Friday, 24 May 2019

May 22, 2019

390 years ago

Albrecht von Wallenstein and King Christian IV of Denmark signed the Treaty of Lübeck to end Danish intervention in the Thirty Years' War.

210 years ago

On the second and last day of the Battle of Aspern-Essling (near Vienna), French Emperor Napoleon I was repelled by an enemy army for the first time.

200 years ago

SS Savannah left port at Savannah, Georgia on a voyage to become the first steamship to cross the Atlantic Ocean.

170 years ago

Future U.S. President Abraham Lincoln was issued a patent for an invention to lift boats, making him the only U.S. President to ever hold a patent.

160 years ago

Born on this date
Arthur Conan Doyle
. U.K. author. Sir Arthur, a native of Edinburgh, occupied much of his time writing while failing to attract patients as a physician, and eventually achieved literary success. He was best known as the creator of the detective Sherlock Holmes, who appeared in four novels and 56 short stories from 1887-1927, beginning with the novel A Study in Scarlet (1887). Sir Arthur also featured the character Professor Challenger in three novels and two short stories, beginning with the novel The Lost World (1912). He was most proud of his historical novels, particularly The White Company (1891) and Sir Nigel (1906). Sir Arthur turned to spiritualism in later years, writing and lecturing on the subject. He died on July 7, 1930 at the age of 71. For more on Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, see Conan Doyle Info.

Died on this date
Ferdinand II, 49
. King of the Two Sicilies, 1830-1859. Ferdinand II acceded to the throne upon the death of his father Francis I. He initiated technological reforms in the early years of his reign, but began cracking down on dissent in the late 1830s. King Ferdinand II survived an assassination attempt by a soldier in 1856, but it was reported that the soldier's bayonet caused an infection which eventually caused the death of King Ferdinand, who was succeeded by his son Francis II.

140 years ago

Born on this date
Jean Cras
. French military officer and composer. Rear Admiral Cras was a career officer who served in the Adriatic campaign during World War I, and his naval experiences inspired his compositions, which included vocal, chamber, and piano works, as well as the opera Polyphème (1922), which is regarded as his masterpiece. He died on September 14, 1932 after a short illness at the age of 53.

The Providence Grays, trailing 9-2 in the 7th inning, rallied to beat the Cincinnati Reds 10-9 in 10 innings at Avenue Grounds in Cincinnati.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Paul Vanden Boeynants
. Prime Minister of Belgium, 1966-1968, 1978-1979. Mr. Vanden Boeynants was a member of the conservative faction of the PSC-CVP (Christian Social Party), taking the leadership of the party in 1961. In addition to his terms as Prime Minister, he served as Minister of Defense from 1972-1979. Mr. Vanden Boeynants was convicted of fraud and tax evasion in 1986, and was kidnapped and held hostage for a month in 1989. He died of pneumonia on January 9, 2001 at the age of 81 after undergoing cardiovascular surgery.

Parliament passed the Nickle Resolution, recommending that Canadians not accept foreign hereditary titles. This was a resolution rather than an Act of Parliament.

Politics and government
Michael Cashin, leader of the Newfoudland People's Party, took office as Prime Minister of Newfoundland, two days after he had initiated a non-confidence motion that had toppled the government of Liberal Party leader Sir William Lloyd.

80 years ago

Died on this date
Ernst Toller, 45
. German playwright. Mr. Toller was a left-wing Expressionist, known for plays such as Die Maschinenstürmer (The Machine Wreckers) (1922) and Nie Wieder Friede! (No More Peace) (1935). He was President of the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic from April 6-12, 1919, and served time in prison after the republic was overthrown by right-win forces. Mr. Toller was exiled from Germany after the Nazis took power in 1933, and eventually settled in New York. He reportedly suffered from depression and financial woes, and committed suicide by hanging himself in his room in the Mayflower Hotel in New York City, although some insist that he was murdered.

Italian Foreign Minister Count Galeazzo Ciano and German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop signed the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, popularly known as the Pact of Steel, in Berlin.

The Royal standard waved over the Peace Tower in Ottawa for the first time during King George VI's visit to Canada. King George and Queen Elizabeth then left Ottawa to visit Toronto; it was their first visit to the city.

