Monday, 23 November 2020

November 23, 2020

1,150 years ago
870


Born on this date
Alexander
. Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, 912-913. Alexander, the third son of Emperor Basil I, was crowned co-Emperor with his father circa 879, and acceded to the throne as senior Emperor upon the death of his brother Leo VI in May 912. Alexander dismissed Leo's advisers and appointees, provoked a war with Bulgaria, and was attacked by Abbasid Caliphate forces. He died of exhaustion after a game of polo on June 6, 913 at the age of 62, allegedly fulfilling his brother's prophecy that he would reign for 13 months.

830 years ago
1190


Born on this date
Clement IV
. Roman Catholic Pope, 1265-1268. Clement IV, born Gui Foucois in France, was Bishop of Le Puy (1257–1260); Archbishop of Narbonne (1259–1261): and Cardinal of Sabina (1261–1265) before succeeding Urban IV as Pope. Clement IV was a patron of both Thomas Aquinas and Roger Bacon. Pope Clement IV died on November 29, 1268, six days after his 78th birthday; because of irreconcilable differences among the cardinals, the papal throne remained vacant for nearly three years before being occupied by Gregory X.

160 years ago
1860


Born on this date
Hjalmar Branting
. Prime Minister of Sweden, 1920; 1921-1923; 1924-1925. Mr. Branting led the Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1907 until his death. He was awarded a share of the 1921 Nobel Peace Prize "for his work in the League of Nations." Upon Mr. Branting's death on February 24, 1925 at the age of 64, he was succeeded as Prime Minister by Rickard Sandler.

130 years ago
1890


Died on this date
Willem III, 73
. King of the Netherlands, 1849-1890. Willem III succeeded his father Willem II on the throne. He died without a male heir, and the Dutch parliament had to pass a law to allow his 10-year-old daughter Wilhelmina to inherit the throne.

110 years ago
1910


Died on this date
Hawley Harvey Crippen, 48
. U.S. homeopath and murderer. Dr. Crippen began his practice in the United States, but moved to England in 1897 with his wife Cora, an aspiring music hall singer who used the name Belle Elmore and openly had affairs. Dr. Crippen lacked the qualifications to practice medicine in Britain, so he sold patent medicines, and later managed Drouet's Institution for the Deaf, where he hired and later began an affair with typist Ethel Le Neve. Mrs. Crippen disappeared after a party at the Crippens' home on January 31, 1910; Dr. Crippen claimed that she had returned to the United States, and later claimed that she had died in California and had been cremated. Miss Le Neve, meanwhile, moved into Dr. Crippen's home and began wearing Mrs. Crippen's clothes. When he was questioned by police, Dr. Crippen admitted to making up the story about Mrs. Crippen's death, claiming that she had actually left him. An initial search of the house revealed nothing, but Dr. Crippen and Miss Le Neve fled to Belgium and boarded the Canadian Pacific liner SS Montrose, bound for Quebec. Mrs. Crippen's remains were discovered upon the fourth search of the house, while Dr. Crippen and Miss Le Neve, disguised as a boy, were on their way to Canada. H.G. Kendall, captain of the Montrose, recognized the fugitives and sent a wireless telegram to U.K. authorities. Scotland Yard Chief Inspector Walter Dew boarded the White Star liner SS Laurentic, which was faster than the Montrose, and arrived in Quebec earlier. Dr. Crippen was arrested on July 31, returned to England, and tried and convicted in October after a four-day trial. He was hanged at Pentonville Prison in London.

Alfred Ander, 36. Swedish murderer. Mr. Ander was reportedly experiencing financial problems when he robbed an exchange agency in Stockholm on January 5, 1910 and fatally beat clerk Victoria Hellsten. He was convicted of murder in May, and guillotined at Långholmen Prison in Stockholm four days before his 37th birthday, becoming the last person to be executed in Sweden, and the only one ever executed by guillotine, which had been adopted in 1907 to replace manual beheading.

