Friday, 4 March 2016

March 4, 2016

240 years ago
1776


War
The Continental Army fortified Dorchester Heights with cannon, leading the British troops to abandon the Siege of Boston.

225 years ago
1791

Americana

Vermont entered the Union as the 14th state, and the first to join the U.S.A. after the original 13 colonies.

Canadiana
The Constitutional Act of 1791, which envisaged the separation of Canada into Lower Canada (Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario), was introduced by the British House of Commons.

175 years ago
1841

Politics and government

William Henry Harrison was inaugurated as the 9th President of the United States of America. At age 68, Mr. Harrison was the oldest president so far. It was a drizzly day in Washington, and Mr. Harrison chose to deliver a two-hour inaugural address without wearing a hat or overcoat. He caught a chill, which worsened and proved fatal a month later.

100 years ago
1916


Born on this date
Hans Eysenck
. German-born U.K. psychologist. Dr. Eysenck, one of the most prominent and most cited psychologists of the 20th century, was primarlily known for his research into intelligence and personality. He attracted much opposition for his belief that intelligence was overwhelmingly the result of heredity. Dr. Eysenck was also known for his criticism of psychoanalysis. He died on September 4, 1997 at the age of 81.

William Alland. U.S. film producer. Mr. Alland had minor acting roles in several movies, but was best known for producing Western and science fiction films such as It Came from Outer Space (1953); The Lawless Breed (1953); and The Creature from the Black Lagoon (1954) and its sequels. He often worked with director Jack Arnold. Mr. Alland died on November 11, 1997 at the age of 81.

75 years ago
1941


Died on this date
Ludwig Quidde, 82
. German activist and politician. Mr. Quidde, a pacifist was known for his criticism of Kaiser Wilhelm II. He and Ferdinand Buisson of France were awarded the 1927 Nobel Peace Prize "[For] contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation." Mr. Quidde died 19 days before his 83rd birthday.

War
The United Kingdom launched Operation Claymore on the Lofoten Islands off Norway, the first large-scale British commando raid. Fish and whale oil processing plants were destroyed, 10 ships were sunk, and 215 Germans were captured. Greek leaders said they would fight to the end even if Germany invaded Greece.

Diplomacy
Yugoslavian Prince Regent Paul secretly visited German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler. A Nazi mission arrived in Turkey.

A U.S. federal grand jury indicted Dr. Friedrich Ernst Auhagen, founder of the American Fellowship Forum, for failing to register as a paid publicity agent for the German government.

A Gallup Poll estimated that eight million American voters supported some sort of postwar international federation of countries.

Defense
The U.S. State Department announced that the United States and Mexico were discussing mutual defense assistance.

U.S. Senator Gerald Nye (Republican--North Dakota) made the last set speech against the Lend-Lease bill, urging its defeat and attacking the United Kingdom as the greatest aggressor in all modern history.

Society
All Japanese-Canadians were registered by the federal government of Prime Minister Mackenzie King.

Labour
U.S. Congress of Industrial Organizations President Philip Murray protested the proposed creation of a labour mediation board for defense industries.

70 years ago
1946


Hit parade
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Symphony--Freddy Martin and his Orchestra (7th week at #1)
--Bing Crosby
--Jo Stafford
--Benny Goodman and his Orchestra
2 Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief--Betty Hutton
--Les Brown and his Orchestra
3 Personality--Johnny Mercer
4 Let it Snow! Let it Snow! Let it Snow!--Vaughn Monroe and his Orchestra
--Woody Herman and his Orchestra
5 I Can't Begin to Tell You--Bing Crosby with Carmen Cavallaro
--Harry James and his Orchestra
--Andy Russell
6 I'm Always Chasing Rainbows--Perry Como
--Dick Haymes and Helen Forrest
7 Oh! What it Seemed to Be--Frankie Carle and his Orchestra
--Frank Sinatra
--Dick Haymes and Helen Forrest
8 You Won't Be Satisfied (Until You Break My Heart)--Les Brown and his Orchestra
--Perry Como
9 Day by Day--Frank Sinatra
10 It Might as Well Be Spring--Dick Haymes
--Paul Weston and his Orchestra with Margaret Whiting
--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra

Singles entering the chart were Atlanta, Ga. by Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra (#18); Shoo Fly Pie (And Apple Pan Dowdy), with versions by Stan Kenton and his Orchestra, and Dinah Shore (#27); Hey! Ba-Ba-Re-Bop by Lionel Hampton and his Orchestra (#30); Give Me the Simple Life, with versions by Benny Goodman and his Orchestra, and Bing Crosby and Jimmy Dorsey and his Orchestra (#35); Give Me a Little Kiss, Will You Huh? by Dick Haymes and Helen Forrest (#36); Don't Be a Baby, Baby by the Mills Brothers (#37); McNamara's Band by Bing Crosby and the Jesters (#38); and Don't You Remember Me, with versions by Frankie Carle and his Orchestra, and Johnny Desmond (#42).

On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on MBS
Tonight's episode: The Submarine Caves

War
At the trial in Nuremberg of accused Nazi war criminals, defense lawyers for Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Alfred Rosenberg, Hans Frank, and Wilhelm Frick declared that their clients were pro-Jewish humanitarians who resisted Nazi excesses.

Diplomacy
The Canadian government of Prime Minister Mackenzie King reported that a network of undercover agents was operating through the Soviet embassy in Ottawa under direct instructions from Moscow to obtain atomic secrets. The announcement was a result of revelations from Igor Gouzenko, a cipher clerk at the Soviet embassy, who had defected several months earlier. Fred Rose, a Labour-Progressive (i.e., Communist) member of the House of Commons from Montreal, and 13 others were arrested and charged with spying for the U.S.S.R.

United Nations Secretary-General Trygve Lie named four assistant secretaries: Benjamin Cohen (Chile); Henry Laugier (France); Ivan Kerno (Czechoslovakia); and Victor Hoo (China).

The governments of the U.S.A., U.K., and France issued a statement declaring that "so long as General Franco continues in control of Spain, the Spanish people cannot expect full and cordial association" with other nations.

Defense
U.K. Royal Navy Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten deactivated Indochina as a territory within the Allied Southeast Asia Command, ending British military assistance to French forces in the area.

The United Kingdom and France announced an agreement to begin withdrawing their troops from Syria, with complete evacuation by April 30, 1946.

Iranian Prime Minister Ahmad Gavam Saltaneh protested the U.S.S.R.'s decision to keep troops in Iran.

Politics and government
Field Marshal Carl Gustav Mannerheim, 78, resigned as President of Finland because of ill health.

The Puerto Rican legislature overrode Governor Rexford Tugwell's veto of bills giving the island a voice in choosing its governor and calling for a plebiscite on its political status.

A U.S. Senate-House of Representatives committee on legislative reorganization recommended a 37-point program calling for restrictions on deficit financing; curbs on lobbies; a congressional pay raise; and a reduction in the number of committees.

Protest
17 Egyptians and 2 British soldiers were killed and 299 cilvilians and 2 British soldiers were wounded in riots in Alexandria protesting continued British presence in Egypt.

Scandal
U.S. military police in Tokyo arrested four Americans and seven Japanese, alleged operators of a 13-million-yen black market ring.

Business
The U.S. Justice Department asked the Supreme Court to bar the sale of the Pullman Company to 43 railroads on the grounds that this would perpetuate a monopoly.

Labour
New York garment industry mediator Arthur Meyer granted 400,000 International Ladies' Garment Workers Union members a weekly pay increase of $2-5.

60 years ago
1956


On television tonight
Alfred Hitchcock Presents, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Back for Christmas, starring John Williams and Isobel Elsom

This episode was directed by Mr. Hitchcock.