75 years ago

On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on MBS
Tonight's episode: The Superfluous Pearl

Two new Royal Canadian Navy torpedo boat flotillas began operating off the coast of France. Chinese forces in Yunnan Province cut the Burma Road at Chefang, 28 miles east of the Burma border.

Politics and government
Earl Browder was chosen as president of the Communist Political Association U.S.A.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's 15th Lend-Lease report to Congress disclosed that from March 1941-March 1944 U.S. expenditures were $24,224,806,000.

The U.S. Supreme Court upheld presidential authority to issue suspension orders through the Office of Price Administration against firms violating rationing rules.

U.S. National War Labor Board Chairman William H. Davis told the special House of Representatives committee investigating the government seizure of Montgomery Ward that if the NWLB could not have jurisdiction over labour disputes in the distribution field, 15.5 million workers could strike without hindrance.

70 years ago

On the radio
Pat Novak For Hire, starring Jack Webb, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Give Envelope to John St. John

Died on this date
James Forrestal, 57
. U.S. politician. Mr. Forrestal, a Democrat, was U.S. Undersecretary of the Navy (1940-1944); Secretary of the Navy (1944-1947); and Secretary of Defense (1947-1949) in the administrations of Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman. He supported racial integration of the armed forces, naval battle groups centered on aircraft carriers, and a defense policy focused on opposing Communism. Mr. Forrestal opposed President Truman's defense economization policies, and increasingly became the target of vicious media attacks. Mr. Forrestal acceded to Mr. Truman's request, and resigned on March 28, 1949. He reportedly fell into a deep depression, and was admitted to National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) in Bethesda, Maryland. Mr. Forrestal was found clad only in pajama bottoms, with a bathrobe sash reportedly found around his neck, on a 3rd-floor roof after apparently falling from his 16th-floor window. The official Navy report didn't say whether Mr. Forrestal's death was suicide or accidental; conspiracy theories abound.

The Screen Directors Guild presented its first annual award for directorial achievement to Joseph L. Mankiewicz for A Letter to Three Wives (1949).

Burmese troops retook from Karen forces the communications centre of Insein, 10 miles north of Rangoon.

Politics and government
Colombian President Mariano Ospina Perez reorganized his cabinet for the second time in two weeks, increasing the number of Conservatives and including three Army officers.

Charging "incredible mismanagement" in the Atomic Energy Commission, U.S. Senator Bourke Hickenlooper (Republican--Iowa) and other members of the Joint Congressional Atomic Energy Commission demanded the resignation of AEC head David Lilienthal and an investigation of the agency's operations.

Tornadoes swept through the Midwestern United States, causing 46 deaths.

The Brooklyn Dodgers and Cincinnati Reds split a doubleheader before 28,141 fans at Crosley Field in Cincinnati. Don Newcombe, making his first major league start, gave up hits to the first 2 batters, then just 3 more hits in blanking the Reds 3-0 in the opener, while also driving in 2 runs in the 2nd inning. Ken Raffensberger returned the favour in the second game, holding the Dodgers to just 1 hit--a single by Gil Hodges leading off the 8th inning--as the Reds won 2-0, getting just 4 hits off losing pitcher Joe Hatten.

Pinch hitter Dick Sisler doubled home pinch runner Jackie Mayo with 2 out in the top of the 9th inning to break a 5-5 tie as the Philadelphia Phillies edged the Pittsburgh Pirates 6-5 before 31,467 fans at Forbes Field in Pittsburgh.

Mel Parnell pitched a 9-hit 12-inning complete game and singled home Al Zarilla with 2 out in the bottom of the 12th inning, improving his 1949 record to 6-1, as the Boston Red Sox edged the Detroit Tigers 3-2 before 31,687 fans at Fenway Park in Boston. Virgil Trucks pitched an 8-hit complete game in taking the loss, dropping to 5-2.

Alex Kellner and Lou Brissie were the respective winning pitchers as the Philadelphia Athletics swept a doubleheader from the Cleveland Indians 5-4 and 7-3 before 23,403 fans at Shibe Park in Philadelphia, with the second game called after 7 innings because of a Sunday curfew.

