Monday, 14 December 2020

December 14, 2020

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Wendy Welt!

Married on this date
Happy Anniversary, Eileen and Leo Sasakamoose!

380 years ago

Born on this date
Aphra Behn
. English playwright and authoress. Mrs. Behn wrote 19 plays, novels, and poetry, and was one of the first English women to earn a living from writing. She worked as a spy in Antwerp on behalf of King Charles II. Mrs. Behn died on April 16, 1689 at the age of 48 after years of illness and poverty.

370 years ago

English domestic servant Anne Greene was hanged at Oxford Castle for infanticide, having concealed an illegitimate stillbirth. The following day she revived in the dissection room and, being pardoned, lived until 1659.

290 years ago

Born on this date
Capel Bond
. U.K. musician and composer. Mr. Bond was a church organist whose most notable compositions were Six Concertos in Seven Parts (1766) and Six Anthems in Score (1769). He died on February 14, 1790 at the age of 59.

240 years ago

Married on this date U.S. Founding Father Alexander Hamilton married Elizabeth Schuyler at the Schuyler Mansion in Albany, New York.

160 years ago 1860

Died on this date
George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, 76
. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, 1852-1855. Lord Aberdeen was a diplomat whose posts included Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Austria (1813-1814), where he organized and financed the sixth coalition that defeated Napoleon. He was in succession a Tory, Conservative, and Peelite, whose cabinet posts included Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (1828-1830, 1841-1846). Lord Aberdeen led a coalition government of Whigs and Peelites, filled with talented men whom he had difficulty controlling. The Crimean War began in 1854, and a vote in the House of Commons on the conduct of the war prompted Lord Aberdeen's resignation on January 30, 1855, ending his political career.

150 years ago

Born on this date
Karl Renner
. Chancellor of Austria, 1918-1920, 1945; President of Austria, 1945-1950. Mr. Renner, a member of the Social Democratic Workers' Party, sat in the Reichsrat from 1896 until its dissolution in November 1918. He became known as the "Father of the Republic" for leading the first government of German-Austria and the First Austrian Republic after World War I. Mr. Renner was President of the National Council from 1931-1933, but his party was outlawed under the Fascist regime of Engelbert Dollfuss in 1934. Mr. Renner welcomed the Anschsluss by Nazi Germany in 1938, but his offer to help the regime was declined, and he stayed out of politics during World War II. He served as Chancellor of a Soviet-installed provisional government from April 27-December 20, 1945, but Western Allies regarded it as a Soviet puppet government. Mr. Renner took office as President on December 20, 1945, and was in office when he died on December 31, 1950, 17 days after his 80th birthday.

125 years ago

Born on this date
George VI
. King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, 1936-1952; Emperor of India, 1936-1947. George VI, the second son of King George V, assumed the throne in December 1936 upon the abdication of his older brother Edward VIII. With his wife and Queen consort Elizabeth he led Britain through World War II. King George developed lung cancer, and died in his sleep at Sandringham House on February 6, 1952 at the age of 56. He was succeeded on the throne by his eldest child, Queen Elizabeth II.

120 years ago

Max Planck presented a theoretical derivation of his black-body radiation law.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Clark Terry
. U.S. musician. Mr. Terry was a jazz trumpeter and flugelhornist who played with the bands of Charlie Barnet (1947); Count Basie (1948-1951); Duke Ellington (1951-1959); Quincy Jones (1960); and Oscar Peterson (1964-1996), as well as The Tonight Show Band (1962-1972) in a career spanning more than 70 years and more than 900 recordings. He died of advanced diabetes on February 21, 2015 at the age of 94.

Died on this date
George Gipp, 25
. U.S. football player. Mr. Gipp, popularly known as "the Gipper," was a quarterback, halfback, and punter with the University of Notre Dame (1917-1920), earning All-American honours in 1920 and setting team records that still stand. He died from a streptococcal throat infection and pneumonia, three weeks after his last game. When Notre Dame coach Knute Rockne visited him on his deathbed, Mr. Gipp reportedly told him that if the team was ever in a desperate situation that he should tell the team to "win just one for the Gipper." Ronald Reagan played Mr. Gipp in the movie Knute Rockne, All American (1940). Mr. Gipp was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a charter member in 1951.

World heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey (56-4-9) retained his title by knocking out Bill Brennan (38-6-3) at 1:57 of the 12th round at Madison Square Garden in New York. Mr. Brennan protested, claiming he had beaten the count. It was Mr. Dempsey's first fight at Madison Square Garden.