Diplomacy
Italian President Giovanni Gronchi addressed a joint session of the Canadian Senate and House of Commons in Ottawa.

50 years ago
1966


Hit parade
Edmonton's top 10 (CJCA)
1 These Boots are Made for Walkin'--Nancy Sinatra (3rd week at #1)
2 Listen People--Herman's Hermits
3 My Love--Petula Clark
4 Nowhere Man--The Beatles
5 At the Scene--Dave Clark Five
6 Elusive Butterfly--Bob Lind
7 Just Like Me--Paul Revere and the Raiders
8 Batman Theme--The Marketts
9 19th Nervous Breakdown--The Rolling Stones
10 Homeward Bound--Simon & Garfunkel
Pick hit of the week: California Dreamin'--The Mamas and the Papas
New this week: Somewhere--Len Barry
Time Won't Let Me--The Outsiders
Lullaby of Love--The Poppies
The Phoenix Love Theme (Senza Fine)--The Brass Ring
Secret Agent Man--Johnny Rivers

At the movies
The Group, starring Candice Bergen, Joan Hackett, Elizabeth Hartman, Shirley Knight, Joanna Pettet, and Jessica Walter, opened in theatres.

The Oscar, starring Stephen Boyd, Elke Sommer, and Tony Bennett, opened in theatres.

Music
The EP Yesterday by the Beatles was released on Parlophone Records. It contained the title song; Act Naturally; It's Only Love; and You Like Me Too Much.

Weather
Winnipeg's worst snowstorm since 1902 virtually shut down the city, resulting in 14.6 inches of snow, accompanied by winds up to 70 miles per hour.

Scandal
After former Canadian Prime Minister John Diefenbaker called current Liberal Justice Minister Lucien Cardin "a dwarf in giant's clothing" for his handling of the Spencer case--George Victor Spencer, a Vancouver postal clerk, had been caught collecting information for two diplomats in the Soviet Embassy--Mr. Cardin broke news of the Munsinger ["Monsigneur"] Affair, involving Pierre Sevigny--Associate Minister of National Defence in Mr. Diefenbaker's Progressive Conservative government in the early 1960s--and his relationship with Gerda Munsinger, known to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police as a prostitute with East German contacts. Mr. Cardin believed Miss Munsinger to be dead, but Toronto Star reporter Robert Reguly tracked her to Munich, where she freely admitted her numerous affairs with government officials to the Canadian media. After Canada's first major political sex scandal, Supreme Court Justice Wishart Spence held a Royal Commission, and criticized the Diefenbaker government's handling of the case, but found no criminal wrongdoing or security breach.

Business
Studebaker of Canada stopped making cars in Hamilton after nearly 20 years there. The company had shut down its South Bend, Indiana factory in November 1963 and had shifted most of its car production to Canada, but had proved unable to compete with General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler.

Protest
Demonstrators protested on Parliament Hill in Ottawa against the Vietnam War.

Disasters
Canadian Pacific Air Lines Flight 402, a McDonnell-Douglas DC-8-43 jetliner en route from Hong Kong to Vancouver via Tokyo, exploded on landing at Haneda International Airport in Tokyo, killing 64 of 72 people aboard.

40 years ago
1976


Died on this date
Jim Walsh, 45
. U.S. basketball player. Mr. Walsh was a forward with the United States team that won the gold medal at the 1956 Summer Olympic Games in Melbourne, and played 10 games with the Philadelphia Warriors in 1957-58, scoring 20 points.

Politics and government
The Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention was formally dissolved in Northern Ireland, resulting in direct rule of Northern Ireland from London by the British Parliament.

Terrorism
The "Maguire Seven"--Irish-born residents of London--were sentenced to 14 years in prison for possessing nitro-glycerine, used to produce explosives. Their convictions were quashed by the U.K. Court of Appeal in 1991, after they had served their sentences.