100 years ago
1920


Football
CRU
Toronto Rugby & Athletic Association’s protest of their 7-6 loss to Toronto Argonauts in the Grey Cup Semi-Final on November 20 was upheld. A replay of the second half was ordered for November 27, with the Argonauts leading 2-0 at halftime.

90 years ago
1930


Football
NFL
Green Bay (8-2) 6 @ New York (11-2) 13
Staten Island (4-4-2) 6 @ Brooklyn (5-3-1) 0
Minneapolis (1-6-1) 0 @ Providence (6-3-1) 10

80 years ago
1940


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Only Forever--Bing Crosby with John Scott Trotter and his Orchestra (6th week at #1)

Died on this date
Stanley Argyle, 76
. Australian politician. Sir Stanley was a pioneering radiologist who was first elected to the Victoria Legislative Assembly as an independent Nationalist in 1920, representing Toorak. He held various cabinet posts and eventually became leader of the Nationalist Party, which was renamed the United Australia Party in 1931. Sir Stanley formed a coalition majority government with the Country Party after the May 1932 state election, serving as Premier of Victoria and pursuing a policy of fiscal conservatism. He led the coalition to another victory in the March 1935 election, but the Country Party suddenly withdrew from the coalition and formed a minority Country Party government, with Labour Party support. Sir Stanley served as Leader of the Opposition in Victoria until his death, 11 days before his 77th birthday.

War
Chinese dispatches claimed that 20,000 Japanese troops were moving out of the Yangtze River valley to Shanghai, allegedly for transportation to Formosa, while Japan ordered mobilization of her naval reservists.

Defense
Romania became a signatory of the Tripartite Pact, officially joining the Axis powers. Brooklyn Navy Yard officials disclosed that six of the U.S. Navy's 72-mile-per-hour PT boats had been successfully tested off the New Jersey coast.

Diplomacy
The new British Ambassador to the United States, the Marquess of Lothian, said that the United Kingdom was near the end of her fiscal resources and would need financial aid in 1941, but said that Britain "does not need men." U.S. Representative Hamilton Fish (Republican--New York) urged the United States to take possession of the British and French islands off the East coast and in the Caribbean region in payment of their war debts.

Politics and government
The United States Senate Steering Committee chose Sen. Walter George (Democrat--Georgia) as head of the Foreign Relations Committee.

Labour
U.S. Attorney General Robert Jackson stated that the Federal Bureau of Investigation had investigated the Vultee Aircraft strike in Downey, California, and that the investigation showed that Communist influenced had caused, and was prolonging, the strike.

The resolutions committee at the American Federation of Labor convention in New Orleans agreed to a proposal to curb union racketeers. Meanwhile, Congress of Industrial Organizations President Philip Murray announced plans for an intensive organization drive aimed especially at national defense industries.

Football
CRU
IRFU
Finals
Ottawa 8 @ Toronto 1 (Ottawa won 2-game total points series 20-2)

18,000 fans at Varsity Stadium saw the Argonauts score first on a single in the 1st quarter by Earl Selkirk, only to have the Rough Riders reply with a single by Sammy Sward. A bad snap by Cal Moore in the 2nd quarter went over the head of punter Jim Follwell into the Toronto end zone, where Mr. Sward recovered for an Ottawa touchdown. The convert attempt was unsuccessful. The only scoring of the 2nd half came on a single by Mr. Sward in the 3rd quarter.

ORFU
Finals
Toronto 12 @ Sarnia 0 (Toronto won 2-game total points series 24-0)

Johnny Manson scored the game’s only touchdown on a 25-yard pass from Art Walker. Hugh Tunnicliffe converted and added a field goal, while Don Crowe also kicked a field goal. The win at Athletic Park marked the first time in 10 years that Balmy Beach had won the ORFU title. Sarnia Imperials won 9 straight championships from 1931-1939 before disbanding for the duration of World War II. Sarnia was represented in 1940 by the 2-26th Battery.