90 years ago

The Vancouver Bach Choir, British Columbia's oldest community choir, gave its first concert at the British Columbia Music Festival in the Orpheum Theatre, singing J.S. Bach's Christmas Oratorio.

Green Bay (10-3-1) 6 @ Portsmouth (5-6-3) 6

The tie at Universal Stadium was the league's last game of the season, and the Packers clinched their second straight National Football League championship with a winning percentage of .769. The second-place New York Giants had a record of 13-4 (.765).

80 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Only Forever--Bing Crosby with John Scott Trotter and his Orchestra (9th week at #1)

Died on this date
Anton Korošec, 68
. Mr. Korošec, a member of the Slovene People's Party, was President of the National Council of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs from October 29-December 1, 1918 and Prime Minister of Yugoslavia from July 28, 1928-January 7, 1929.

Argentina and Uruguay reached an agreement for joint defense of the River Plate zone against any non-American aggression.

The $31-million U.S. Navy aircraft carrier Hornet was launched at the navy yard in Newport News, Virginia.

Plutonium was first produced and isolated by Glenn Seaborg, Joseph W. Kennedy, Edwin McMillan, and Arthur Wahl through deuteron bombardment of uranium-238 in the 60-inch cyclotron at the University of California, Berkeley.

The 6th Avenue Subway in New York City, was officially opened just before midnight by Mayor Fiorello La Guardia. The link cost between $700 million and $800 million.

Economics and finance
U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau reported that the Treasury's $500-million five-year taxable defense notes had been oversubscribed by more than eight times.

American Federation of Musicians President James Petrillo announced that U.S. Army bands would not be permitted to broadcast from Army posts until he had an opportunity to confer with the War Department.

75 years ago

Dream Girl, written by Elmer Rice and starring Betty Field and Wendell Corey, opened at the Coronet Theatre on Broadway in New York.

An affidavit introduced at the Nazi war crimes trial in Nuremberg claimed that the Nazis had killed 6 million Jews by August 1944. Four staff members of the United States Senate committee on the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii announced their resignations because of the slow pace of the investigation.

U.S. Secretary of State James Byrnes arrived in Moscow for a summit of foreign ministers of the U.S.A., U.K., and U.S.S.R.

World events
Colombian President Alberto Lleras Camargo was reported to have freed 25 army officers and officials serving prison terms for the July 1944 revolt.

Politics and government
Argentine President Juan Peron, addressing a mass meeting in Buenos Aires, declared himself a candidate for the presidency in the upcoming election.

The United States Senate defeated a temporary 33% salary increase for members of Congress.

The U.S. Civil Aviation Board approved British restrictions on flights by American lines from the United States to London to 14 per week.

The American Society of Newspaper Editors created a standing committee on world freedom of news.

Economics and finance
The U.S. House of Representatives voted 254-126 to pass a less-sweeping version of the Senate's "full employment" bill; the House version deleted the statement that the government would "assure" jobs for all.

70 years ago

The United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution asking the People's Republic of China to negotiate a Korean cease-fire with the UN, although Soviet bloc opposition appeared to kil its chances for success. A three-man UN committee of Lester Pearson (Canada), Sir Benegal Rau (India), and General Assembly President Nasrollah Entezam (Iran) was created to try to arrange a truce. Manchurian-based Chinese jets were reported in increasing numbers over Korea, flying in groups of up to 24. Lieutenant-Colonel J. R. Stone and the 2nd Battalion of the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI) arrived in Yokohama en route to Korea; begin intensive training at Miryang, near Taegu, after Communist China had intervened on the side of the North Koreans.

Joining the demand for total mobilization, New York Governor Thomas Dewey urged that the National Guard be called up and every citizen over 17 be required for national service. The U.S. Civil Defense Administration issued a uniform nation-wide code of air-raid warning signals.

Politics and government
The Swiss government elected Eduard von Steiger President of the Swiss Confederation.

The U.S.A. contracted to buy low-grade uranium ore from South Africa to increase its stockpile of atomic raw materials.

A day-old strike of railroad switchmen in the United States spread to St. Louis and Washington as federal judges issued back-to-work injunctions.