Relief pitcher Clyde Shoun singled in a run and came around to score as the Chicago White Sox broke a 2-2 tie with 4 runs in the top of the 9th inning and withstood a 2-run rally in the bottom of the 9th to defeat the Washington Nationals 6-4 before 9,421 fans at Griffith Stadium in Washington. Mr. Shoun allowed 4 hits and 2 earned runs in 2 innings, but was credited with his first win since being purchased by the White Sox from the Boston Braves 11 days earlier. It turned out to be his only win in the American League, and the 72nd and last of his 14-year major league career.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): (Now and Then There's) A Fool Such As I/I Need Your Love Tonight--Elvis Presley (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Tommy Sheehan, 81
. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Sheehan was a third baseman with the New York Giants (1900); Pittsburgh Pirates (1906-1907); and Brooklyn Superbas (1908), batting .235 with 1 home run and 88 runs batted in in 317 games. He played at least 873 games in at least 7 seasons in the minor leagues from 1899-1912.

Frank Biscan, 39. U.S. baseball pitcher. Mr. Biscan played with the St. Louis Browns (1942, 1946, 1948), compiling a record of 7-9 with an earned run average of 5.28 in 74 games, 70 in relief. He was 97-63 in 11 seasons in the minor leagues from 1938-1955. Mr. Biscan died of heart disease.

The U.K. destroyer HMS Chaplet rammed the Icelandic Coast Guard cutter Odinn off northwest Iceland while patrolling to prevent molestation of British trawlers in disputed fishing zones.

Canada and the Untied States signed a nuclear defense agreement authorizing the exchange of classified information on military reactors, nuclear weapons, and defenses.

U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed Air Force General Benjamin Davis, Jr. to the rank of major general, becoming the first Negro to be promoted to this rank in the U.S. armed forces.

Politics and government
British Governor Sir Frederick Crawford declared the Kingdom of Buganda a disturbed area, and banned the Uganda National Movement as a result of its boycott of non-African shops and goods.

Alex Miteff (18-3-1) won a 10-round decision over Wayne Bethea (19-10-2) in a heavyweight bout at Madison Square Garden in New York.

Hoyt Wilhelm of the Baltimore Orioles gave up just a single to Jerry Lumpe leading off the 8th inning, improving his 1959 record to 6-0 with a 5-0 win over the New York Yankees before 30,084 fans at Memorial Stadium in Baltimore. Mr. Wilhelm walked 6 batters.

Gary Bell pitched a 4-hitter to win the pitchers' duel over Paul Foytack as the Cleveland Indians edged the Detroit Tigers 1-0 before 24,317 fans at Municipal Stadium in Cleveland. Mr. Foytack had a no-hitter going for 6 1/3 innings, but Vic Power doubled with 1 out in the bottom of the 7th, and Minnie Minoso doubled him home with 2 outs, for the only Cleveland hits of the game.

Bob Shaw allowed 4 hits in 8 2/3 innings in improving his 1959 record to 4-0 as the Chicago White Sox edged the Kansas City Athletics 2-1 before 13,527 fans at Municipal Stadium in Kansas City. The Athletics loaded the bases with 2 out in the 9th, but Turk Lown relieved Mr. Shaw and struck out pinch hitter Dick Williams to end the game. Bob Grim pitched a 7-hit complete game, allowing 1 earned run, in taking the loss.

Dick Schofield hit a solo home run with 1 out in the bottom of the 9th inning to give the Pittsburgh Pirates a 4-3 win over the Cincinnati Reds before 27,675 fans at Forbes Field in Pittsburgh. The Reds claimed that a fan had reached out and touched the ball, but the umpires ruled that the ball hit by Mr. Schofield had hit the seats and bounced onto the field.

Gino Cimoli doubled home Don Blasingame and scored on a balk by Bill Henry as the St. Louis Cardinals scored 2 runs in the top of the 14th inning to break a 1-1 tie and defeat the Chicago Cubs 3-1 before 3,192 fans at Wrigley Field in Chicago. Jim Brosnan pitched 6 innings of 1-hit relief to get the win, and singled to begin the 14th-inning rally.

With 2 out and nobody on base in the bottom of the 13th inning, Don Demeter was hit by a pitch from Al Worthington, pinch hitter Duke Snider drew a base on balls, and Gil Hodges singled home Mr. Demeter to give the Los Angeles Dodgers a 2-1 win over the San Francisco Giants before 31,014 fans at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. Don Drysdale pitched a 6-hit complete game victory.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Where Do You Go To (My Lovely)?--Peter Sarstedt

At the movies
Winning, directed by James Goldstone, and starring Paul Newman, Joanne Woodward, Robert Wagner, and Richard Thomas, opened in theatres.