30 years ago
1986


Died on this date
Elizabeth Smart, 72
. Canadian-born U.K. poet and author. Miss Smart, a native of Ottawa, was best known for her book By Grand Central Station I Sat Down and Wept (1945), an account of her relationship with poet George Barker.

Howard Greenfield, 49. U.S. songwriter. Mr. Greenfield was known for his collaboration with Neil Sedaka, writing the lyrics to songs such as Breaking Up is Hard to Do and Love Will Keep Us Together. He was a sodomite who died of AIDS 11 days before his 50th birthday; his partner, cabaret singer Tory Damon, died of AIDS just a few days later.

Richard Manuel, 42. Canadian musician. Mr. Manuel, a native of Stratford, Ontario, played keyboards and other instruments with The Band from 1967-1976 and 1983 until his suicide by hanging after years of alcohol and drug abuse.

Space
The U.S.S.R. probe Vega 1 began returning images of Halley's Comet and the first images of its nucleus.

World events
South African President P.W. Botha, speaking in parliament, announced that he would end the state of emergency that had been imposed on many black areas in July 1985. He said that violence in the areas had eased, although the daily death toll had risen in recent months. Mr. Botha also said that South Africa was prepared to implement a United Nations plan for the independence of Namibia, or South-West Africa, a territory controlled by South Africa over UN objections.

Scandal
The New York Times reported that Kurt Waldheim. United Nations Secretary-General from 1972-1982 and current Austrian presidential candidate, had been a member of a Nazi student union and the Nazi paramilitary organization known as the SA, or brownshirts. The Times said that Mr. Waldheim had served on the staff of General Alexander Loehr, an Austrian who had been executed as a war criminal in 1947.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the index of leading economic indicators had fallen 0.6% in January, but the decline was not seen as significant after December’s sharp increase.

25 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Bad Boys--Inner Circle

War
Iraq began releasing allied prisoners of war. Kuwaiti Prime Minister Sheikh Saad Al-Salim Al-Sabah returned to his country for the first time since Iraq's invasion.

20 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Falling Into You--Céline Dion

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Missing--Everything But the Girl (3rd week at #1)
2 One of Us--Joan Osborne
3 Time--Hootie & the Blowfish
4 The World I Know--Collective Soul
5 Wonderwall--Oasis
6 Ironic--Alanis Morisette
7 One Sweet Day--Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men
8 1979--Smashing Pumpkins
9 I Want to Come Over--Melissa Etheridge
10 Don't Cry--Seal

Singles entering the chart were Some Bridges by Jackson Browne (#87); California Love by 2Pac (#98); Wild Horses by the Rolling Stones (#92); Who Do U Love by Deborah Cox (#93); Sittin' Up in My Room by Brandy (#94); Because You Loved Me by Celine Dion (#95); Shoe Box by Barenaked Ladies (#97); and She's Just Killing Me by ZZ Top (#98).

Died on this date
Minnie Pearl, 83
. U.S. comedienne and singer. Miss Pearl, born Sarah Colley, appeared at the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville from 1940-1991 and on the television program Hee Haw from 1969-1991.

John Sauer, 70. U.S. football coach and sportscaster. Mr. Sauer was head coach of The Citadel Bulldogs from 1955-1956, compiling a record of 8-9-1. He was head coach of the College All-Stars when they lost to the Green Bay Packers in the College All-Star Games in 1966 and 1967. Mr. Sauer was a colour commentator on CBS telecasts of National Football League games from 1963-1974 and radio broadcasts of University of Pittsburgh football games from 1974-1994.

Terrorism
Two days of suicide bombings by the Arab terrorist organization Hamas concluded with 33 dead in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. Hamas claimed that the bombings were in retaliation for the assassination of Yahya Ayyash by Israeli security forces.

Disasters
A train carrying hazardous materials derailed in Weyauwega, Wisconsin, causing the emergency evacuation of 2,300 people for 16 days.

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