Monday, 1 January 2018

January 1, 2018

1,825 years ago
193


Politics and government
The Roman Senate chose Pertinax as Emperor, succeeding Commodus, who had been assassinated the previous day.

580 years ago
1438


Europeana
Albert II of Habsburg was crowned King of Hungary.

210 years ago
1808

World events

Legislation banning the importation of slaves into the United States came into effect.

160 years ago
1858

Economics and finance

The dollar became the currency of Canada, as public accounts were put on the decimal system at midnight. Figures were now kept in dollars and sense instead of pounds and pence.

125 years ago
1893


Literature
The January 1893 issue of The Strand Magazine contained the short story The Adventure of the Cardboard Box, second in a series that was published in book form in 1894 as The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes.

120 years ago
1898


Americana
New York, New York annexed land from surrounding counties, creating the City of Greater New York. The four initial boroughs, Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and The Bronx, were joined on January 25 by Staten Island to create the modern city of five boroughs.

110 years ago
1908


Americana
For the first time, a ball was dropped in New York City's Times Square to signify the start of the New Year at midnight.

Academia
Henry Marshall Tory was appointed the first President of the University of Alberta.

90 years ago
1928

World events

250,000 slaves in Sierra Leone were declared free by decree of the British government. This was in the good old days when there was still a British Empire. The slaves were owned by blacks and the government that freed them was composed of white males.

80 years ago
1938


Basketball
NCAA
Stanford 92 Duquesne 27 @ Cleveland

Hank Luisetti became the first college player to score 50 points in a game as he led the Indians to victory.

Football
NCAA
Orange Bowl
Auburn 6 Michigan State 0

Sugar Bowl
Santa Clara 6 Louisiana State 0

Cotton Bowl
Rice 28 Colorado 14

Rose Bowl
California 13 Alabama 0

75 years ago
1943


Died on this date
Afranio de Mello Franco, 72
. Brazilian politician and jurist. Mr. de Mello Franco was Brazilian Foreign Minister and twice served as acting President of the League of Nations. He also served on the Permanent Court of Justice at The Hague.

War
Canada's largest air formation, Royal Canadian Air Force No.6 Bomber Group, led by Air Vice Marshal G. E. Brookes, began operations as an entirely Canadian group under Bomber Command, operating from Yorkshire's Allerton Hall, which was nicknamed “Dismal Castle” on account of its gloomy aspect. The RCAF now had 31 squadrons overseas, and 36 at home. A total of 9,919 Canadians died in Bomber Command. Soviet forces captured Velikiye Luki, northwest of Moscow, and Elista, capital of the Kalmuck Republic, 170 miles south of Stalingrad.

Defense
Associated Press reported that the U.S. Army had a compact mechanism which directed anti-aircraft fire by almost instant determination of the horizontal and vertical distance and speed of planes.

Politics and government
Thomas E. Dewey was inaugurated as Governor of New York, becoming the first Republican to hold the office in 20 years.

Academia
The New York State Education Department withdrew recognition of the bachelor's degree awarded by the University of Chicago for two years of college work.

Football
NCAA
Orange Bowl
Alabama 37 Boston College 21

Sugar Bowl
Tennessee 14 Tulsa 7

Cotton Bowl
Texas 14 Georgia Tech 7

Rose Bowl
Georgia 9 California @ Los Angeles 0

70 years ago
1948


Movies
A Motion Picture Herald survey named Bing Crosby as the leading box office star for the fourth straight year.

War
Greek Communist guerrillas withdrew from Konitsa after a one-week siege.

Defense
The U.S. Navy completed evacuation of Port Lyautey, Morocco, the last U.S. military base in French North Africa.

Diplomacy
Canada established relations with Yugoslavia, appointing Emile Vaillancourt as minister to Belgrade.

India complained to the United Nations Security Council that Pakistani forces were raiding Kashmir.

Japanica
Emperor Hirohito opened the Imperial Palace grounds to visitors for the first time in history.

Society
A U.S. federal court in Roanoke, Virginia upheld racial segregation in public transportation.

Journalism
The Communist Party USA weekly New Masses announced the suspension of publication after 37 years, for financial reasons.

Transportation
The British railway network was nationalized to form British Railways.

Economics and finance
The Benelux customs union went into effect.

Football
NCAA
Orange Bowl
Georgia Tech 20 Kansas 14

Sugar Bowl
Texas 27 Alabama 7

Cotton Bowl
Southern Methodist 13 Penn State 13

Rose Bowl
Michigan 49 Southern California 0

60 years ago
1958


Died on this date
William Bovie, 75
. U.S. physicist and inventor. Dr. Bovie pioneered the field of biophysics and invented the modern medical device known as the Bovie electrosurgical generator.

World events
Venezuelan Air Force and artillery units revolted against the government of President General Marcos Pérez Jiménez, strafing and bombing some areas of Caracas.

