450 years ago
Delegates of the Three Nations of Transylvania adopted the Edict of Torda, which prohibited the persecution of individuals on religious ground in John Sigismund Zápolya's Eastern Hungarian Kingdom.
200 years ago
Born on this date
George S. Boutwell. U.S. politician. Mr. Boutwell began his career as a Democrat, serving two terms in the Massachusetts House of Representatives (1842-1844, 1847-1850) and a term as Governor of Massachusetts (1851-1853). His support for the abolition of slavery and for Negro rights led him to become one of the founders of the Republican Party in 1855. He represented Massachusetts' 7th District in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1863-1869, and served as United States Secretary of the Treasury in the administration of President U.S. Grant from 1869-1873 before representing Massachusetts in the U.S. Senate from 1873-1877. As a Congressman, Mr. Boutwell was one of the leaders in the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson; as Treasury Secretary, he reformed the Treasury Department and pursued a policy of reducing the national debt. Mr. Boutwell died on February 27, 1905 at the age of 87.
140 years ago
Yale Daily News became the first daily college newspaper in the United States.
110 years ago
Members of the Portuguese Republican Party failed in their attempted coup d'état against the administrative dictatorship of Prime Minister João Franco.
Author and activist Julia Ward Howe, famous for her composition The Battle Hymn of the Republic, became the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters.
100 years ago
Died on this date
John McCrae, 45. Lieutenant Colonel McCrae was a Canadian Army physician from Guelph, Ontario, and commandant of No. 3 Canadian General Hospital (McGill) at Boulogne, France during World War I. He was known for writing the poem In Flanders Fields. Dr. McCrae died of pneumonia after an illness of five days, and was buried in Wimereaux Cemetery in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France.
The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba passed An Act to amend The Manitoba Election Act (Statutes of Manitoba 1916, c. 36), becoming the first province in Canada to grant women the right to vote and to hold provincial office.
90 years ago
Died on this date
Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, 60. Spanish novelist. Mr. Blasco IIbáñez was best known for novels including The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1916); Blood and Sand (1908); and Mare Nostrum (1918). The first two of these were made into movies in 1921, and helped propel Rudolph Valentino to stardom. Mare Nostrum was made into a movie in 1926. Mr. Blasco IIbáñez was an activist on behalf of Republican politics in Spain in his younger days, and made many enemies. He eventually became so disenchanted with Spanish politics that he moved to Paris just before the start of World War I. He supported the Allies. Mr. Blasco Ibáñez died the day before his 61st birthday.
80 years ago
Died on this date
Bernd Rosemeyer, 28. German auto racing driver. Mr. Rosemeyer was one of the top drivers in Europe in the mid-1930s, and won the European driving championship in 1936. While competing with Rudolf Caracciola on the Autobahn between Frankfurt and Darmstadt in an attempt to set the world land speed record, Mr. Rosemeyer was killed when his car became airborne, striking a bridge embankment, and he was thrown out of the car, dying at roadside.
The world land speed record on a public road was broken by Rudolf Caracciola in a Mercedes-Benz W195 at a speed of 432.7 kilometres per hour (268.9 miles per hour) on the Autobahn between Frankfurt and Darmstadt.
75 years ago
After crossing the Atlantic Ocean by clipper, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt conferred with Brazilian President Getulio Vargas at Natal to discuss problems in general and Axis submarine attacks in particular. U.K. and U.S. military leaders conferred at their North African headquarters to finalize plans to drive German forces out of Tunisia and attack southern Europe. British forces drove close to Zuara, 60 miles west of Tripoli and only 30 miles from the Libyan border. The Russian Army took Kastornoye, 83 miles west of German-held Kursk on the Voronezh front. German and Romanian troops were reported to be surrendering en masse. U.S. planes bombed two Japanese destroyers, a cargo ship, and a tanker off Kolombangara, and shot down nine enemy planes approaching Guadalcanal. U.S. War Secretary Henry Stimson announced that the Army would accept enlistments by American-born Japanese--many of whom were now in concentration camps--and train them as a separate Army unit. The U.S. Selective Service System announced a joint system of drafting men for the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard.
Japanese Foreign Minister Masayuki Tani said that the neutrality pact with the U.S.S.R. had not and would not be modified. Plans were announced for Bolivian President Enrique Penaranda del Castillo to visit the United States in April at the request of U.S. President Roosevelt.
Chile banned the use of codes in foreign or domestic communications and prohibited the publication or broadcasting of weather reports.
68 physicians from the U.K., U.S.A., Canada, and Norway met in New York to pool their knowledge of combat fatigue.
New York 1 @ Chicago 10
Max Bentley tied the National Hockey League record for points in a game with 7, scoring 4 goals and 3 assists to lead the Black Hawks over the Rangers at Chicago Stadium.