Apollo 10 Commander Tom Stafford and Lunar Module Pilot Gene Cernan took the lunar module Snoopy to within 9 miles of the Moon's surface, and reported that the site for the scheduled landing of Apollo 11 in July in the Sea of Tranquility looked suitable. According to Mr. Cernan, it looked "like wet clay, with lots of holes." Perhaps the most memorable image was the photo taken from the command module Charlie Brown of Snoopy with the lunar surface behind; it appeared on the cover of the June 6 issue of Life.

Two Biafran aircraft, smuggled from Sweden by Count Carl Gustaf von Rosen, bombed Port Harcourt, Nigeria, reportedly destroying several Nigerian fighter planes.

A Canadian government spokesman announced a new policy of allowing United States army deserters into Canada and permitting them to stay, if they were eligible for immigrant status. Previously, some deserters--but no draft dodgers--were turned back at the border.

The military took control of Rosario, Argentina’s second largest city, to displace thousands of students who had routed local police and taken over 50 blocks. The students were protesting what they called indiscriminate shooting by police that led to the deaths of three young men.

A petition to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights asking for an investigation of the "repression of basic civil rights" in the Soviet Union was made available in Moscow by members of a group of more than 50 dissidents who signed it.

114 people had died in Burma after a six-day heat wave.

40 years ago

14 men, women, and children demonstrating outside the Venezuelan embassy in San Salvador were shot to death by Salvadoran government troops.

Politics and government
The Canadian federal election produced a plurality in favour of the Progressive Conservatives, ending 16 consecutive years of Liberal rule. The PCs, led by Joe Clark, won 136 of the 282 seats in the House of Commons. The Liberals under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau won 114 seats, a loss of 19. The New Democratic Party, led by Ed Broadbent, won 26 seats, while Social Credit, under Fabien Roy, won 6 seats, all in Quebec. The election reflected divisions in the country (and the weaknesses of the Canadian federalist system), as the PCs won just 2 seats in Quebec, while the Liberals won 67 seats in Quebec, and just 2 seats west of Ontario. The PCs swept Alberta for the third straight election. Jack Horner, who had jumped to the Liberals in 1977 after failing in his bid for the PC leadership in 1976, lost his Crowfoot seat to Arnold Malone (and was more than a little angry about it when interviewed on election night). Much of the campaign had consisted of an emphasis on strong leadership, giving the impression that Canada was electing a dictator instead of a Prime Minister.

U.K. Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington said that Britain's new Conservative government would be sending a senior diplomat to Salisbury to maintain contact with the new Rhodesian government of Prime Minister Abel Muzorewa.

The United States Senate backed the administration of President Jimmy Carter in voting a $50 million arms grant to Turkey after a four-year ban on military aid to that country because of its 1974 invasion of Cyprus.

James B. Lawson, 28, surrendered to authorities in Portland, Oregon, ending a five-hour drama in a hotel that began with him attempting to rob the reservation office and escalated to Mr. Lawson making hostages of the six women working in the office. Mr. Lawson released four of the hostages before surrendering; he was charged with robbery.

U.S. Steel Corporation agreed to spend $400 million over the next 3 ½ years to clean up air and water pollution by some of its plants. The agreement would bring nine of the company’s plants in western Pennsylvania into compliance with the anti-pollution laws and would cover 25% of the company’s nationwide steel-making capacity. U.S. Steel chairman David Roderick estimated that the cost of the agreement could add between $13-$15 per ton to the price of steel produced at the affected sites. The agreement was heralded by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Douglas Costel as "the largest environmental agreement in the history of the steel industry."