WIFU
Exhibition
Calgary Bronks 35 @ Vancouver Bulldogs 11

AFL
Boston (5-4-1) 20 @ New York (4-5) 7

NCAA
University of Michigan halfback Tom Harmon scored 3 touchdowns against the Ohio State University Buckeyes to increase his three-year scoring record to 33 touchdowns, breaking the record of 31 set by Red Grange of the University of Illinois in the 1920s.

75 years ago
1945


War
In their drive on Mukden, Nationalist Chinese troops advanced 35 miles, and surrounded Communist-held Chinhsien in Manchuria.

Former U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull told the U.S. Senate committee investigating the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii that on November 7, 1941 he had warned President Franklin D. Roosevelt that the nation should be prepared for a Japanese attack anytime and anyplace.

Diplomacy
The U.S. State Department obtained confidential correspondence among Spanish Caudillo Generalissimo Francisco Franco, German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler, and Italian Duce Benito Mussolini revealing Spain's close collaboration with the Axis.

The U.S. State Department revealed that Uruguay had proposed collective intervention by American nations to curb "violation by any republic of the elementary rights of man."

Protest
Anti-British riots in Calcutta entered their third day in protest against the trial of Indian Army officers organized by the late Subhas Chandra Bose to help the Japanese during World War II.

Economics and finance
U.S. Agriculture Secretary Clinton Anderson announced the end of rationing of meats, fats and oils, canned fish, and other red-point foods, but said that sugar would probably have to remain under control into 1946.

70 years ago
1950


Diplomacy
The People's Republic of China delivered a "stern protest" to France against alleged French ground and air attacks on Chinese territory near the Vietnamese border.

Energy
The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission announced a joint U.S.-U.K.-Canadian agreement to release secret information on the design, construction, and operation of "low power" nuclear reactors.

Football
NFL
Pittsburgh (5-5) 28 @ Chicago Cardinals (4-6) 17
New York Yanks (6-4) 14 @ Detroit (5-5) 49

Baseball
Nippon Series
Shochiku Robins 1 @ Mainichi Orions 5 (Mainichi led best-of-seven series 2-0)

Takeshi Nomura (1–0) pitched a 7-hit complete game victory over Koichi Eda (0–1) as the Orions defeated the Robins before 35,541 fans at Korakuen Stadium in Bunkyo, Tokyo. Shosei Go of Mainichi hit the first home run in Nippon Series history.

60 years ago
1960


Space
The United States launched TIROS 2, a weather satellite whose mission was to study cloud cover and infrared radiation. It sent back television pictures of clouds.



Boxing
George Chuvalo (18-5-1) won a 12-round unanimous decision over Bob Cléroux (24-2-1) at the Montreal Forum to regain the Canadian heavyweight championship, which he had lost to Mr. Cléroux three months earlier.

50 years ago
1970


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Lookin' Out My Back Door/Long as I Can See the Light--Creedence Clearwater Revival (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Kyōto no Koi--Yūko Nagisa (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): N'A Veiriña Do Mar--María Ostiz (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Yusof Ishak, 60
. 1st President of Singapore, 1965-1970. Mr. Ishak was a journalist, who began working with the Malay newspaper company Warta Malaya in 1929, and left in 1938 to found the Malay-language newspaper Utusan Melayu in 1938. He served in the police and then the military, rising to the rank of colonel. Mr. Ishak was Yang di-Pertuan Negara (head of state) of Singapore (1959-1963) and Yang di-Pertuan Negara (head of state) of the short-lived state of Singapura (1963-1965). He became the first President of Singapore after the country was expelled from Malysia on August 9, 1965. Mr. Ishak promoted multiculturalism and a national identity, and was in his third term as President when he died in office.

World events
A Lithuanian sailor, later identified as Simas Kudirka, 32, chief radio operator of the Russian trawler Sovietskaya, jumped aboard the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Vigilant in a desperate bid for U.S. asylum. The two ships were tied alongside each other off Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts, for a fishing conference. It was later disclosed that Soviet sailors had been allowed to board the Vigilant and to beat, tie up, and drag Mr. Kudirka back to the Sovietskaya. U.S. President Richard Nixon was described as "furious" when he learned of the incident, and ordered an investigation.