60 years ago

World events
Antoine Gizenga, who had been Vice-Premier in the cabinet of former Congolese Premier Patrice Lumumba, proclaimed in Stanleyville that he had assumed the premiership. Mr. Gizenga, who was alleged to be a Communist sympathizer, sent a cablegram to Valerian Zorian, chief Soviet delegate to the United Nations and President of the UN Security Council, stating that the Congo’s "lawful government" had been moved from Leopoldville to Stanleyville, pro-Lumumba stronghold and capital of the province of Oriental. A Soviet resolution in the Security Council to seek the release of Mr. Lumumba, who had been captured on December 1 by troops of Colonel Joseph Mobutu, was defeated 8-2, with the U.S.S.R. and Poland supporting the resolution, and Ceylon abstaining. The Soviets vetoed a western resolution that would have given UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold increased powers to deal with the Congo situation.

The United Nations General Assembly voted 89-0 (9 countries, including the United States, abstained) in favour of an Asian-African resolution proclaiming "the necessity of bringing to a speedy and unconditional end colonialism in all its form and manifestations." The resolution called for "immediate steps" toward complete independence for colonial territories. Mrs. Zelma Watson George, a Negro member of the U.S. delegation, stood and applauded approval of the measure. U.S. Ambassador James J. Wadsworth expressed regret to the Assembly that the U.S.A. "had to abstain" because of fears that the resolution conflicted with the UN Charter. Previously, the Assembly had defeated a Soviet move for a one-year deadline for complete independence for colonial territories.

Representatives of the United States, Canada, and 18 Europeans signed in Paris the charter of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), a new international economic organization intended to replace the 18-nation Organization for European Economic Cooperation. Other signatories were the U.K.; France; West Germany; Italy; the Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Sweden; Norway; Denmark; Switzerland; Austria; Spain; Portugal; Ireland; Iceland; Greece; and Turkey. The charter was to come into effect after ratification by 15 members.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Convention against Discrimination in Education was adopted in Paris; it went into effect on May 22, 1962.

The government of Canada set a retirement age of Supreme Court of Canada and Superior Court judges at 75, effective March, 1961.

53 people were killed when the Yugoslav tanker Peter Zoranic and Greek tanker World Harmony collided in the Bosporus, exploded, and burned.

Choosing first in the first expansion draft in major league history, the Los Angeles Angels of the American League selected right-handed pitcher Eli Grba from the New York Yankees. Mr. Grba had posted a 6-4 record with the Yankees in 1960 after going 2-5 as a rookie in 1959.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): A Song of Joy--Miguel Rios (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Kyōto no Koi--Yūko Nagisa (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): N'A Veiriña Do Mar--María Ostiz (5th week at #1)

Died on this date
Franz Schlegelberger, 94
. German judge and politician. Mr. Schlegelberger was a judge and legal bureaucrat who joined the Nazi Party, on Adolf Hitler's orders, in 1938. He was interim Reich Minister of Justice (1941-1942), and oversaw an increase in death sentences. Mr. Schlegelberger was one of the main figures in the post-World War II Judges' Trial, and was sentenced to life in prison in 1947; he was released in 1950 on grounds of incapacity.

World events
Spanish dictator Francisco Franco decreed a nationwide state of emergency, giving police unlimited power of arrest for six months. The decree came as a reaction to strikes and riots over the court-martial of 16 Basque separatists on charges of banditry and the 1968 murder of a secret police inspector in the Basque province of Guipuzcoa.

Politics and government
Elections took place for the Territorial Council of the Northwest Territories. Dave Searle was elected as the member for Yellowknife, defeating James Washie.

U.S. President Richard Nixon announced that former Texas Governor John Connally would replace David Kennedy as Secretary of the Treasury, and that Mr. Kennedy would keep his cabinet rank as an ambassador-at-large in international fiscal and monetary matters. The appointments would take effect on February 1, 1971, pending approval by the United States Senate.

In an attempt to discredit one prosecution witness in the court-martial of U.S. Army Lieutenant William Calley for his role in the murder of civilians in the My Lai massacre in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968, the defense called five young Vietnam veterans who testified that when the Charlie Company infantrymen landed, some of the soldiers were high on marijuana, but that their orders had been clear--to kill everything because it was "a search and destroy mission."

