of Industrial Organizations union.

Baseball
Jack Kramer pitched a 4-hitter to improve his record for the season to 3-0 as the St. Louis Browns defeated the Chicago White Sox 3-1 before 2,123 fans at Comiskey Park in Chicago to tie the major league then-record by winning their ninth straight game from the start of the season.

Woody Wheaton singled home 2 runs with 1 out in the top of the 16th inning to break a 5-5 tie as the Philadelphia Athletics beat the Boston Red Sox 7-5 at Fenway Park in Boston. The final runs were scored against Clem Hausmann, who allowed 7 hits and 2 earned runs in 8 innings of relief in his first major league game to take the loss, walking 4 batters and striking out 2. Philadelphia catcher Frankie Hayes drove in 3 runs with a pair of home runs.

Mel Harder pitched a 10-hit complete game to win the pitchers' duel over Dizzy Trout, who allowed 9 hits in going the distance, as the Cleveland Indians edged the Detroit Tigers 2-1 before 2,573 fans at Briggs Stadium in Detroit. Mickey Rocco drove in both Cleveland runs.

Ed Heusser pitched a 7-hitter to win the pitchers' duel over Max Butcher as the Cincinnati Reds shut out the Pittsburgh Pirates 2-0 before 1,080 fans at Forbes Field in Pittsburgh.

Connie Ryan led off the top of the 11th inning with a single and eventually scored on an outfield fly by Butch Nieman to break a 1-1 tie as the Boston Braves edged the Philadelphia Blue Jays 2-1 before 3,026 fans at Shibe Park in Philadelphia. Nate Andrews pitched a 7-hit complete game victory.

70 years ago
1949


Died on this date
Aurora Quezon, 61
. First Lady of the Philippines, 1935-1944; Ponciano Bernardo, 43; Rafael Jalandoni. Philippine military officer. Philippine politician. Mrs. Quezon was the wife of President Manuel Quezon from 1918 until his death in 1944. While en route to Baler to dedicate the Quezon Memorial Hospital, her car was ambushed by guerrillas, likely associated with the Hukbalahap, the Communist Party of the Philippines. Mrs. Quezon, her daughter, and ten others, including Quezon City Mayor Bernardo, and retired Armed Forces Chief of Staff Major Jalandoni were also killed.

Music
Leonard Bernstein was awarded the $1,000 Boston Symphony Orchestra merit award for his symphony The Age of Innocence.

Diplomacy
A conference of British Commonwealth Prime Ministers meeting in London reached an agreement allowing India to remain in the Commonwealth after it became a republic.

Defense
The Canadian Parliament completed ratification of the North Atlantic Treaty.

U.S. Defense Secretary Louis Johnson appointed James Evans as his civilian assistant for racial problems.

Politics and government
Former Vietnamese Emperor Bao Dai arrived in Dalat to head a new French-sponsored Vietnam Union.

U.S. Senator Howard McGrath (Democrat--Rhode Island) presented President Harry Truman's civil rights program to Congress in a four-bill package, including an omnibus Civil Rights Act of 1949. President Truman stirred heated controversy in Congress when he threatened to deprive Democrats opposing his administration's labour bill of their ability to distribute federal jobs.

Economics and finance
The Western Allies established a Western Ruhr authority to allocate the Ruhr's industrial production and prevent revival of the German war industry.

The U.S. Federal Reserve Board continued its anti-deflationary moves by reducing reserve requirements of 7,000 member banks by $1.2 billion.

60 years ago
1959


On television tonight
Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond, on ABC
Tonight's episode: The Aerialist, starring Mike Connors and Yvette Vickers



World events
Turkish officials reported that 700 Kurdish tribesmen had crossed into Turkey from northern Iraq and had been granted political asylum.

Defense
The Organization of American States voted unanimously to send an investigating commission to Panama, consider favourably any Panamanian request for arms, and ask member nations to prevent preparatory activities by rebel elements.

Politics and government
The Southern Rhodesian Parliament passed a Preventive Detention Bill, authorizing detention of political suspects without trial for up to five years.