Disasters
The fishing boat Lady Dorianne, with a crew of seven men, left Shippagan, New Brunswick, and was lost in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, with no survivors.

Football
NFL
New York Giants (6-4) 20 @ Philadelphia (2-7-1) 23



40 years ago
1980


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Master Blaster (Jammin')--Stevie Wonder (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Woman in Love--Barbra Streisand (2nd week at #1)

World events
At the trial of three members of China’s "Gang of Four," Wu Faxian, former deputy chief of staff of the armed forces, testified that he had damaged China’s Air Force by giving Lin Liguo, a leader of the 1976 plot to assassinate Chairman Mao Zedong, the command of the Air Force.

Disasters
The first of a series of earthquakes, centred in southern Italy, struck the Irpania area near Naples, killing at least 2,483 people, injuring more than 7,700 and leaving 250,000 homeless.

Football
CFL Grey Cup @ Exhibition Stadium, Toronto
Edmonton 48 Hamilton 10

Tom Scott caught 12 passes for 174 yards and 3 touchdowns as the Eskimos routed the Tiger-Cats before 54,661 fans for their third straight Grey Cup win, equalling the achievement of the Eskimos of 1954-1956. Edmonton quarterback Warren Moon completed 21 of 33 passes for 398 yards and 3 touchdowns and rushed 7 times for 71 yards, and was named the game’s outstanding offensive player. Eskimo linebacker Dale Potter was named the outstanding defensive player and also won the Dick Suderman Trophy as the outstanding Canadian player. The game was close for the first 25 minutes, but the Eskimos began to pull away in the last 5 minutes of the 2nd quarter. A 25-yard field goal by Dave Cutler and a 1-yard touchdown run by Jim Germany, converted by Mr. Cutler, gave the Eskimos a 10-0 lead, but Bernie Ruoff got Hamilton on the scoreboard with a 48-yard field goal in the last minute of the 1st quarter and kicked a 37-yard field goal in the 2nd quarter to reduce Edmonton’s lead to 10-6. Mr. Moon connected with Danny Buggs for a 55-yard completion, setting up Mr. Germany’s second 1-yard touchdown run, converted by Mr. Cutler, and the Eskimos led 17-6 with 4:47 remaining until halftime. With 2:19 remaining in the half, Mr. Moon threw to Brian Kelly for a 75-yard touchdown. Mr. Cutler’s convert made the score 24-6. Mr. Ruoff kicked a 42-yard field goal with 2 seconds left to make the halftime score 24-9, and added a single on a missed field goal early in the 3rd quarter for the last Hamilton point. A short snap to running back Neil Lumsden on a fake punt resulted in a 48-yard gain--the longest rush by an Eskimo in a Grey Cup game--and led to a 19-yard touchdown pass from Mr. Moon to Mr. Scott. Mr. Cutler converted and added a 9-yard field goal to give the Eskimos a 34-10 lead after 3 quarters. Mr. Moon completed an 8-yard touchdown pass to Mr. Scott, and then veteran Tom Wilkinson, who replaced Mr. Moon late in the game, completed a 17-yard touchdown pass to Mr. Scott with 1:40 remaining in the game. Mr. Cutler converted both touchdowns. Mr. Lumsden led all rushers with 85 yards on 8 carries, and the Eskimos as a team rushed for 205 yards. Obie Graves, who had boasted before the game that he would rush for 200 yards, led the Tiger-Cats with 67 yards on 12 carries, while quarterback Dave Marler rushed 4 times for 45 yards. Mr. Graves also returned 7 kickoffs for 132 yards and 1 punt for 8. Mr. Kelly, playing his first game since breaking an ankle six weeks earlier, caught 4 passes for 104 yards. Brian Fryer helped the Eskimo cause with 4 catches for 77, and Mr. Buggs caught 3 for 73. Leif Pettersen led the Tiger-Cats with 47 yards on 4 receptions. Mr. Wilkinson completed 2 of 6 passes for 30 yards. Mr. Marler completed just 9 of 22 passes for 151 yards and 3 interceptions, while backup Tom Rozantz was 0 for 5 with an interception. Joe Hollimon made 2 interceptions for the Eskimos, with the others coming from Larry Highbaugh and Mike McLeod. The Eskimos racked up the big score despite turning the ball over half a dozen times; Mr. Moon gave up an interception to Daid Shaw, the Eskimos lost 3 fumbles, and they turned it over twice on downs while attempting to use up the clock in the 4th quarter. Edmonton Journal football writer Ray Turchansky had predicted a score of 50-10 in favour of the Eskimos, and they had the ball in field goal range when fans began pouring on the field and referee Don Barker called the game with a few seconds remaining.