70 years ago
Died on this date
Hans Aumeier, 41. German war criminal. SS Sturmbannführer Aumeier was deputy commandant at the Nazi death camp at Auschwitz in Poland from 1942-1943, and was responsible for mass executions. He was tranferred after being found guilty of corrupt practices, and served as commandant of three other concentration camps before being arrested by British authorities at the end of World War II. Mr. Aumeier was convicted of war crimes on December 16, 1947, and was hanged at Montelupich Prison in Kraków, Poland.
The British government threatened to withdraw its annual L2-miillion subsidy from the Transjordan Arab Legion if the Legion attacked Jewish settlements following the British withdrawal from Palestine.
The U.S. Senate confirmed President Harry Truman's nomination of General Omar Bradley to succeed Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower as Army chief of staff.
Politics and government
Newfoundland's advisory national convention voted against union with Canada, forcing a referendum on the issue.
The Argentine government imposed censorship on all radio speeches in the current congressional campaign.
Former U.S. Vice President Henry Wallace, running for President as a third-party candidate, named a six-member National Wallace for President Committee, singer Paul Robeson and economist and former Puerto Rico Governor Rexford Tugwell.
The Chicago Sun merged with the Chicago Daily Times to form the Chicago Daily Sun and Times.
Economics and finance
The Soviet military government in Berlin announced plans to take over direction of industry in the Soviet zone, claiming that German officials were unable or unwilling to meet requirements.
A Gallup Poll reported that 51% of the American public favoured rationing and price controls to stop inflation, with farmers the only significant group opposed.
60 years ago
The United Nations comfirmed the arrival in South Korea of American tactical nuclear weapons.
Politics and government
The United States recognized the provisional Venezuelan government of Admiral Wolfgang Larrazabal, the junta that had deposed President General Marco Perez Jimenez on January 23.
An Israeli district court in Tel Aviv acquitted Yaacov Heruti of charges of plotting to organize an anti-government terrorist group. Mr. Heruti was implicated in the November 20, 1957 murder of Rudolf Kastner, a Hungarian Jewish leader accused of betraying Jews to the Nazis during World War II.
The Italian Chamber of Deputies ratified a law abolishing legal prostitution.
The Danish toy company Lego Group patented the design of its Lego bricks, still compatible with bricks produced today.
Los Angeles Dodgers' catcher Roy Campanella, 36, was paralyzed below the neck when his car skidded off a slippery road while he was driving to his home in Glen Cove, New York. After a long career in the Negro leagues, Mr. Campanella had a sensational 10-year career with the Brooklyn Dodgers from 1948-1957. He was voted the National League's Most Valuable Player in 1951, 1953, and 1955. His best season was probably 1953, when he hit .312 with 41 home runs and a league-leading 142 runs batted in, and 103 runs scored. Mr. Campanella played in 5 World Series from 1949-1956, but the Dodgers' only win came in 1955.
50 years ago
Billy Casper won the Los Angeles Open with a score of 274; first prize money was $20,000.
Chartchai Chionoi (47-10-2) retained his World Boxing Council world flyweight title with a technical knockout of Efren Torres (53-5-1) at 1:15 of the 13th round at El Toreo de Cuatro Caminos in Mexico City.
24 people were killed in a train crash near General Camara, Brazil.
20 people were reported killed in avalanches in the Swiss Alps.
40 years ago
#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Solo Tu--Matia Bazar (8th week at #1)
#1 single in Switzerland: Mull of Kintyre--Wings
#1 single in Ireland: Mull of Kintyre--Wings (8th week at #1)
#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Mull of Kintyre/Girls' School--Wings (9th week at #1)
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Baby Come Back--Player (3rd week at #1)
Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 If I Had Words--Scott Fitzgerald and Yvonne Keeley with the St. Thomas More School Choir
2 Mull of Kintyre--Wings
3 Egyptian Reggae--Jonathan Richman & the Modern Lovers
4 Singin' in the Rain--Sheila B. Devotion
5 It's a Heartache--Bonnie Tyler
6 Tingelingeling--Andre Van Duin Presenteert Ome Joop en Het Dik Voormekaar Koor
7 The Floral Dance--The Brighouse and Rastrick Brass Band
8 Smurfenbier--Vader Abraham
9 Lailola - No Ablas Mas--José e Los Reyes
10 Only a Fool--The Mighty Sparrow with Byron Lee and the Dragonaires
Singles entering the chart were Take a Chance on Me by ABBA (#15); For a Few Dollars More by Smokie (#22); Darling by Baccara (#23); Kayuta Hill by Partner (#26); and The House of the Rising Sun by Santa Esmeralda (#29).