Communist China's People's Congress adopted a resolution proclaiming China's intention to "build a new Tibet" and condemning "extremely unfriendly" acts toward China by "certain people in Indian political circles."

The U.S. Senate overrode President Dwight D. Eisenhower's veto of a bill ending the Agriculture Secretary's control over Rural Electrification Administration loans.

Environment
U.K. sources confirmed that the strontium-90 content of British rainfall had approximately doubled within the past year.

50 years ago
1969


#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Yoake no Scat--Saori Yuki (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Casatschock--Georgie Dann

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 You've Made Me So Very Happy--Blood, Sweat & Tears
2 Hair--The Cowsills
3 Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In (The Flesh Failures)--The 5th Dimension
4 Only the Strong Survive--Jerry Butler
5 Gimme Gimme Good Lovin'--Crazy Elephant
6 Don't Give in to Him--Gary Puckett and the Union Gap
7 It's Your Thing--The Isley Brothers
8 Twenty-Five Miles--Edwin Starr
9 Hawaii-Five-O--The Ventures
10 The Boxer--Simon & Garfunkel

Singles entering the chart were Marley Purt Drive by Jose Feliciano (#71); Get Back by the Beatles with Billy Preston (#74); Black Pearl by Sonny Charles & the Checkmates, Ltd. (#80); Cissy Strut by the Meters (#87); Sorry Suzanne by the Hollies (#91); Medicine Man (Part I) by the Buchanan Brothers (#94); I Want to Love You Baby by Peggy Scott and Jo Jo Benson (#95); I was a Boy (When You Needed a Man) by Billy Shields (#96); Seven Years by the Impressions (#97); Pretty World by Sergio Mendes & Brasil '66 (#98); Love is Just a Four-Letter Word by Joan Baez (#99); and Faster than the Speed of Life by Mars Bonfire (#100).

Politics and government
Charles de Gaulle resigned as President of France effective immediately, and went into seclusion at Colombey-les-Deux-Eglises. Mr. de Gaulle's resignation came the day after a national referendum resulted in the defeat of his proposals for decentralization of government. Mr. de Gaulle had made the vote into a test of confidence in his leadership. Alain Poher, 60, President of the Senate, became interim President of France, while Prime Minister Maurice Couve de Murville and his cabinet stayed on as a caretaker government pending elections slated to replace Mr. de Gaulle, whose third seven-year term wasn't due to expire until 1972.

Captain Terence O'Neill announced his resignation as leader of the Unionist party, and his intention to resign as Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. He had steadily lost support of the Protestant-dominated Unionist party as he sought to bridge the gap between Northern Ireland's Protestant majority and Roman Catholic minority.

The first meeting of the new central committee of the Chinese Communist party elected a 21-man politburo and a standing committee of five headed by Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) and Lin Piao, and including Premier Chou En-lai (Zhou Enlai) and two other men who were leaders of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.

Science
U.S. President Richard Nixon conceded that he was wrong in denying the National Science Foundation directorship to Dr. Franklin Long because of Dr. Long's opposition to the Sentinel anti-ballistic missile.

Academia
Harvard University students voted in a referendum not to renew their strike against the university.

City College of New York president Buell Gallagher vowed that the college would stay shut as long as negotiations with Negro and Puerto Rican occupiers continued.

Disasters
Five American climbers and two Sherpa guides were killed in an avalanche while they prepared to ascend Mount Dhaulagiri in Nepal.