30 years ago
1990


At the movies
Mr. & Mrs. Bridge, directed by James Ivory and starring Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward, opened in theatres.



Died on this date
Roald Dahl, 74
. U.K. author. Mr. Dahl was known for works of fiction for both children and adults. His books included James and the Giant Peach (1961); Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (1964); and Tales of the Unexpected (1979).

Bo Díaz, 37. Venezuelan baseball player. Mr. Díaz was a catcher with the Boston Red Sox (1977); Cleveland Indians (1978-1981); Philadelphia Phillies (1982-1985); and Cincinnati Reds (1985-1989), batting .255 with 87 home runs and 452 runs batted in in 993 games. He was killed at his home in Caracas when the satellite dish that he was adjusting on the roof fell on him and crushed him. Mr. Díaz was inducted into the Venezuelan Baseball Hall of Fame in 2006.

Politics and government
Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, at a press conference, gave more details of the union treaty that would replace the treaty adopted in 1922 that created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The U.S.S.R. would be renamed the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics, with the word Socialist dropped from the title. In a powerful executive branch, the president and vice-president would be elected directly by the people. The central government would be given complete control over such key areas as the military and security forces, foreign policy, and foreign economic activity. The office of premier would be retained. The republics were declared to be "sovereign states" with "full authority" over their own territory, and each would be permitted to determine its own government and forms of property and economic system. The treaty declared, however, that the central government’s laws would take precedence over resolutions passed in individual republics proclaiming the supremacy of their own laws. The treaty made no provision for secession by republics. The three Baltic republics and Georgia had already said they would not sign the treaty and would seek independence unilaterally.

The government of Bulgarian Premier Andrei Lukanov survived a non-confidence vote in parliament.

25 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Denmark (Nielsen Music Control & IFPI): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (3rd week at #1)

On television tonight
The Beatles Anthology: Part III, on ABC

Died on this date
Junior Walker, 64
. U.S. musician. Mr. Walker, born Autry DeWalt Mixon, Jr., was a saxophonist and singer who achieved success as the leader of Jr. Walker & the All Stars, one of the stable of artist with Motown Corporation in the 1960s and '70s. Their biggest hit singles were Shotgun (1965) and What Does it Take (To Win Your Love) (1969), both of which reached #1 on the Billboard rhythm and blues chart and #4 on the Hot 100 chart.

Louis Malle, 63. French film director. Mr. Malle was known for movies such as Le Monde du silence (The Silent World) (1956); Lacombe Lucien (1974); Pretty Baby (1978); Atlantic City (1980); My Dinner with Andre (1981); and Au revoir les enfants (1987).

Politics and government
Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien unveiled a unity plan that included giving Ontario, Quebec, the Atlantic region, and the West each a veto over constitutional change. It also contained a resolution recognizing Quebec as a distinct society with a distinct culture, language, and civil law tradition.

20 years ago
2000


Protest
Half of Argentina’s 14 million workers began a 36-hour general strike to protest austerity measures designed to win an aid package from the International Monetary Fund.

10 years ago
2010


Died on this date
Joyce Howard, 88
. U.K.-born U.S. actress and writer. Miss Howard appeared in plays and several movies in the 1940s before writing several novels and plays. She moved to the United States in 1964, and worked as a story analyst, editor, and writer for network television.

War
A North Korean artillery attack killed two civilians and two marines on Yeonpyeong Island, South Korea.

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