Detroit (9-4) 28 @ Los Angeles (8-4-1) 23

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): He's So Shy--The Pointer Sisters (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Angel of Mine--Frank Duval & Orchestra

Died on this date
Elston Howard, 51
. U.S. baseball player and coach. Mr. Howard was a catcher and outfielder with the Kansas City Monarchs (1948-1950); New York Yankees (1955-1967); and Boston Red Sox (1967-1968), batting .274 with 167 home runs and 762 runs batted in in 1,605 major league games. He played in 10 World Series, batting .246 with 5 homers and 19 RBIs in 54 World Series games, helping the Yankees win in 1956, 1958, 1961, and 1962. After beginning his professional career with the Monarchs of the Negro American League, he was signed by the Yankees in 1950 and played in the minor leagues, but missed the 1951 and 1952 seasons while serving with the U.S. Army during the Korean War. Mr. Howard played with the Kansas City Blues of the American Association (1953) and Toronto Maple Leafs of the International League (1954) before finally becoming the first Negro to play with the Yankees. He was the American League's Most Valuable Player in 1963, batting .287 with 28 homers and 85 RBIs in 135 games, winning a Gold Glove at catcher as he helped the Yankees win the pennant. Mr. Howard became the first Negro coach in the American League, with the Yankees (1969-1979). He was an administrative assistant with the Yankees in 1980, but his health declined because of myocarditis, a rare heart disease that causes rapid heart failure, and killed Mr. Howard. He was credited with inventing the batting "doughnut," a lead weight used by batters swinging in the on-deck circle.

Edmonton 5 @ Quebec 6

Miami (8-7) 24 @ Baltimore (7-8) 14
Buffalo (10-5) 2 @ New England (9-6) 24
New Orleans (1-14) 21 @ New York Jets (3-12) 20
St. Louis (5-10) 3 @ Philadelphia (12-3) 17
Kansas City 16 @ Pittsburgh (9-6) 21
New York Giants (4-11) 13 @ Washington (5-10) 16
San Francisco (6-9) 10 @ Atlanta (12-3) 35
Tampa Bay (5-9-1) 14 @ Detroit (8-7) 27
Cincinnati (6-9) 17 @ Chicago (6-9) 14 (OT)
Houston (10-5) 22 @ Green Bay (5-9-1) 3
Cleveland (10-5) 23 @ Minnesota (9-6) 28
Oakland (10-5) 24 @ Denver (7-8) 21
Seattle (4-11) 14 @ San Diego (10-5) 21

Tommy Kramer's pass from the Cleveland 46-yard line on the last play of the game, with the Browns leading 23-22, was deflected by a Cleveland defensive back, and Minnesota receiver Ahmad Rashad caught the ball with his left hand and stepped backwards into the end zone for a touchdown, giving the Vikings the victory to clinch the National Football Conference Central Division title.

30 years ago

At the movies
Havana, written and co-produced by Sydney Pollack and starring Robert Redford, Lena Olin, Raúl Juliá, and Alan Arkin, opened in theatres.

Died on this date
Friedrich Dürrenmatt, 69
. Swiss author and playwright. Mr. Dürrenmatt wrote novels, short stories, and essays, but was best known as a dramatist in the genre of epic theatre, political theatre that forces the audience to see the world as it is. His plays included Romulus der Große (Romulus the Great) (1950); and Die Physiker (The Physicists) (1962). Mr. Dürrenmatt died of heart failure, 22 days before his 70th birthday.

A probate court judge in Jasper County, Missouri ruled that the parents of Nancy Cruzan, who had reportedly been in a persistent vegetative state since suffering severe brain damage in a 1983 auto accident, had a right to remove Miss Cruzan’s feeding tube because three of her co-workers had testified in November that she had once said that she would never want to live under such circumstances. Two hours after the court ruling, the feeding tube was removed.

World events
The first legal conference of the African National Congress in South Africa in 31 years began, the day after ANC President Oliver Tambo had returned to the country after three decades in exile. The conference brought together 1,600 delegates near Soweto to discuss political strategy.

Economics and finance
The United States Labor Department reported that producer prices for finished goods had risen 0.5% in November.

The Canadian Wheat Board reported a $1-billion loss, bigger than the total of all losses since the CWB's founding in 1935, selling wheat for $40-50 per tonne less than it paid farmers.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Denmark (Nielsen Music Control & IFPI): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Italy: I Don't Wanna Be a Star--Corona

Leaders of Bosnia, Serbia and Croatia signed the Dayton Accord in Paris to end more than three years of bitter conflict.

20 years ago

Russian President Vladimir Putin began a visit to Cuba, the first time a Russian leader had visited Cuba since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Mr. Putin and Cuban dictator Fidel Castro denounced the U.S. trade embargo imposed on Cuba.

The U.S. Federal Trade Commission approved the $202-billion sale of Time Warner and America Online.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Neva Patterson, 90
. U.S. actress. Miss Patterson appeared in plays, movies, and television programs from the late 1940s to the early 1990s. Her movies included An Affair to Remember (1957) and The Buddy Holly Story (1978). Miss Patterson died of complications from a broken hip.

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