40 years ago
1979


Hit parade
#1 single in Rhodesia (Lyons Maid): Le Freak--Chic (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Tragedy--Bee Gees (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland: Bright Eyes--Art Garfunkel (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Bright Eyes--Art Garfunkel (3rd week at #1)

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Hooray! Hooray! It's a Holi-Holiday--Boney M.
2 In the Navy--Village People
3 Stir it Up--Bob Marley & the Wailers
4 I Will Survive--Gloria Gaynor
5 Born to Be Alive--Patrick Hernandez
6 One Way Ticket--Eruption
7 Lucky Number--Lene Lovich
8 Lay Your Love on Me--Racey
9 Hallelujah--Milk & Honey
10 Greenpeace--Teach In

Singles entering the chart were Casanova by Luv' (#17); Oh Me Oh My by BZN (#24); Turn the Music Up! by the Players Association (#29); Kingston, Kingston by Lou and the Hollywood Bananas (#33); and Happiness by the Pointer Sisters (#35).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Heart of Glass--Blondie
2 Reunited--Peaches & Herb
3 Knock on Wood--Amii Stewart
4 Music Box Dancer--Frank Mills
5 I Will Survive--Gloria Gaynor
6 Stumblin' In--Suzi Quatro & Chris Norman
7 What a Fool Believes--The Doobie Brothers
8 I Want Your Love--Chic
9 Goodnight Tonight--Wings
10 In the Navy--Village People

Singles entering the chart were She Believes in Me by Kenny Rogers (#61); We are Family by Sister Sledge (#63); Chuck E.'s in Love by Rickie Lee Jones (#65); Dance the Night Away by Van Halen (#68); Good Timin' by the Beach Boys (#76); I Want You to Want Me by Cheap Trick (#78); Georgy Porgy by Toto (#79); Ain't No Stoppin' Us Now by McFadden & Whitehead (#80); (Wish I Could Fly Like) Superman by the Kinks (#85); You Can't Change That by Raydio (#86); Easy to Be Hard by Cheryl Barnes (#87); How Could This Go Wrong by Exile (#78); Dance Away by Roxy Music (#89); Mirror Star by the Fabulous Poodles (#91); Bang a Gong by Witch Queen (#94); My Baby's Baby by Liquid Gold (#95); and My Love is Music by Space (#96). Easy to Be Hard was from the movie Hair (1979).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Heart of Glass--Blondie
2 Reunited--Peaches & Herb
3 Knock on Wood--Amii Stewart
4 What a Fool Believes--The Doobie Brothers
5 Music Box Dancer--Frank Mills
6 Stumblin' In--Suzi Quatro & Chris Norman
7 In the Navy--Village People
8 Goodnight Tonight--Wings
9 He's the Greatest Dancer--Sister Sledge
10 I Want Your Love--Chic

Singles entering the chart were Ain't Love a Bitch by Rod Stewart (#53); Chuck E.'s in Love by Rickie Lee Jones (#64); We are Family by Sister Sledge (#71); Good Timin' by the Beach Boys (#83); Dance the Night Away by Van Halen (#84); Georgy Porgy by Toto (#85); Ain't No Stoppin' Us Now by McFadden & Whitehead (#87); Night Dancin' by Taka Boom (#88); My Love is Music by Space (#89); One More Minute by Saint Tropez (#90); Good, Good Feelin' by War (#97); and Theme from Ice Castles (Through the Eyes of Love) by Melissa Manchester (#98). Theme from Ice Castles (Through the Eyes of Love) was, as the title indicates, from the movie.

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 What a Fool Believes--The Doobie Brothers
2 I Just Fall in Love Again--Anne Murray
3 Knock on Wood--Amii Stewart
4 Sultans of Swing--Dire Straits
5 Heart of Glass--Blondie
6 Shake Your Groove Thing--Peaches & Herb
7 Tragedy--Bee Gees
8 Lady--Little River Band
9 In the Navy--Village People
10 Rasputin--Boney M.

Singles entering the chart were Crazy Love by the Allman Brothers (#86); Running Start by Crowcuss (#88); Deeper than the Night by Olivia Newton-John (#89); Meanin' So Much by Burton Cummings (#91); I (Who Have Nothing) by Sylvester (#96); Body Heat by Alicia Bridges (#97); When You're in Love with a Beautiful Woman by Dr. Hook (#98); It Must Be Love by Alton McClain and Destiny (#99); and Oh Honey by the Delegation (#100).