U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Short People--Randy Newman
2 Baby Come Back--Player
3 We are the Champions--Queen
4 Stayin' Alive--Bee Gees
5 You're in My Heart (The Final Acclaim)--Rod Stewart
6 Just the Way You Are--Billy Joel
7 Here You Come Again--Dolly Parton
8 How Deep is Your Love--Bee Gees
9 Desiree--Neil Diamond
10 Sometimes When We Touch--Dan Hill
Singles entering the chart were Dust in the Wind by Kansas (#75); Poor Poor Pitiful Me by Linda Ronstadt (#76); Silver Dreams by the Babys (#82); Ebony Eyes by Bob Welch (#90); Feels So Good by Chuck Mangione (#91); Baby Hold On by Eddie Money (#97); I Can't Hold On by Karla Bonoff (#98); You Brought the Woman Out of Me by Hot (#99); and Never Had a Love by Pablo Cruise (#100).
Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 How Deep is Your Love--Bee Gees (6th week at #1)
2 (Every Time I Turn Around) Back in Love Again--L.T.D.
3 Slip Slidin' Away--Paul Simon
4 You're in My Heart (The Final Acclaim)--Rod Stewart
5 Sometimes When We Touch--Dan Hill
6 Baby Come Back--Player
7 We are the Champions--Queen
8 Here You Come Again--Dolly Parton
9 Come Sail Away--Styx
10 Sentimental Lady--Bob Welch
Singles entering the chart were (You're My) Soul and Inspiration by Donny and Marie Osmond (#94); Dreamer by Supertramp (#95); Donna by Andre Gagnon (#96); Galaxy by War (#97); Our Love by Natalie Cole (#98); and Storybook Children (Daybreak) by Bette Midler (#99).
Nicaraguan President Anastasio Somoza Debayle imposed emergency rule, hoping to end the nationwide strike aimed at forcing him to resign.
Los Angeles 3 @ Montreal 6
New Orleans Saints' owner John Mecom, Jr. fired Hank Stram just 2 years into a 10-year contract as head coach. The Saints had gone 4-10 in 1976, and had followed that with a 3-11 record in 1977. Perhaps the low point of Mr. Stram's coaching reign in New Orleans came in the second last game of the season, when the Saints lost 33-14 at home to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. The Buccaneers, in their second season in the NFL, had lost their first 26 games going into that game. Mr. Stram coached the Dallas Texans/Kansas City Chiefs franchise in the AFL and NFL from 1960-1974, winning American Football League titles in 1962, 1966, and 1969. His 1969 team finished the season with a victory over the NFL champion Minnesota Vikings in the Super Bowl.
30 years ago
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Never Can Say Goodbye--The Communards (3rd week at #1)
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Always on My Mind--Pet Shop Boys (4th week at #1)
Died on this date
Klaus Fuchs, 76. German physicist. Dr. Fuchs was a socialist who became a Communist while still a student in Germany. He fled to the United Kingdom shortly after the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, and went to the United States during World War II, where he worked on the Manhattan Project, which produced the first atomic bombs. Dr. Fuchs worked as a spy with the U.S.S.R., and illegally transferred nuclear information to the Soviets. In January 1950 he confessed to being a spy, and was sentenced to 14 years' imprisonment for espionage. Dr. Fuchs was released in 1959 after serving 9 1/3 years, and emigrated to East Germany, where he spent the rest of his life.
The Supreme Court of Canada, in the case of Her Majesty the Queen v Henry Morgentaler et al, voted 5-2 to strike down section 251 of the Criminal Code of Canada, outlawing abortion unless performed for "therapeutic" reasons. 30 years later, Canada still has no law regarding abortion. Bertha Wilson, showing the mental and moral retardation that characterized her dismal feminist career, sided with the majority. Ted Byfield, writing in Alberta Report, stated that "her so-called judgement...reads like something you'd be handed on a street corner." I've read "Madam Justice" Wilson's judgement, and Mr. Byfield was right.
25 years ago
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Nahkatakkinen tyttö--Dingo (2nd week at #1)
In the biggest trade in Canadian Football League history, the Edmonton Eskimos traded quarterback Tracy Ham, slotback Craig Ellis, defensive back Enis Jackson, running back Chris Johnstone, defensive back Travis Oliver, linebacker John Davis, wide receiver Ken Winey, and defensive lineman Cam Brosseau to the Toronto Argonauts for quarterback Rickey Foggie, wide receiver Eddie Brown, slotback Darrell K. Smith, slotback J.P. Izquierdo, defensive lineman Leonard Johnson, defensive back Don Wilson, cornerback Ed Berry, and linebacker Bruce Dickson.
10 years ago
On television today
Canada AM, on CTV
Canada AM added a second hosting team in western Canada, expanding the program to six hours and becoming the first morning television program in North America to air live in all time zones.
Marker Monday: Mother Mathilda Beasley, O.S.F.: Georgia’s First Black Nun - During the month of August, cultural institutions throughout Savannah, including the Georgia Historical Society, are highlighting African-American history ...
19 hours ago