Diplomacy
The Afro-Asian Conference in Cairo adjourned after voting to establish a People's Solidarity Council with a secretariat and headquarters in Cairo.

Defense
The Mid-Canada Line (MCL) of radar stations, also known as the McGill Fence, went into full operation across the "middle" of Canada to provide early warning of a Soviet bomber attack on North America. It was built to supplement the less-advanced Pinetree Line, which was located further south; from James Bay to Peace River area. Bell Canada, representing the Trans-Canada Telephone System, was project agent. The MCL was replaced by the Distant Early Warning (DEW) line in 1960 and shut down in 1965.

West Germany turned over two Bundeswehr armoured divisions to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization for limited combat duty, bringing the West German NATO contribution to five divisions.

Politics and government
King Rama IX of Thailand named General Thanom Kikachon as Prime Minister and head of a pro-Western cabinet backed by Marshal Sarit Thanarat, Thai Army supreme commander.

Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion agreed to form a new government, the day after announcing his resignation after two small coalition parties rejected plans to expand contacts with West Germany.

Canadiana
In a federal government poll of Canadians’ attitudes toward the flag, over 80% of respondents favoured a national flag distinct from those of other nations; 60% favoured a flag bearing the maple leaf; and 13% favoured a flag bearing the Union Jack.

Lloydminster, straddling the Saskatchewan-Alberta border, became a city.

Economics and finance
Treaties establishing the European Economic Community went into effect.

Football
NCAA
Orange Bowl
Oklahoma 48 Duke 21

Sugar Bowl
Mississippi 39 Texas 7

Cotton Bowl
Navy 20 Rice 7

Rose Bowl
Ohio State 10 Oregon State 7

50 years ago
1968


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Cállate Niña--Pic-Nic

Diplomacy
The United Nations inaugurated its International Year of Human Rights with an appeal for global peace.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Lyndon Johnson, in an effort to bring the U.S. balance of international payments into line, placed restrictions on American investments abroad, and introduced a program to curb American travel to Europe; cut down on government spendingin foreign countries; and stimulate U.S. export sales. The measures were designed to cut the payment deficit by $3 billion in 1968. The 1967 deficit was between $3.5-4 billion.

Football
NCAA
Orange Bowl
Oklahoma 26 Tennessee 24



Sugar Bowl
Louisiana State 20 Wyoming 13



Cotton Bowl
Texas A&M 20 Alabama 16



Rose Bowl
Southern California 14 Indiana 3



Auto racing
Jim Clark of Scotland won the South African Grand Prix.

40 years ago
1978


Journalism
South African newspaper editor Donald Woods arrived in London after fleeing South Africa's apartheid regime. Mr. Woods, former editor of the East London Daily Dispatch newspaper in South Africa's Eastern Cape Province, was a longtime opponent of apartheid, and a friend of anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko, who had recently died in police custody. Mr. Woods fled South Africa in fear for his and his family's safety.

Religion
Mission of the Resurrection, a congregation in Edmonton associated with the Traditional Anglican Communion, held its first services.

Disasters
Air India Flight 855, a Boeing 747, crashed into the sea, due to instrument failure and pilot disorientation, off the coast of Bombay, killing 213.

Hockey
World Junior Championships
Sweden 6 Canada 5

Football
NFL
AFC Championship
Oakland 17 @ Denver 20



NFC Championship
Minnesota 6 @ Dallas 23





30 years ago
1988


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Whenever You Need Somebody--Rick Astley (5th week at #1)

Religion
The American Lutheran Church, Lutheran Church in America, and Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches officially merged to become the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.

25 years ago
1993


Europeana
Czechoslovakia was peacefully dissolved, resulting in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Economics and finance
A single market within the European Community was announced.

20 years ago
1998

Died on this date
Helen Wills Moody, 92
. U.S. tennis player. Mrs. Moody won 31 major championships, including 8 at Wimbledon. She popularized the wearing of eyeshades in competition.

Music
The album Mike Love, Bruce Johnston & David Marks of the Beach Boys Salute NASCAR was released on the 76 label. It was a CD of 10 car songs, which included a guest appearance by Dean Torrence of Jan & Dean on Little Old Lady from Pasadena. The album was available only at 76 service stations in the United States.

Torontonia
The Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto was abolished as a cost-saving measure. The boundaries of Toronto, Scarborough, North York, Etobicoke, York, and East York were dissolved and the cities amalgamated into one megacity.

Economics and finance
Russia began to circulate new rubles to stem inflation and promote confidence.

10 years ago
2008


Environment
Torngat Mountains National Park, 9,700 square kilometres of Labrador north of Saglek Fiord, was established. It was named in Inuktitut, after one of the most powerful of Inuit spirits believed to dwell in the mountain range.

Hockey
NHL
Pittsburgh 2 @ Buffalo 1 (SO)

Sidney Crosby's shootout goal gave the Penguins their victory over the Sabres at Ralph Wilson Stadium in Orchard Park, New York in the first annual Winter Classic outdoor game.

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