Scandal
The United States administration of President Jimmy Carter disclosed that two Americans convicted in 1976 of selling government secrets to the U.S.S.R. had given the Soviets information on the satellite systems the U.S.A. expected to use in monitoring Soviet compliance with the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT-II) agreement.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Semi-Finals
Boston 2 @ Montreal 5 (Montreal led best-of-seven series 2-0)
New York Rangers 3 @ New York Islanders 4 (OT) (Best-of-seven series tied 1-1)

Denis Potvin scored at 8:02 of the 1st overtime period to give the Islanders their win over the Rangers at Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Uniondale.

30 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Looking for Freedom--David Hasselhoff (5th week at #1)

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the Index of Leading Economic Indicators had declined 0.7% in March.

25 years ago
1994


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): One--Metallica

Scandal
Former U.S. Central Intelligence Agency official Aldrich Ames pled guilty to a charge of spying for the U.S.S.R. and Russia, and also pled guilty to income tax evasion. Under a plea bargain with the United States government, Mr. Ames was sentenced to life in prison and agreed to cooperate with the government. In return, his wife Rosario, who also pled guilty to espionage and income tax evasion, would receive a lenient sentence.

The United States Navy expelled 24 midshipmen from the U.S. Naval Academy in what was reported as the biggest cheating scandal in the academy's history. Originally, 134 students who had taken an electrical engineering examination in 1992 had been accused of obtaining advance information, and some had been accused of lying about what they had done.

Politics and government
Voter turnout over three days in South Africa's first general-suffrage elections was so heavy that the voting was extended for an extra day to include April 29.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the gross domestic product had grown at an annual rate of 2.6% in the first quarter of 1994, a sharp decline from the 7.0% increase for the last quarter of 1993.

20 years ago
1999


Died on this date
Alf Ramsey, 79
. U.K. soccer player and manager. Sir Alf played right-back with Southampton (1943-1949) and Totthenham Hotspur (1949-1955); he was with the English national team, and played in the 1950 World Cup. Sir Alf was manager of Ipswich Town (1955-1963) and Birmingham City (1977-1978), but was best known for his tenure as manager of the English national team (1963-1974), which included the World Cup championship in 1966. He died of a heart attack, and was inducted into the English Football Hall of Fame as a manager in 2002, and again as a player in 2010.

Arthur Schawlow, 77. U.S. physicist. Dr. Schawlow, who was raised in Toronto, co-invented the laser with Charles Townes, and was awarded a share of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physics with Nicolaas Bloembergen "for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy." Dr. Schawlow died of leukemia, a week befoere his 78th birthday.

Rory Calhoun, 76. U.S. actor. Mr. Calhoun, born Francis McCown, was a criminal as a teenager, and worked at various jobs before becoming an actor in the 1940s. He appeared in numerous Western movies in the 1950s and '60, virtually all now forgotten. Mr. Calhoun's other movies included With a Song in My Heart (1952) and How to Marry a Millionaire (1953). He died of emphysema and diabetes.

Jason Lang, 17. Canadian crime victim. Mr. Lang, a student at W.R. Myers High School in Taber, Alberta, was shot and killed, in an apparent copycat of the Columbine High School shooting in Colorado eight days earlier, by Todd Smith, 14, who had recently withdrawn from public school to escape bullying. Another student was wounded in the shooting.

War
The United States House of representatives, on a 213-213 tie vote, failed to pass a resolution supporting NATO air attacks on Yugoslavia.

Scandal
U.S. Energy Secretary Bill Richardson confirmed that Wen Ho Lee, a scientist dismissed in March from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, had transferred large quantities of data from high-security computers to an accessible network.

Business
The British department store chain Marks and Spencer announced that it would close its 38 Canadian stores.

Hockey
NHL
Stanley Cup
Division Semi-Finals
Philadelphia 5 @ Toronto 2 (Toronto led best-of-seven series 2-1)

10 years ago
2009


Politics and government
U.S. Senator Arlen Specter (Pennsylvania) switched from the Republican to the Democratic Party.

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