Houston Rockets' center Moses Malone was named the winner of the Maurice Podoloff Trophy as the National Basketball Association's Most Valuable Player for the 1978-79 season, receiving 112 of the 221 votes cast by players. George Gervin of the San Antonio Spurs was second with 35 votes, followed by Elvin Hayes of the Washington Bullets (28) and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar of the Los Angeles Lakers (15). Mr. Malone led the NBA in rebounds (1,444--17.6 per game), and was fifth in scoring, averaging 24.9 points per game, while his 2,031 total points was third in the NBA.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Australian Music Report): Like a Prayer--Madonna (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Ibiza--Amnesia

Canada's top 10 (RPM):
1 Like a Prayer--Madonna (3rd week at #1)
2 I'll Be There for You--Bon Jovi
3 Forever Your Girl--Paula Abdul
4 Second Chance--Thirty Eight Special
5 Heaven Help Me--Deon Estus (with George Michael)
6 Real Love--Jody Watley
7 The Look--Roxette
8 After All--Cher and Peter Cetera
9 Diamond Mine--Blue Rodeo
10 Rock On--Michael Damian

Singles entering the chart were Baby Don't Forget My Number by Milli Vanilli (#70); Unborn Heart by Dan Hill (#73); Talk it Over by Grayson Hugh (#82); Hey Baby by Henry Lee Summer (#85); My Brave Face by Paul McCartney (#88); This Feeling by Sam Brown (#91); I'll Be Lovin' You (Forever) by New Kids on the Block (#94); Promises by Basia (#96); Lola by Toyo (#98); and Cuddly Toy (Feel for Me) by Roachford (#99).

The Minnesota Twins scored 4 runs in the 3rd inning as they defeated the Toronto Blue Jays 6-2 before 40,134 fans at Exhibition Stadium in Toronto. Allan Anderson pitched a 5-hit complete game to win the matchup with Dave Stieb.

The Cleveland Indians scored 4 runs in the 2nd inning and 3 in the 3rd as they coasted to a 7-3 win over the Detroit Tigers before 13,702 fans at Tiger Stadium.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand: Can't Get Enough--Supergroove

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Without You--Mariah Carey (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Without You--Mariah Carey (6th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Chart Information Network): Come On You Reds--Manchester United F.C. (2nd week at #1)

Economics and finance
A worldwide trade embargo against Haiti went into effect to punish its military rulers for not reinstating the country's ousted elected President, Jean-Bertrand Aristide.

Eastern Conference
Chicago 77 @ New York 87 (New York won best-of-seven series 4-3)

20 years ago

English FA Cup Final @ Wembley Stadium, London
Manchester United 2 Newcastle United 0

Teddy Sheringham scored in the 11th minute and Paul Scholes scored in the 53rd minute to give Manchester United their win before 79,101 fans.

Steve Sparks of the Anaheim Angels tied a major league record by hitting 4 batters with pitches, including 3 in a row with the bases loaded in the 3rd inning, but the Anaheim Angels defeated the Tampa Bay Devil Rays 8-6 before 23,168 fans at Tropicana Field in St. Petersburg, Florida. Mr. Sparks gave up just 5 hits, but walked 6 and gave up 4 runs--all earned--in 5 innings.

Juan Gonzalez's 3-run home run climaxed a 4-run 9th inning as the Texas Rangers overcame a 6-4 deficit to defeat the Baltimore Orioles 8-7 before 47,915 fans at Oriole Park at Camden Yards in Baltimore. Delino DeShields homered to lead off the bottom of the 9th, but John Wetteland retired the next 3 batters to end the game.

The New York Yankees and Chicago White Sox split a doubleheader before 35,310 fans at Comiskey Park in Chicago. Roger Clemens set an American League record with his 18th straight win over 2 seasons, improving his 1999 record to 3-0, as the Yankees won the first game 10-2. The White Sox won the second game 2-1, as Mike Sirotka allowed 2 hits and 1 earned run in 8+ innings to win the pitchers' duel over Andy Pettitte.

The Cincinnati Reds blanked the San Diego Padres 3-0 before 49,465 fans at Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego, as Pete Harnisch pitched his second shutout of the season and hit his first major league home run, a 2-run blast in the 7th inning.

10 years ago

A Quebec court found Rwandan Désiré Munyaneza guilty of war crimes he had committed in the 1994 Rwandan genocide; it was the first conviction under a new Canadian law that allowed residents to be tried for crimes committed abroad.

A Toronto youth belonging to the so-called "Toronto 18" homegrown terror cell was sentenced to 2 1/2 years in prison after being found guilty in September 2008 of helping and taking part in a terrorist organization. It was the first verdict under Canada’s new anti-terrorism law.

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